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s o 

fits s APPLETONS' 

ANNUAL CYCLOPEDIA 



AND REGISTER OF IMPORTANT EVENTS 

OF THE YEAR 

i8 Q7 



EMBRACING POLITICAL, MILITARY, AM) ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAI 
PUBLH: DOCUMI NTS; Bl< uiKAmv. STATE 

FINANCE, LITERATURE. SCIENCE. AciKICULTURK 
AND MECHANICAL INDUSTRY 



THIRD SERIES, VOL. II 

WHOLE SERIES, VOL XXXVII 




NEW YORK 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY 

FIFTH AVENUE 



ruioHT, 1888, 
Rr D. 



PREF \< 



Si hardly -. ' ir day iw when the n ittered, that law* are 

.mii'l the rU-h of arm*. Hut it i* -till true, fiml perhaps alway* will be, that 

lovometit* of armies and navies surpass all eUe in immediate popular interest, 

.ml tin* thuM.l.-r ..i' die guns appears to n M.I. r tlie sounds of peaceful industry tame 

rord the I-IOM- ,,f ..ne war and a large part of the 

can* "iu.'e another, in whirh American* hare the highest inter- 

est Tin- trrates tl ng oper.. wwi 

. and give* IK of peace. The articles on "Cnl*," 

"Spi ill cfi.il.lr the reader t. iufonn liim-!f as to 

- the complication which will pr*huhlv involve OUT 
own rniintrv in w.ir l>v the time thi> volume m ready for lcli\crv. Many question* 

- land 

an 1 i cs of thr two c., until--. A full HC. -,1 ,,f 

"(1 States"' was given in the -Annual < v >: "i'- - 1 H 95, and later 

tatUt: :ilid ill t: ^ oil the * \ 'Ort in till* 

volume. In : ill U- interested in tlie articles 

on ti i Military Academies, t rials/* 

whirl, 1 lv a and tl. " Kevenae-< 

> htill further intrreste.l in the straggle- for pooooafion of trrritury 

oeaaa, h- "U "Iinlia" UJM! "West 

i/ 1 whriv he can n-:ul i.-r war- hv Kumpeaii power* 

i hut !i..t ea.-ilv r..ii.|m-!vl trihe-. And if lu i- inclined to consider 

the M to full. heaven* till with 

," ami heard "!'... nation>' ili^ in the central blue 99 

he may read the illu-t rated ar- rial Na\ 

In -ttidxiiiL- the art-. ,,f prace, the reader will find interesting the 

artich- on messee ( d those on ** Associations for the 

-prewwd Air." the -Fine 
.gress," ' \1 _- "Railroa. rvet Rail- 

,i " \\ In (Mass." 

The -ir i ( ontinental literature will tic found full 

as usual; and for tho-* who take an interest in the trimmings and incident* of 
v is an inten-titii: il!u-trt.-d artiele on " TMN.K I'late>" ])n-jKin 
:>ile t!,.- illustrated description of the new Congressional I.ihmr 
r hone-- 

To des on the larp -u 1- ., ;5e we add this jear " Christian Scien- 

tist^' th crman 1 "On- 

( h tod States," and " Volunteeiv 

A - cantile and v movements of the year may be had by 

iii" 



If 



eoawhiiig the artkdes " Financial Review" mi.l - I'nited State* Finances," together 
witij the inuli- summaries in the articles on our own and other countries. I'lirMiinu 
the speculative and adventurous region, the reader will In* inter- 
ested in our article on ** The Klondike " with iteaoooinpaimng colored maps. 

new and interesting feature will be found in the Stair articles thi> \.-ar. \\hen- 
weg i*rtrait* of tin- Governors, with tin- exception of a ; iViled t.. 

respond to our request for a photograph. 

In the realm of scicn ..iM.mical Progress" of the year i> recorded 

vsiology" by Dr. Youmans, "Phyta" by Dr. Boat- 
wick, and tin- nal Academy" by Dr. i:< njamin. 

The yearly lUt "-ill !* found unusually interesting by rea- 

OQ of iu extent This feature was introduced in the volume for 1893, and the five 
Beta thus far published make a remarkable showing. The aggregate in I v:i was 
$#,000,000; in 1894. ; in L89 ly $33,000,000; in 1896, | 

. and in 1897, |4.VK)0,UOO ; making a irrand total of m 

AIIIMII^ the nniiu'iit de;id <f the year Charles A. Dana \vho had a d'ulle career, 
M AMiftant Secretary of War during the <rreat civil contest and for nearly thim 
rear* an the foremost journal i-t in the Tinted State- comes first. We present not 
only A sketch of bib life, but a line portrait, which forms the frontispiece of this vol- 
ume. The Other men and women of letters who passed away in 1897 include: Al- 
pbonae Daudet, the French novdi>t ; .lean In^elnw, the Knglish poet : M,. 
Olipliant, tlie story-writer and critic; William .1. Linton. the arti-t and author: 
WillUm T. Adams, known to the hoys as Oliver Optic; J<" -1 1. Ileadley, popular a 
generation ago; Margaret J. Preston, Alice Wellinirton I toll ins, Margaret Hosmer, 
Justin Winsor, and Daniel G. Thompson in our country: and in Kurope Isabella 
Banks; Gavalcaselle, the Italian art historian; Richard Holt Iluttoii: Meilhac. the 
French dramatist : Fran. -i- Turner Palgrave; IJiehl, the (ierman hi>t..rian ; Sir .lohn 
Skelton ; and Krench philo>opher. The necrology of the arti-t.- in 

eludes the names of Homer Martin, .lolmson M. Mundy, John Sartain, 111 

M :--... QeOfg I'. Boyoe, Sir .lohn (iill ert, Charles P. Knight, and 
.lohn I., rcarson. Among the scholars we lost were Henry Drialer, Solomon 
Deuterh, James Hammond Tniinbnll, l'ran<-i> A. Walker, E. Cobham Brewer, Sir 
Augustus Franks, James Legge, Franci- \V. Newman, and Charles .1. Vanrhan : 
while the scientists and inventors included Kdward D. Cope, Alfred M. M 
Theodore Lyman, ('ampliell M'Ttit, Alvan (i. Clark, < M. Pullman, Carl K. 

FrateoiuA, Sir Isaac H olden, 8ebs>t ipp, and Alexander M. BOM. T 

meo whose earthly career was closed in dm led Father Heuit, .l.^hua II. McIKaine. 
George H. Houghton, Bisliop Rulison, Henry Dnimmo,,,!, Kdward M. Goulbonrn. 
William W. \\..\\ mn-writT., and Baron Plunket. Of statesmen the world 

lost Ganovas del Castillo, the Spani-h Premier, Assassinated by an aiiardii-t. I...P] 
!;-..-!!. I: DH.I... S r Rnti - rfotd Aleoek, John Anthony Mundella, 
James R Doolittlc, Daniel W. V.H, r hei- % and Ihham <>. Bazrk < n' n -f.-nners Neal 
Dow completed a long life and Henry- George was called away in mid career, of 
those who played noticeable part* in our frreat civil war were Couch. I>e Trol.riand. 
McLaws, Pleanonton, R. W. Meade, Samuel P. Lee, A. C. Khind. and John L 
Worden; while the emin- -pean soldiers who passed away included Sir I! 

Havelork- Allan, ^ir William .Tervoi*, Sir George Malcolm. ^terneck. Of 

all these, and many more, brief hut comprehensive sketches will be found here. 

The book closes with an index covering the two volumes of the new series. 



( u\ MM i; ,: S. 




v i. RKT, 

K WHIKLOCK, 

aii'l .-Ih.-r rtoU. 



ft 



, 



*! 

* i *> M ,. x. inxrit. 
rm, Ai.rRi 

TT. 
and other article*. 

J H A. BOM, 

OHIO, 

John H'Tiry BOIIT. 

r .staiMl.nl Dictionary" vtaff. 

VM\. 

vrata or AMCRI. A. 
ami othrr art idea, 



Arthur E. Bortwick, 



Ph D, 

' \. \ * } -, i 



am O. Bowdoin. 
ThomM Campbell-Copeland, 






I nttcd S;A!. . ( 

MILITARY A. AiKMr, 
i MT. 

Mrs. Helen C. Citndee. 
ILLONW, 

>n?mox MAR* H A vr, 
and other article*. 



Haary Oorhrane, 

Aataor * - TW W^OT ef 

t ac, 

and othrr art iriea. 

William 7. Coetoa, 
Jotel InnMor oT t 
NlOBT. 



LATfRE, AMKRI- 

: ITI'RK, liRITIHa, IK ID 

M HI M < ..VI-ASIKft. 

Thomaa R. Dawley. Jr 

HA. 

Charlee Fitsgermld. 

Art rniir of ihr 
I. IN It* JA*|.. 

MARTIN. H..MI.R IkHMB. 



Fredericks B. Oilchriat. 

M ; v; i. 



D.D.. 



JAPAX. 



AXD BBQT0TV, 

lBITfARII>, 



Aalhor of Trtt book of X, 

\u-,.t m um 



Phaarlil Bdllor of ihr "Journal of Com- 




John Deniaon Cbamplin. 

Editor of - Crrloprdtaof Paiotrr* and Paiotin. 



! Mwiinojc or. 

" 

OrtBEr, 

K KPWART 
and other Canadian article*, 






Frank Huntin^ton. Ph D . 
Of M 

\ r. i .-.. i 
MA. 

'*ct. 

. .v ItftitAi*. 



- 



J 



Ph. D.. 



a. 
BftMor of |fc 



Justi. 

CMs? of DnrtaMVt of r 

.1 

I I X V i > - . . S . 



Johnson. 



rx .... 



Mra. Htian Kendrick Johnson, 
IVOCLOV. JKAX. 

WUluun H. Larrmbe, LL. D. 

ram, 

OOVOMBOATIOVALUTB, 

fJiiiTio or FEEE Cn t R< nc, 



Ou> < in am. 

OMRAL OmmoiM TBI r 



( 

mnU other art icU* 



II. T 



!UlL o >I.RVH1 IX THE 

Mra. Joanna HicholU Kyle. 
8m< E. 



CoL Charles L. Norton, 

Author >' VnuTrniiim." 

Br. Solomon E. Ochsenford, D. D. 

I.I rOIBAVS. 

Mrs. Evangeline M. O'Connor. 

. i i. 
On 

OftMiH 1807. 
I \. 
KurrucKT, 

l-l \N V. 

Mn H 

iX \. 

AM V. 

TEX 

and oth.-r articles. 

Rev. Thomaa J. Shah an, D. D., 

of i! r>. c. 

H. 

Lewis Swift, LL. D., 

Konm-rly lhrinrof I.>\\( (Mih-r\, 

A8TK"NMI' M 

James B. T. Tupper, 

Formerly <>f im< -n 
SUPRKMI ' 

J. Kendrick Upton, 

K'Tv "tiry. 

( mi.. 

Frank H. VizeteUy, 

AMOciate Kdilor of iintry." 

I>.\rm.i. Ai.i'i.- 
and <'lli< : 

Frank Weitenkampf, 
of tin- Aftor Library. 

I.I! 

William J. Toumans, M. D., 

K<!i! ! .i.thlv. 

I'm 



[LLUSTRATIONa 






rll \l;l.l> AN I\N \ 

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RrnELL ALEXANDER 
GEORGE W. ATEIXBOX . 

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Wu.l.lAM O. |{|: 

JAMB* II. U> i. 

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\Vnil\M II I I t.K.KHR 

SIK JOHN KVANH 

LTMH 

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II. II \-TIN.* 

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WII.I.IIN r. ixm 

JOSEPH M < K > N M 



ALFRKO MARSHALL MATER 

HAXEN 

ALFRED PLEASAinoy 
GEOROE MORTIMER IN 
UROROE A. KAMSUEI.I 
ALEXANDER COLOEIT Km MI 
M A. UiniARt* . 

.- 
: 

JoilX HI\K\ IClMELL . 

PEAXEOES MAT BO SAOAVTA 



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JOHN MII ;M \N . 
CHARLES P. SBOCMAEE* . 
RORERT B. Surra . 

ROBERT I* TAYLOR 
KBE \V. TIXXELL . 
J. II<)B TTLER 

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Ix>RtMER ' 



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ManiAict** r.. K 1 

TEAtlXO THE POWUI OT ClRi fl.AK 

9nvtnt.' PLYIM MJCBIVI . 

ST 



On or THE TEMPLE* AT <}I'ECHMI 

HEAD STOVE, QUECHW; 



BAM.? FEMUTI BOOK* PLATE PERIOD PRIOR 
TO 1630 . 

BOOK-PLATE fMiKR NAPoI.KON I 

TBICCED Boo- PLATE PERIOD PRIOR 
TO I7W . 

RABLY AMEBJCAX NAMR LABEL 
AMBB* A* ARMOBJAL BOOK -PLATE or Ca A BLEU 

. 
RBTCVY AMERK A* PICTORIAL BOOK-PLATES 

- 
FMCRE WBEKLB FOB CALCULATIKO MA< HIM 

AOt]rtWTEATOK' HOOEBOV PLANTATION, C'AR- 



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A STMKCT - VII.I.A CLARA 

VM-II SBKCTIY 

l.UIKRM HRRAKKv KAB 


\ IUuKi< AIH.II STKI-.T IN (it A\\HAO\ 
< HMU.K.M A. DAXA'S SUMMBB HOME, N 

! . I.. I 

UBSBBAL (IBAXT'M TOMB IN HIVERHIDE PARK, 

NBW YOBK 

RROXZK BUST or ABRAHAM COLES. W AMI 

I 'ARK. NBWABK, N.J. . . .831 
STETENSON MEMORIAL FOUNTAIN IN SAN 

N.-|H'> 

IHI..KIM- .. Kir.> <-ix illu-tratiMiis, . 440-448 

711 

Mi : BOO 01 i. MUM. Sn,\ \i < ' \KIHIIH,I. . 7:!0 
|MI-I'...\HI SII.NAI. HOLDEE .... 738 
STREET RAILWAYS (seven illustrations): 
BROADWAY CABLE .... 
BROADWAY GRIP MECHANISM . . . ; i i 
CROH SECTION of \N. 

SHOWING TR< 'I.I M Mi. ii \MSM 

DANGER OP A SLA . 7 it 

RESULT or A BROKEN SIK\M. . 

A DOUBLE-DECKED CAB .... 

VIM, i , i. TIN, INN ATI. OMI.I. . . 748 



T II i: 



ANNUAL CYCLOPEDIA. 



M V 

Kiiiin*. to 

and 

lU'Hcd At lYriall "II 

\..ir. Tii.- Italian 

\ . r -. :i _ i ' I'.ils :i ]'.' .< i'. \ . r t .'. i '. . ; .: 

nf.-rr.il *u-h ri-ht. 
>ti between him and th.- Italians became 

MI lv:t 1.--1 t. a rupliiiv. In lv 

kingdom. aii'l ad- 
vanced u '-s of Kan 

M ri.; i- i.i. K i:i_- .if !'._:. i: i- 1 been driven . bi 
iliaiu. If enekk \\i\\\ 

- I..H, surj.r 

a general engagement 

1886). Through tl..- fri. -i 

'. pww* was 'o ; 



youth in grammar, poetry, religion* oemnooial. 

aii'l -,, u . ; : . tui | m.^iMnit.. a?.- \\.> + 



iMiHlonf ail ' 

. Baleta, and Muni river*.' ami 

r all 
govern MM 

-utr.il L 

t if. ami tin- |.w.-rful 
ie s.,uth tunkr up M-\^inia 
encies of n*l int 

s llarrar ami erohmce a larp 



tf lnHn an 
M.lrin-i.-H ' 

i and a part uf iho hi^hlaiKl 
inrthfrt.*t. irra o 

^n 

been 

ians ..f 

Patrian h 


and thVsw 
nnd the pri - . .>n of the 

\\\\ .:. 



id landed aristocraev. The people 
raise cattle. ftheri.. and goal* and cultivate the 
land to a Inn. ted extent. Cotton, coffer, the in. 

sugar cane, the date palm, and 
wild. Then- are extensive forest* 
boondfof in valuable woods. The princip . 
ports, sent in. _:h Massowah. are skins. 

ind mules. Beside* 

- ha* a t ram. -I army 
ted men anu. -1 with m.-i.-rn rifles. 

.ateisvar fall 

ted with deep valleys and ravine*. 1 
Migar cane, indigo, and 

tropi. .1; in the more temper- 

iflons vines and n . 

- and vegetables are found in gnsst luxu- 
plains are suited to the 

cultivation nf Iwrlcy and some native species of 
he southern districts are the t> . 

The principal crop is 
i, from i 

part -f th. n- '. banana is the princi|l 

fruit eaten l.y the natives. There arr excellral 



I wealth . f 
the lark ..f 

.ii 1. 1 man u fact 
metak The sate of gold to forbidd. 

of sucrewive immigratiosjs from Palestine 

M. n.-l. k. KMOl > : . ' al i ^I -K : .. ' 
the Oueen of ^AeU. 

h 

a tfuari 

aid. aft. ' unded th< 

monian pian emperors. Jer 

in inn beran :\9 the center of pi"p_^_ 

u the ao-* '. \'.Mi:;.in |.-.-p!e. An n t Jew- 

> em- ish imroi^ration t.^-k place during the firs| 
v, n- i another during the reign of Sfl 



vhose 






and 

Samen. w i . 

pian*. on tho other hand. 



tne |iaie 



of the 
.ed to 







a rerr early period, retaining, however, all the 

id re- 
re not abrogated by th, (iospeL 
.n, who are p-nu; 

race, form the arist- ! country, furni-h- 

!ie dignitaries of chun h and state and the 
, ty. Then- an- al-ut 400.000 
..f these descendant* of Hebrew ilmg 

li.000.00>' gua can raiw an arm\ --f 

900.000 men, of whom more than half arc equ . ; 
with modern rifles. 

Diplomatic- MI*ftlonft.-~The Mow of the battle 
..waon M "'. when the Italian army 

wa* U-atrn in pitched I tbfl Abyssinian* 

and 13.000 Italians werv left dead on the fiel. 
i,,th >. -i-.n of the protectorate over A 

lie Italians in accordance with 

f the trv.i- ali. though the 

original Amharic text, a* interpreted by the Ab\s- 

ftiman*. contain, d no such meaning. The final 

tnent was facilitated by the intervention <>f 

. the F.m- 

peror Menelek to intercede f..r the release of the 
Italian prisoners, and who also bespoke the good 
offices of France and Russia to bring th*- t 
negotiations to a satisfactory conclusion. 
t reatr of peace was finally cimdud- Ma- 

ra/./ini. the Italian plenipotentiary, and the 
Negus Menelek at Adis Abel 
As In regard to the former treaty, a difference of 
trose between the Italian and Abys- 
sinian governments in regard to one of the clauses 
new one. According to the oilicial Italian 
:-aly undertiMik not to cede any portion of 
>v*sinian territory toany power except Abys- 
ia until the frontier between Menelek's domin- 
and the Italian colony is definitely fixed. \. 

to the Abyssinian version. lialy - 
fnetfr to cede any part of her Abyssinian 
territory to rf^ypower save Abyssinia. 

withdrawal of Italy's claim to conduct 

: Abyssinia, a right that was 

(man powers except 

e and Russia before the new treaty sup- 
jilair f Tccitili. the Begus Menelek 

has obtained the unquestioned right to treat directly 
with foreign Dowers. The Europem governments 
were not slow in seeking to cstablislJdipIomatic re- 
> and establish their influence it King Mene- 
lek's court. The French, whose colony (f Obok 
MS Abyssinia, concluded a com/nci-cial treaty 
with the Negus in January, 1897. and four or five 
French expeditions were punned for the purpose 
ning Abyssinia and the easteiti Soudan to 
French influence and commerce. M. Jionvalot was 
oflpially commissioned to investig .r Mem 

g the Soudan. Prince HeWi d Orleans 
rtook a similar mission without official 
dentials. Max Bavelo?r was sei. he French 

Chamber of Commerce to prepare the wky for an- 
other party under the Vi-omte de ConstMtin. 

'ts sought by the !>.[)( h is Jrmission 
t<> construct a raflroad from DjiU.uti t\ Harrar. 
The line is expected to be eompleted to the Aby- 
sinian town of Antotto iH-f,,r,- the , n<l <.f 1H((. M. 
I^agarde. the Governor of Obok, was intruded with 
a new diplomatic mission to the Negus. An im- 

11: diplomatic mission was conducted by 
nell Kodd, secretary to the British legation in 
t, who was dispatched as special envoy, with 
a nir: iff, to reopen diplomatic relations 

with th- Kthiopian monarch and to acquaint him 
with the nature and extent of the British claims in 
t and the regions of the upper Nile, and se- 
cure his recognition of British and F.L'yptiun rights 
over Kordofan and Sennaar and throughout tin- 
regions of the White Nile. One of the/ Objects of 



the mission was to indi, !.-nelek t 

fr<-m tcrritolic* that he had coin|u< r. -d \\hieh for- 
merly livloligiii nveii- 

tion fonncxl |>a at ions, also a pi 

r co-operation against the : : the 

;;il ..r 

:-nsibly i-i-liu'i- 

had lieen numerous in Al>ymia during: 
the nominal Italian IT. fnun the time 

when the CitsMii-k Ajbinofl led the \\ay in 
The 1, Mirch ha- to the 

count- >uj. times. LJeut. Mash koff went on 

a polit'ieal errand in I^'.M. In Lf v ..f 

Abyssinian prelates ami ; 

aider the personal c..n.iuct <>f M. l.n.nt ielT. 

I Melielr! 

the earlv j ;ition 

under IL 1'oliakofT set out from Kumpe in ti 
ginning of April. l v 

The Knglish expedition, setting out from Xeihi, 
reached Adis Ab.-ba ..n April *js. An agreement 
between Great Britain and Aby^inia was signeil 
..n May 14. and on the following day the B11VOJ and 
hi- suite to<,k their departure. 

The Kmpen.r Menelek in treating with the ! 
lish envoy was even less inclined t<> acknowledge as 
lying within the British phere territories formerly 
hioj.ia by Brit Mi diplomacy and 
others actually occupied by Aby--inian forces than 
he was to sanction the retention by Italy of the 
boundaries within t lie Abyssinian hiL'li plati.m to 
whi-h he had provisionally consented in the treaty 
of Alis Abeba. Kassala iteclf was formally r<"- 
8tore<l to Kthiopia by the treaty of June 3,1884, 

idcd between t'he N. -II- Johannes atld the 

ian (Jovernment under the auspices of Q 
Britain. Afterward (in-at Britain, .-n March 'J 1. 
l s !'l. reeo-ni/.-d as Italian the whole Kthiopian 
Kmpirc. from the river. luba to the Bine Nile, and 
bv a second treaty of April b"i. 1MM. completed this 
gift of Abyssinia to Italy, including in the gift the 
town of Kassala, with the stipulation that it should 
be retroceded to Kgypt. In like manner Kngland. 
after agreeing with France by the convention of 
Feb. 8, 1888, to neutrali, . which at that 

moment was in the actual possession of Abvinian 
troops, by a new treaty on May 5, 1894, ezpl 
abandoned II a rrar to Italy, (ierniany a No. in the 
Anglo-German agreement of July 1* 181)0, sanc- 
tioned the abandonment of Kthiopia and the (ialla 
countries to Italy. Believing that the treaty of 
Adis Abeba canceled all these former treat; 
which Kuropean powers disposed of his territory 
without his knowledge or consent. Menelek was 
anxious that in coming to a definite boundary 
agreement with Italy, and in fixini: the boundaries 
between Abyssinia and the K-yptian Soudan, the 
[K>wers should ratify the .. :,t. While 

the Negus was willi: -i-inal 

boundary formed by the river- Mareb, I',. l-a. and 
Mima a- the pi-rmaiient frontier, the various Has 
wanted him t in-i-t on u frontier considerably to 
tin- north. 

Italian I'oliry. Major Nerax/ini was commi- 
sioned to delimit the frontier of the Italian posses- 
sions on the line laid down in the treaty of p 
King Menelek emleavon-d to per-uadi- t'he Italians 
to abandon the Mareb boundary and accept a new- 
frontier at the foot of the high "plateau. Til" ' 
eminent of the Marquis of Kudini decided '" re- 
tain the jK.sition- on the plateau, which, according 
to expert opinion, could be defended by 5.000 men 
against an army. After a week's discussion, on 
May 2'2 the Italian Chamber passed a vote of con- 
fidence in the undefined plans of the Government, 
;iiL r by a majority of HO a radical proposal in 
favor of entire abandonment, and by a much larger 



AMBBDRA. 






:.,:,> 

l i 



majority the motion of the Opposition to 

>. <ir thr Government decided 

ir rrtouroM. Their horwBrti at- 

fit WhO Vtft ttOt I r. ;- .:.: \ .-..;-. 

i-li f.-r- 1. ft iii,,.|.ir. '. . " . ii|* ' .i moan . 
ninl. |.!nii-l. -rnu- !l. l'..i/ t Irib ! .' ' '. " ' .: 

nit attark on 
I lain with 

elves u 

-us began to arrive home in the begin- 

-f that i: 

v 

* until rvafuatetl the jirt .f 

irther 

'Xriln later. 
' prisoner t \lbawas< 

i tin* provinces a few Italians Mill n - 

,,H Mltll M 

until i-.itix atituinn. , f,,' r 

promised only that In- wouUl -mnt 

.tn that accept* -..n.-lli hut 

: !<> tin- ' : ami 

nai, as well as t . t> l...ui,.l- 

ary. Tl,. !-; he proposed start > 

link. 

tl 

'.-llnws the 
' 

> lira, Diff/a, and Ma- 

i<-soends to the plain of (tHlline Faraone. ami 
Sea at a distance of 6O 

inues at IHtl mil.-. fn>m the shore of the 
hiili.i 4 the Juba to the north of liar- 

remains an Italian trading c 
<u accepted by the Italian Govern- 
.i it that ha.) 
tlini)!i at an expense of 
8.000.000 francs. The chief |Miint of the nego- 

Abeba, on 

MS. ,in for the Italian prisoner* ami tl 
limits 

bat grew more -ml to i.undaries. 

The Italian QottfUMM was not re 

jll j.l.it. . i. :. jii-"iint f j- .'.itj.nl 

tornational 

rtnUl ciinnu-t- n-Milting 
irawnl of Itnluin f.rce. The pro- 

>f Kaintala t 

; 'li-hrd as soon as the Anglo- Kgyp- 
forces gained potsestion of Khartoum and 
Berber, would hatter f th<> ulti* 

[fl Africa, If the,. 

<>f Itrtli.nn blood or treasure, 

the Kmlitt. ..-nt wouhl jrvfer withdrawal 

from the Aby^inian nla nara and 

utsowah. .rean 

budget as prepared and presented to the i 'ham her 



' --. 




II" ' ' ' - ' .... 

demands and refuted tu Mar. 





. 


i... 



he bailie of Adowa. 

full 



** 



. 



vention. to 






chant* ami 

ff parties hind themselves to pro- 
mote the opening of routes for the belt- 
ment of commercial relations between the Italian 
lian Ocean and the south of 
treaty gave to Italv the r. 
mnenl representative at the At 

r Honfadini was made < 

iignst the Italian G 
rmed the British Government that it was 

U| N ,|.,,,.|. 

'f tli in 1HSJ6, Has ifakonen, a eonsto of 

he frodai 
-.f in lUrrmr. 

of which he WIUM j ; , hit 

nrmv of 40.000 men extended his conqneats uter 
malm, occupying Ogaden. a distr 

Brit 

I he Kqnatorial I v-Hennell I. 

mission, so far frotn obtaining from Menelek an 

"ion that the region of the v. 
with m sphere, took U 

>nsidcred the whole 

-/ as Aby^inian. including the banks of 

Ahartoum and up to the Uke 

A, with all the country of the (ialia. lie 

liat he would not aii the 

-lies a^'Nii^t the BngUth,and when tlw Kk^^H 

an alliance, he 

r into a leagut r:ered|EB 

.llaland and Somaliland the Knfiiai 
envoy eoncedtd to Aby^inU some of the nUoes 

Mil. The Kuian .Maj, r LrunUtff. 

who obtained from Km k - Mmrhk the appointment 

Kquatorial IWtaett of 

DMde arrangement^ with Pr;.,, He: 

Orleans to organise an expedition to take | sjasjnn 

of U.th Unk^ Ofth< \ ; fthe 

opia. and thus f runt rate 

.- : 

>mui 

liahreMihaxal with the ! - . 

n h engfasssssl 
!ain<> i iM a railnd fn in Jfrovtil to 

llarr.t rail- 

r .i.j- : 



i- .!!? ui> i ittr inirr MI tav 

trmte the BritWi plan of eon- 



Whit, 
I- I:': :. 



wntfrai 

k a trlrcraph lint 
The rival at 

M. i withwh-m Irir^e Henri 

.junrrrlotl at hed the 

tint, passing through theQillaooantnr. 
intentsrion of Mot . d ffood 

' 

:. ::. ;..': 



AF.KIAL XAVI.JATInN. 



bank of the Whit.- Nil.* with the help of MI Aby- 
ftintan 1U. and afterward support the 1 

itngi. 
The sphere of influence claimed by the Km 

north latitude. 

-in t ho b no of Italian Kryth- 

rva. the frontier foil,,*, the fourteenth imrallel to 
Tomai.on the Atbara,and thence goes straight to 
A v .. * D< . ibyssinla i pod part 

Intl.- U-: aU-ut l.V) kilometres up the 

from Kh:irtiim. Knmi this |x>int it a 

.ng tin- left dank t.. Abvwiinia 

a* /' .inv tin* frontier follows 

.N.nd imrnllcl of north lntitmlo east ward to 

lh<- Juki riviT.and bv thitrvan> follows the Italian 

.-t UP to tli. fron- 

.a>n. This now frontier was 

provisionally accepted by England, w l.i.-h r 

on th< no more than a st rip of about 

M 
tin- -en.- f delimitation- 1 

Turkey for thrir approval, with the 
view of settling the definitive boundaries of hi- 
re aii<Vr tin- guarantee of Kurope. 
\M;I \\ NAVKiAl ION. , ;ntr...lu<-tion of 

.ilisrd Ilinrkril 

jfly through tl, 
Niaxim, of Kn.irlan.l, Otto 
;li-y.of tlu> 
Smithsonian I: 

[.i-rinu-nts. 

a jK-ri-nl of yoars. a*xl Lilit-nthal 
K-nce, bc- 
ll<il by a fall from his son 

investigators in thi> fn-ll, \\ 
.rcheji have ad<h-<l t" our knowledge of th- 
]>rinciplcs of tm-rhaniral flight . :nitc, 

ncago; Arthur Stcmzcl, of Altuna. 1'r 



ni 




MAXIM'S FLTINO 



MM. Tatin ami Ri^ i ' arl K. 

of Mohawk, N. Y.; A. M. H.-rr i 

anl Tile) ->'i'l : ann 

IlrHnn. A 

ma<lo OH of some form of an~opla!i<-. imitM. 

soaring of he suspension of kit--. 

il be 

found in the article KITMMI\<F in thi* vo! .UH-. 
Maxim wa .iM a machine that 

ally lifted it><-lf off th- ground without ex* 
aid or the pull of _:is. and this fei. 

complishecl July Ml. 1 V '.M. marked tip- - 
achievement in'aeronatitio >ince the timrof the 



-olfiers. '! all the in 

i the 

i thry ha\e had' l<- im- 

lties in the way of M-i-urini: material 
i and li^h' 
. lifil <-n frann \' 
. \\ ilh \\ ire. t In- material 
bein^ thicknesses. The reason 

ii ilotiMe was that 

n 1 hat 
the liftin.; 

using two thick nesses, set >!i-hily apart, .-m-i mak- 
thickness somewhat p.'ron-.. \\hil.-thr 
upper was aim 

l"\\t I' t Illekliess of cloth, 

ferring all the flapping totheii|.] 

serious inc.in\rni.-nce. The 
propelling machinery was j. laced ,,n | 

M-truciion. luspended belcw a 

plane. >et at an anirlr of about 1 to K. and having 
I her and smaller ac'roplaiies above and at th< 
Set Well apart, the ohject l.< -\n^ \<, pn-vnit their 
taking tin- wiml from each other. Tin- m-li. 
was quit-- Q air->hi|t. with 

feet of lifting surl.. am eiigine wa 

for motive power, and the apparatus wa- run 
alight railway track until the speed gave tl 

1 lilting p..wcr to take it from the ground. 

Maxim took infinite pains in the con-t ruction of 

ties and \< -iillicieiit lightness, and 

finally settled on a boiler having linn COJ.JMT 

water tube-, curved among the flame-. Th; 

he maintained eirculat ion :;nd was 

able to obtain HOO feet of h.-atr with only 

; of flame surface. The boiler weigln-il hal'f 
a ton. carried L'OK pounds of water, and by m.-an- of 
gasoline fuel, with ll, ; ;.-|u-> high, was made 

to furnish -team enough for the eni_M 


of marvelous con-t rudion. and 
would have served to make 
Maxim famous had he done 
nothing el.-e in the line of in- 
vention. Tip 
than a pounds to the hor-c 

:. which is about 
thirtieth of the weight of t he 

and be.-t man 

tionary -team They 

were <^f the double -. 
i-ed tin- .-lean. 
350 pounds pre>-nn-. had a pi- 

ton -peed of 7.")0 feet a Iliinilte. 

and were made throughout of 
lii_ r h-grade steel, many of the 
npered to in- 

crease the tcn<ili- strength. 
The-' !ro\e the 

Kr. pell. -rs. which \\en- 1?^ feet 
i diameter, with Hi 
Kach engine i , lately 

connected with its propeller, 

they could be u-ed for -leering, as well a^- driving 
the machine, by -implv running "in- engine, and 
Miently it- propeller, a little faster than the 
I'nfortunately. tliis flying machine was 
badly wrecked on the fir-t day of its trial: I 
the wreck was caused by the unexpectedly 

lifting power developed. ' t he 

axles of the upper wheel- that had bei-n pr< 

:;fine the machine so that it could not take 
any extended flight, and HS numerous data 
Obtained of the detail- of it- operation, the exjieri- 

was universal]. (l " 

t lie day of trial three mas were mah- over the trar-k. 
w h ich "was about 1 ,800 feet long. The first two row 



A P.HI A 1. 



nodi-rate *\*-<*\ 

ard run wa* u>i 
fttcain Ml :il i-.ui.-lv The whole mechaniial 

n*l a little lam thtt! 
graph 

1 I (JO f-l 700 tMiuin 



K. .M 






, . , i 



' 

la. The machine wa* !>' 
mottling about 1MJO ith 



Pilrbrr. of KngUftd. and MouilUrd. of CWm, 
Egypt, hare !* boili tearing ai 

oI2k5wSdUSL^ 

i*un. U 

9ft** 

xftV, built 





swiawiaw AMMUM! A fir**!* I ji ^* f 

ja^ 1H^BBV^^B% nUwl tftlsmmt^ssl sMutf! tMaWisV^SkVl !*_** 

* WWaW e*IMI ptawMV^ sWl W BlveVQ UiVHsV > 

. h thr lav* that gon 



m npj 



M.^l.il.. ;.. 
- 

to whiri it 



l*d.befofl 

tried to build a martm*- thai wouli 

thai a thin bra plat* wn, t*-a buag 

U- ll.iwlr to r.-I'l. . ;l. J -... r - . r. . . ; B - 

from 1 pound 



i 

,.,*- when rapiillr nitatrtl. ami that actually law |MM*r 

nl to rutatr aod Mifttaiu the vrtght thaa) 

' 



engine of l hone power could 

a- a rapport. 



ti LABT aOABDK) ArTARATf M. 

hi- nnnpits. and. l-v 
taking a >*ift run fr- in a hi!/ 

t con- 
hanism a 
Bdaring ap|>aratuH, and l>y |>ati-nt tnaU 

i tin- Mnn-turr until 
it assumed tin- form h-n- -h.-wn. 
built a i** in all. 

; trllUtl tin in III n. 

1 a 
lire one oonvri 

Hi-* first 
auparatu* 

llr pnw -lirtif with tin*, and 

. 
186A he built one 

;. ; r-.i !;!.. i, be! in n \v hit ' 1:1 t !, r- -.v 

and ho was a)'. 

-tationan u.t 
liiiurt-t Hi-lit :i- HNm \ bal oTet '."" ' 

-.1 great care and seldom aoaivd 
II. 

was .mas 

rtly 

;il fall. It was 
.t that hi* twriHplane a|>- 
paratus Wa- n<-t w> nafe an the single plane, with 

1 th.^e having 

>ut 18 feet 

H- built the*> f a wpijjht of 50 to 
:*t.-d that they could be 



.^ndition. to be t. i I^njf 
ling a machine, which ha. brr . 

an n- 

4 vailed 
until May 6. IK*. l 



** tnaili 

oTer the watery of the Potomac, the pbee being te* 
hat thr atirodromemigi 

. . . . .- : 



the watrr and not damage ltatf 







Ungtey speaks of the machine m a great i 
made to susptod iUelf in the air by the 
thrmt of n, motnr m*tm.l ,.f A mtaaWlwklll 
j. The great difficult ir* that he euoumiteild 
in its court ruction were sufficient reduction in 
weight and proper balancing As originally de- 
signed; his aitdrome was to%e a mechanical bird 







AfcKI.M. : loN. 



of abort 35 pounds weight, including a Mione- 
Z::?^itWb*rS* flm construction was 
about 40 pounds, and the 
half a horn power, and this 
ifUr Bvmtbs of rnd " tlv 

SlraMClMMlfOtioOir.li little weight. > u |,Ms,urnt 

.... i . ,. . . . MvejB bj o 
SSsed^riod by rbook>a3d gas; bnt these also 
MMltobe abandoned, beeause it was f 
sttNO to bring the weights of the boilers within the 
l.miia, SleSobollefsw^rrny, win 

the endeavor to aseofs one light enough an 
kne enough to make sufficient steam. At la- 
w*I designed which was \ . d of steam, but 

; - .. ; A.r.and 

no and boiler together, without 

: ' : - "V 1 : 1 " 1 , f 'i r 

fuel, and aUut 8 quart* of water supplied the boU- 

f steel tubing, the out ire 

measuring U'i feet from 

.in.l U-mg fixed that i-. not flapping. 

t is slightly miller W> pounds. The 

: n.pellers are each about 4 and 

make HOD t> 1.300 i itions S minute. It had 

to be launched in the face of the wind, and when 

completed was designed to be shot oft" with a 

Spring mechanism from the top of a hou-e boat in 

a dead calm. It could not -tart itself, because of 

the initial 

quired to sustain 'it in the air. Two years and a 
half were occupied from the time the aerodrome 
was completed until it was made to soar aw a v as 
desig yswere spent waiting for dead 

then the spring motor 
1 unsatisfactory, and another launching de- 
.: rived and constructed ; then, 
when a launch was actually made, it was found 
that I was necessary to preserve 

a in the air. The aerodrome had a way 
_ off. on an up curve and tumbling over 
re, or of shooting suddenly down- 
ward into the water, until it seemed as if it 

; be made to sail properly. At last, in .May. 
18U6. one day of trial, at which it was exp 

machine would develop the usual or new 



eccentricities, the operators were delighted to see 
it soar away as steadily as a great bird, describing 
large curves in the air, and after its water supply 
was exhausted sink gently d<>\vn (.11 tin- surface of 
th- r<>t<>inar. without the slightest injury. The 
trial was immediately repeated, with equally satis- 
ry results. Several subsequent successful trips 
have been .made, the most notable i* -ini: >n Nov. 
28, 1898, v rodrome sailed three fourths of 

a mi'.- -iles an hour, ri-int:. from 

a starting point perhaps 15 feet above th< 
an elevation of about 100 f '':_'li- is limited 

by the small amount of water carried. Prof. 
IJingler believes that if a sufficiently li^ht on- 
denser can be added to preserve the water for use 
i flight may U* -uMaiiicd for hours. 
Two French investigators. MM.Tatin and Kid,, t. 
in 1890. made a test of an air-ship that seems, from 
the brief dt-Mrriplion sent out. to be somewhat like 
I^Mgley's. but larger. Steam was used as a 
motive jK.wer. the engine* being fixed on a car <>r 
body made of light pine, braced with steel wires, 
and sustained by two fixed wings or aeroplanes of 
86 square feet surface. The total weight of the 
machine was 73 pounds. Two oppositely revolved 
propellers were used, on,- U-ing placed forward and 
the other aft. A fixed tail or rudder was employed 
to steady the flight. The entire apparatus weighed 
73 pounds, exclusive of fuel and water, and was pro- 
pelted, entirely by its own motor, for a distance of 
460 feet, measured in a straight line on the ground. 
the velocity attained being 59 feet a second. Guided 



|.\ ti uith this machine, they built 

aiioti.- .. Hi which the wi-ak point- \\eiv im- 

i ins so-oiid mechanism -oared or Hew 

IliH.li! I hell it met \\itll ail accident. 

The ma; D this field 

..nd Mali,. i:. 

the 1" t, rather than llamni 

ing wings in imitation of birds. Rudolph Kos,-h.a 
follower of Lilienthal in experiments with soaring 
apparatus, dissents from this opinion, ami \\. 

.'i apparatus to demonstrate the truth of 
his assrrtion. and al-o tlia! circular wings in 
b.-st f..rm. \l\^ mechanism consist of four cin-u- 
lar planes or wing-, slightly concave bem-at h. and 
arranged in pairs, each having a rotary motion 





Rt'DOLPH KOBCH'S MBCHAN18M FOR ILLITRTRATIXO THE POWER 
Or CIRCULAR WINO8. 

about the upright member, and alsoan up-and-ilown 
motion, communicated by a man work:: 
below. Tin- pairs are rotated oppositely. With 
this apparatus a man of average strength c\ 
for a short time a lifting strain of 50 pounds, or. to 
it technically, with an angle of in< -idence of 
10 and aspeed of ?'J rotations a minute, the dynamo- 
graph recorded a lift of .">( pounds. The <-ir 
re made of steel tubing, with 

spokes, and the covering was of cambric. Mr. 
Kos< h points out that the circular form, which he 
was the first to construct, gi -Mrface for 

the same weight, of frame than is j. n any 

ot her co nst ruction. T he machine ill i. 
50 pounds, the planes l.ci; .ndies in dium- 

nincnts suggest that propellers arc 
best pi. !-y side, as were Maxim's. 

Arthur Stent/e). of ,\1* 
years of experimenting with soaring apparatus. 

bine in I S !M; that Don 
semblance to a gigantic butterfly with an cxagger- 

i of the wings was 21 fe. 
t he surf ace 8f yard-. Oompreeeea carbonic aoid 

the motive fluid used in the cn-n.e. wind, 
'> horse power at a pressure of '. atmospheres, or 
1 horse power with -""> atmospheres The machine 
weighed ?"> founds, and in \i<o was suspended from 
a safety cable, to guide it in its fliL'ht and prevent 



damage by fall-. When the wing< were flapped 
with 1 hpne power, the machine advanced 10 feet 
along the cable at each stroke of the winirs; with 
1$ horsepower the advance was ]'> feet to each 
stroke, in l-:i seconds, the machine being lifted clear 
of the cable. The machine showed good stability 



A :.l 



n<\. 



he rodder serving affldently a* a jruidr. than the air. depending on th* proprllrr to draw it 
the main |*ru of the upaanl. UY , c .f 

afralane. Srrrrml 



framework. *iul ni. of bamboo, *ah 




A as 10 Mh M/.-I that he is 

ui Ming a larger one, designed to carry n 
A ill havr ul. ut 23 yardaof fturface, <-m|>: 
a 4i-horte-pow< : > designed to weigh 

\pril 
20. 1807. what h. >tyU a sky . 

a balloon of peculiar form shaped so as to 
r power being a 

man centrally suspended, so that h.- may operate 
IM.HI f,.,.t aii.l han.l oranlu : r .< / ng .1 pro- 
peller placed forward. Tin- |>r..j.-ll. r - <>f 

AM area 

f a 

heliu- only serves as a surface, 

.ut kMn the pMti --f tb CnuM m p. ritkia M\- rs 

began hi> ;!.-. -f all 



,- pin of k 



i bent ailapti-.i to trnvt-1 a. 

arrived at a formula 

that enable* him to |.r<lu- the very bet form for 
r; ami though he has construct*! th.- 




nula ho always secures a 
makes TOod headway against the w.n-1. Ho 

ts his apparatus so that it is slightly heavier 






iniV 



operated from an eccentric. thai the? 

on one side, and were leathered on the rise. 

I . ', 



. 




ftflrtof 

mented with a jcrt-al variety of 

mall models, lie has 
numerous msohenirai bird*, drireo by atotors of 
twisted robber that n>< 

t..-- : ft, : - i.:, :.,..-. - ' - 

They can be made to fly ejeessmf ally in wiods of oat 
more than 7 miles an hour. One of hi* largrr 

: - ;.' '".. 

carrying a onodensing sogtns of two fifths horn* 
power. It presented a euriaot of 14 

have done better had not the 



earn in its career. 

'Ih.-n- i* an 



afronaotical society io 



on,- in BotftOO,thl latt.- r k -f...,,- - .'. f r. 

huh wweaU .:. Ucof> .1. 



D 







1808. The society pnblbhe* an -AnimaT the tni 



A. A monthly poo- 

.. v -. :..'.. - 



tare Channte, in which he elaborates and explaiiis 
all the modern theories and principles devwJond. 
and describes meet of the lyJoTiiijCiti ntSKS 






within the part fifty 
n articles cone 
rlu.i.4i .IrnvM fn-tn hi- m^t,^!.- nv t..i ll-.rvn 

an UM tabjei M.IX S'atmrs 
and Artificial Fl u-ht ." y* : - I hare found that if 
only desires to lift a large load in proportion to 
es mar be made rerVbol low on 



the area, the planes may H made very notiow on 
.oath d, n one considers the 

... of eerew throst, I find it advisable thai 
aoes should be as thin a. Double and the un- 
der side oeariy flat.** Octave Chanvta says of the 



aearb s^L" " '- < ' ! 

oooditioos of sailing flic There most 

wind, alt hough it maybe light. . No 
whatever is needed when under way. 3. The 



Ann: 



have a peculiar c- bird 

certain mai* or writ - l*angley 

calbatt, : 'I.*: bird* -ar in up cur- 

rents of air. *nd by taking mlv M niAp- <>f 

i itt at (he higher elevation*. Ho itoad- 
vit the u> of the propeller rather thnn Happing 

.:::.'. Defu f the futureof 

...!,,! ; : li. .i>- II,, > 

mr will cany freight. and 

wnoo* nooawfull - i an invention of 






...Uil flit 

. ' ' 



ri and in- 

Mi : ... " M to 

A a billtoaecure . at, on. It 

BroTided for the girinff of $100,000 ft-.., the Tinted 
Statea Treasury to the person h--. pn.-r toJi 

should const met an ap|*ralu* carrying 400 

rough the air. wiUMOl the aid of gas, at 
a speed of ft) miles an hour, and having its power 

:hin itaelf. A second clause provided a 

-,'",.000 to the |*T>on who. before .Ian. 1. 

1900, should demonstrate the practicability : 

|v n; ill-lit, for a mile or 

i.ill still remains with the 

i it tee on Interstate Commerce, to which it was 

\H.M\MNI\Y rchy in central Asia, 

^en Russian Turkestan and British India, 
irrahman Khan, who was in- 

sialled in Jul>. ..le the British occupied 

Cnbul. the capital, having expelled Sliere Ah 
Yitkub Khan. neiit has 

an annual f 1,300,000 nipees per an- 

num, increased in 1893 to l,8(H.ooo rujM-es. \, t , .. 
able AUlurrnhman to consolidate hi- pi.werand pre- 
serve a strong, united, and independent Afghanistan 
as a buffer state between the Ku-sian dominions 
and India. The military forces of the Aimer con- 
tist of the feudal militia and the regular army, -aid 
"*>. The artillery ha- ?<> m'odern 
guns. In the arsenal at Cabul'arc manufactured 
gunpowder, cartridges, rill :u.oii by the aid 

of machitf ::ntendence of Kir_r- 

ILshn f 'the feudal army have 

received a Demianent" orpini/ation. The cavalry 

OODaistS Of the ' :!id Vas-als of the chiefs. 

In 1806 Abdurrahman Khan attempted to intro 

riptioii.and ordered the enmllnient 
. but the object ions of the 

people ituhi'.d him to defer the reali/.at ion of his 
project. The arsenals contain breech-loading ri M.-- 
enough to equip an army of 50,000 men, which is 
aid to be the war strength of the Ameer's army. 

boundaries between Afghanistan and t he 
K uian territory and dep, i. d.nt khanate- have b, , M 
at various times a subj.-. t of negotiations between 
the governments of Great Britain and Ku ia. In 
1805 the last portion of this line, that which run- 
through the Pamirs, was finally delimited. 
line follows the Amu Dana or Ox ip to 

the confluence of the atmyhab and the I'anjah. 



and then this latter, the southern l.raneh. np 

ria lake, fnun whicl, it runs east- 
ward to a fixed point near on,, of the |n:ak- of j| M . 
. .c-. Thin delimitation gives to Russia 
rMI of I),ir;i7.. Ko-han. and Shi-hnan. 
which Afghanistan had occupied while 1 1. 
s to which was the principal branch of the Oxus, 
and consequently the conventional boundary, was 
being discussed between th.- British and Russian 
nrernment. In the west the boundary. 1. 

\ us at Khamiab.ru i direc- 

tion toXulfikar. on the Hen Hud. thence southward 
to the |*ak ..f Kuh Malik-i-Siyah, jw.utliwest *f the 
Ilelmand nvor, and from there in a genera'. 
ward direction to the Kwajah Araran range. 



Mortimer iMirnnda' '!. the An.. 

the lm>i.H f a Innindarx delimitation lietween Af- 
n and Briti-h 'hulia. \\hii-h has since I.eeii 

:!,mi-- ion. \\ iih the . 

lion of ti ' lie Khailiar j.a^- and 

A -mar. By ti ..-nt Chitral. Bajanr. S\\at. 

ami Chilai fall \\ithin thr Brili-h sphere, \\hile 

,:iar \alley 

as far as rhai 

, included Kafiristaii in r*l do- 

minion-, and when the |eople of this district, who 
differ from the nei^hlior 

touts, and religion, and have always been a' 
with them, refu^-d t acki.ou led^i- 
(Jholam Haider will, an A f'-han arm\ reduced i hein 
to submission. 

.-hanistan i- divided into the four pr*' 
of Calm I. Herat. Turkestan, and Candahai. 
of which i . nt ly 

sulgupited district of Badakshan. with itsdepeiid- 

I, Afghan- and I'ailiaiis f.inn the bulk of the 
population, Imi with them an- mingled t he deeend- 
ant^of the former Tartar and 1'er-ian C..IKJ . 
and the vurioii-. armi.- 1 hat have jnvaddl India 
throiiL r li Afghani-tan. The (Jhil/ai. Dnranis. Ai- 
maks. r/beu'-. and the Tajik- aiv Snnnite .Moham- 
medans, while the Ki/.ilba-l.is and nio-i of tin Ha- 
arc Shiites. The Tajiks. wln arc of Iranian 

nt, live iii the towns and are -.-alt. -red anioii^ 
the other tribes, earn in- on industrial, commercial, 
and agricultural |uirsuits. The Aimak- and I 
ra-. inhabit ini; t he raripami-h- mountains in the 
north, have Tartar feature- and are SIIJ.JM-, d to be 

:idants of colonie- 1. I'l b\ ' iian. The 

total population of Afghani-tan i- aboir 

The Ameer's revenue [ derired from the tit) 

iltural }>ro<luce.increiuscdtoasinuchasathird 
of the crop on irriiraled lands. 

The Afghans rai-e u-iially two crops a 
of wheat, barley, or legume- in the -print:, and one 
of rice, millet, panicuni. or corn in the autumn. 
Afghanistan abounds in fruits, such a- apples, 
. (jiiinerv. almonds. .urns, 

cherries, pomegranates, mull ,[-. .-md 

figs, which form the main part of the food of a 

section of the population, and in a 
-tale are t xported to India ami other com. 
The castor-oil, madder, and a-afu-tida plants are 
abundant in the wild condition. A-afo-tida is 
exported in pvat fju:iiititic to India. Lead. L'old, 
iron, copper, and precious Mone- aiv found. Silk, 
felt, carpet-, and rOMriefl an- made by the j. 
and exported. H"i- nut-, and shei-p-kin 

pirments are. other exports. The principal arti-les 
of imjMrt are China . and 

The Jlittai (Question. -Tnder the terms of the 
Durand Convention <.f lsj:{ provision wa 

demarcatillLT the re-|.ect i\e sphere- of tlie(io\eni- 

inent of India and the Aim-i-r. Tl imed 

- to lay down definitely the law under which 
rs of sole control over particular t rib 
to be exercised on either side. The coi, 
dealt with was a Ion jr. narrow -trip hint: f<r 
miles bet ween Briti-h India and Afghani-tan pr 
The demarcation had been carried out by various 
commissions from Chitral ami the Kaliri-tan bonier 
to the Helmand river before the bcirinni:. 
with the important exception of the tract lyiii. 

:he Kunarand Cabul river-, fn-m the Nauar 
K'otal to the neighborhood of Landi Kotal. in the 
Khaibar. Thi- i- the country inhabited by the 
tribe of the Mohmand-. which ha- figured promi- 
nently in the politics of the Indian liorl-r for many 
-uliar difTicultie- to be faced 
in dealing with thi- f.er.ple. and by comim 

the demarcation of toe boandary oi sole control in 






ALABAMA- 



region WM l.-ft t.. thrift*. If !,.- Afghan, had 
A nicer and thr I mil . 

'iu-ii a* untuMJon demai 
..nlpura. wbo i ' 

'MO! 

ti !i. and 

!.l|.t.m ft- aur 

Uithltl HP 

>n draw* a luir right through 

liilil thai 

III the ear. 

Kutmr nviT, iimr Atutar, f II to <iunrr 



jert, and in the ctmrm of 

Uumnd treaty and thai he iy^gihyi the * 

'* 

a'.i. Moathtft -. : 
U 



I :. 1- I .- 

... 

i-.. MOMii. i-i- ;;. . > - . 
'ctjtnrrr. 



* 
K. Jariaae; 



I 

rnnirnl. I 
ng thr 

J. .hl,.t.. n ; Sri-friar* ' - 

Trvaurrr. lir.-rgr \\ } \ ,. : : ; 

. 






: _' 



ran<l 



Jcllnlatm %k, wa ' 

l'..;i.l.i:\ betwaag [ndiM .'!! \f_-l.iii auth rity. 

eftnted a - . in- 

tig the new r<-Mtr thri'ii^'h Swat nini I>ir 

U-giin t. 

with nlnrni f>r a further 

win: iiamls mid other nfiiii-inde|wnd*-nt 

tribe* showed signs of restlrvnoss. Tl 

itelM-il. JU- 

l.itnil. II. in. 

wa* cinn|M-llil t tnU tneftsurv* of 
and to i>rv** f initation -f tl 

aheyaiuv. All the dan* 

N. the Cflllllll 

-hawur. at which a largr t 

IiiMl in Mittiti at the U . ' > .; N 



! . . ' 
!:. 

>- : ' ' 
Stnt. ' 

OCMM, fl'.N 

nii-l ' 
graph, and 






of Afrirvhm*. J. F. 

, Thomaw K. MHIrllaii. TboHMt 

.- \ U -.!-aJI Drttorrala. 
rrport -f the Trv^c 
Srt4. Ml ISML 




: Afrirultural lr|rtent. 

- '43; coll.. 

ic art*, ftSjOOQ. Ho ail of the 
'. irruit- 

, ... 



\ffnru I turn! Dmrtmmt. - 
a on Agrieaitaml and MerlMniml cv.j. 
fHUMf; inters on Cnhrmiir fted. 



lbtfo del 

- 
\rt rncampm. 

*A*1 JliJ . .__! . 

.'...- . 



nn. 



vail. N 



Uawur i^ 
'unand o- 

t ami will have n. ^mnvclion what- 

ho Ihirand afrv*m<- the 

that 
flrM 

--nl a pro- 
\mar that the vallrir 



. 

" uwyfi**^ fr.H 
ptoaw of conrict 

!-,i,f.M.-rat. -M.. r*'.,l 

to Jan. ft. 1*9?. th* 
in ttx> tr> 

l of the pre 
,,.!;,., , ,; .- ! :- 

ntiltfttnim wiped out and haknre in the 

Jur, I 1-VT.v. V -...: \*\ 

federate 

an. I thrr*.per<voL fund, f l9: 



. *4.&: conrirt f . 

in ml fund. fa..*4n.l : cnjlrp^. airrimltora] and 



e tat I 



hail 



e a o rp a er 

i.l that the only way 

ii lu- !. .n the valley van on 

the i mgn. Thr ? 

w h.-n he vent to hi* 

post iii < ' 'rong 

eniniont of India on this Mb- 



herd fa** Hc^ $8\H3J.-t' 
way TOM?: total. |98R.lMJ9l ' 



' 



aitbom- 
.N* of nrceiptm 



1899 



The report of 

forthcDJcai >ear 



10 

showed a lanre gain over the collections made for 
the rear preriouv -.-., t..- 

ended amounting to $22.000 more than the few 
... st I |j mi vi riti M 

IvTeolleeiions: Miscellaneonm $ 
.14; 






1.33. The total gain was 

uwerw.-The annual n-xiew Ic of 

the port of Mobile. published brine "Reg. 

.1 Iherx) 

.. >,;. ..- sio.i. :.!-..:,,, - Hi.Wtt.ls: 
he prerioos rear an increase of 45 p. i 
greatest iinnieam were in the timb, r and lum- 
rade,and in the export* 

cotton being 806.689 bales, awOn* 

i* rear. The statement 

made thai )>ut f--r (he lark of room in ste.-im. -r- the 
would have 1- mm-h 

larpr (tjual in nm.uinl to I lie above in- 

crease bad to be refused by (he steamship 
but arrangementa were being made for additional 
teaman. -f lumber 

mounted to 68.000.000 sujHTiieial feet, mi increase 
'.000.000 f.tt. which increaae was about the 
MOM aa was note<l the previous year. Then* 
:. 006,528 cubic feet of fiewcd and 7 

feet Of sawe.l tniil..T. of the Intt-T about 

6yflMKl.(MNi f '..the Tinted Kingdom. Tin- 

total hunt and coastwise, was 

ili.- total of luuih-r and timber in 
:i< nil feet was 200,788,490 against HW.4(W,106. 
In shingles and hard wood there was considerable 
increase. Tli.- rec.-ipt- of grain at the prt 
; BOgMf i .--..-. agai.M -J.:::;i.s71 il,.- previous 
and there were e\ .'" l.usli.-ls, 

showing that the exportsof grain for tin 
creator than the receipts of tin- year previous. 
x (torts of flour were 2Q.4~>\ barrels, and of 
i-Mvd meal 38.780 socks. For the fir>t time 
r history Mobile exported pig iron from the 
ngham furnaces, tne exports amounting to 
52.000 tons. The Central American business of the 
port showed considerable increase, the Plant line 
handling 56.394 tons against 37,600 t.-n- the previ- 
ous year. There was a falling off in vegetable 
shipments from truck gardens of about $9,0<M) in 
value. The wool business reached 225,000 pounds. 
an increase of 50,000 over the previous \.-ar.aml an 
increase in value of $15,000. There we're imp 
2.067.7V, bunches of bananas, against 1,8K 

>es the previous year, and the imports of oo- 

coanutswere 8,405,425 ajr- I the Tear 

-nts were made in wharf 

facilities during the year, representing about 
f l.'io.OOO in value. These imnrovmients. mnd- !> 
the Mobile and Ohio and the Mobile and Birming- 
ham Railroad*, will, when fullv completerl. double 
the -a|MM-ity f.r loacling steamships. Th- financial 
oondinon of the city was renortc<l better than it 
had been for twenty years. The amount of cash m 
hand to the credit of the city An- 1 was $.V, 
an increaae of $24.779 over tM i.n-\ 

ladnHtrlet. The .-utput of coal in" 1896 was 
'.97 tons ; in 1807, about 6.000.000 tons. The 
lotnl amount of eoal dug ev. , Jefferson 

County alone amounted to about" 19,000 t 

The most imjK.rtant discovery made in the Bir- 
mingham district since it was ascertained some 
years ago that Alabama coal could be coked. < 
to light at Leeds, where n of high-grade 

brown iron ore was found. 10 to 40 feet below the 
surface and about 10 feet thick. Forty or* i 
were made, and in all but 3 apparently eonnB 

-f brown on- -*ed. ft had been 

thought that this quality of ore existed only in 



pockets and small deposits in the State. Tl. 
analyzed fn>m J'.i to .YJ pn-eent. of pure iron and 
.-y to flux, thus n-mlerinj; it -iuiva- 
Init to6<>-p. r-c. lit. ores. 

The llrst run of steel by the open-hearth ba-ir 

ss was male .Inly *J:{ at the n. \v r.0-t,,i. 
mill ..f the Birmingham Itolling Mill Company. 
The process was the same by which low silicon pi'c 
iron, made in that district, of Alabama r 
the Tennessee Coal. Iron. an. 1 Company, 

was converted into M. < 1 at Pittsburg and Chi 
By the middle the Birmingham mill be- 

^'an regularly t" u^.- tlii> n.-w ^',-rl in all its d- 
ments. Theretofore stcd billri> had bi-en brought 
from Pitt-bur^ to be rolled in the plate and n-d 
milK of that company. The company f.Mind a 
all it.s p"nduct. In August 11 fur- 

bhist in the Birmingham district, 

makin M of iron daily. 

In March a rich bed of lead ore was di-< 
in the vicinity of New Market, analysis of which 
showed enough silver to jray for the working, 
from I he laru'e : id. < in ain>t her 

tract in the same section was fou i id a four- foot 
of coal. A company was organ i/.cd t develoj, 

l.dncation.- The state has established 'J:: insti- 
tut ions of learning, putting at least one in 
congressional district. There ap| 
di-nce of a general educational revival in the B 
and schools, from the lowot to the high' 

having been uncommonly pro>p> 
The - nial Coll- 7; I 

students. State appropriation $5,000, total in 
$11,47!). value of proper- nor- 

mal school at Florence. :u'o st . i'pnt- 

j.riation ^7.- r )<<). total income ^14.1 Hi. value of 
property s.V).(K.O: the Slate normal school at .laek- 
sonville". 'j:!(i Muden- ;.pn.priat ion s; 

total income $4,900, value <(' property *1" 
the Normal ('..liege for (JirK at Livii, 
students. State appropriat imi ^'J.."(K). vali, 
property $!.").(( id; li ! mlustrial S<-hool. at 



vallo, :!."><> pupils. State appropriation $15,- 
000, value of nroixjrtv $35,000. Following is a 
: of colored schools: Tuskegee Normal sjid In- 



du-trial School. 1,(>7'J pujiils; total inc' 

-f which amount $77.114 was useil for current 

:.-es. and the remainder went int.. n.-w build- 

: value .f pr-. | "<K). Normal .school 

at Montgomery, 930 students: total income, $13,- 

000; value of property, $30,000. Agricultural and 

Mechanical College at" Normal, 400 students ; total 

incoiue, $30.896. 

Kail roads. : ; Conuni-^ioiier 

Ross C. Smith reported the mi! .ilroad- in 

active operation in the Stat. 
sen ting a taxable valuation of $45 ,49< i fur- 

nisliing employment to 14,000 men. Le-- t han 1 70 
miles were in" the hands of i while four 

- prior more than half nf the mileage was forced 
into bankruptcy. The Commissioner says that "the 
di-appearance of red . and as "a result the 

reorganization of these once insolvent roads. .--t;il.- 
lishes the confidence of capitalists in the ultimate 
success of cur railroad pro|-rty and in the further 
development "f ur State resources." The : 
tonnage of railroads in the State for the year re- 
viewed was given at 11.453,443 tons, and the sum of 
$2.274,215 was spent in improving the physical con- 
dition of the railroad-. 

LcirMuthc Session. -"ne. ,f t},,. f,-w important 
laws passed by the Legislature was that establi-h- 
ing a tax commissi > mine; thi- law, to 

which there was considerable opposition, the Gov- 
ernor is quoted as saying : " The question that con- 
fronted the General Assembly was, how to meet a 









11 



deflr all and ***J** 

two ways to in 



- 






.- v, 



. 

the rate of taxation and compelling tbote who are order) 
n. . having .:: r . . 



wiibm UM grwp or in* 

- - , 

. .- .... .;., .... . 






.. : 

:ing lut and fair Utation 
M fir haiv, Tn Legislature 
the latter plan, ami I think . h 

tha' 

ttfflfrHr r ^'^t!fr tmumtlMtL* 



ao. .- .,. --.-., 

ll..-r .1... 



' 






UUng pools and gan.i.lm* 

.- capital li 

in t 

'all I ft' 

be -illiiu' of 



of aJl 



: 
tat.-. 
U that 

Bftl 



In March tl>- 

1 Company, \ h> 
lv tfiaeeof 

! -. ' :. 1 *.;<! - -,! : : 



"" a month a in I U'urd tin- con- 

, that ihi-y . 

n>wilcd condition of th. 




''.. : . 
peal to all the gootl 

-|te that during Ibis adn 

that n i* riren the Governor U 




special term of the eVmrt and nave 

and trial on ' 

great public mdil 

l'"liti<..l a meeting of the 

feat i.v. \: . 

nary, the following resointions were adopted a* a 

should par 

leal 

- - . . . ' 

ordi itc with na in the 

tire and economical and coneUtntional r 
and who will rapport the 



i 

at tho late MMkm of the A*n-iiii'!> th<-n- i- a 

^ a license Ux on the c| fall 

t bai)k. 

my. of Hiriuin^hniu, rvfued to pay the tax. 
ground that the law is uricon- 

:ie Court. 
law U om- 

StilU .I,^...v..|. a Iirt,br 

Inn; 1)0: Uaiiiloli'li. 04; 

lalla- 

pnoMi aiui Calli > ami 

':!. ('u)linan. i ilkrr. 

Mini i 

10 nrrviou* flm-al rear t76 



party, top 
mjbovti 



That all 

n the primaries, or 
part > h.-r. aft. r to be held, thereby 
selves to rapport the nominees of si 

. !.\- :.' :.- . 



of the 



e. or Federal. 

. Thai it .hall be c 
for the local eV 

mine whether any other than while voter* 

ahall 

\N.| h VN . Ml i:< III x 

Uat the incomi. on the whole, F 

.tkm 

agricultural lands, tithe rent d 
haung been met by 



I Mirhlng.-I: 

nty.w 

t-r 

committee Mated that noth 

*t would iip|>caM- 
that if a special trrm ^ 

Morgan and adjoining oc 
9t9tance ami hanc the prino 

quested, and a numt - NamJitd, 

In his message to thr <icti. ral AVM-M 
lu qui'st:. JohnMon said : 

specially .r attention to the eon- 

latioo of our laws by mobs, factor* to i 




For the <um-iit >-r 






] i. v - ito 
1 a ftpeeial 

IN| populace, and 
allc.1 ' 

II . i '^ - 



\: ai.ta. |0kt< v;-' :.-.;:.. -.^ ' , 

tUne rent ciMTfea, etc. tW vain* of these gmnte 
exceeded ffftolmi-i annum in petpttait 

W Tbe 
of laod. tithe, and 




-.--. 



* par 
ClSlJ 



JMOper 




pstaitT.aod waa equiralent to ajurmsnsnt ineniii 

',..;, ' -. . - \ .-.-..- 






in mininf district*. The total inrrra*r in t) 

r ' . ' 

,. comroisker* exceeded tl." 
annum, and might be taken to represent a capital 

The Bomber of Episcopal churches in Scotland 

: . .-!. . .-.-...-. 

. . ; .... . - ,.- :. r-i.d 

OMB* Missionary SoclHr.-The rereij 

fr.. mall sources, cx- 

rig mvial funds, aa rep > annual 

T. amounted to ixn7.2', 
her former year by 85.000. and also 
g the aggregate of general an.) >,< -ial funds 
any former rear. The excess m L 

:. .11.11- 

. 

,tup5.000morethaneTerb.f Ad. 

:<N, fortl 
fund) the total amount contributed for oil purposes 

-.diturc had 
A as still left of L 



- missionaries had been accepted f.-r serv- 
M-ven hundred adult bapn-m-. the 



numU-r recorded in an .- re- 

turned fn>m the mission fields. The history of the 
society during <:irsofth< 

hank- 
fulness, while progress was especially conspicuous 
during the past ten years. A libers had 

bean made to the appeal on behalf Three 

Year 

full rv|>rt of the missions gives the following 
statistics, most of the numlco i-in,' much in ex- 
cess of those of the previous year: Number of sta- 

KurojM-nn clergy, 878; of Km 
laymen. 11"; of Kumpcan wives, 2M ; of European 
.n missionaries, 238 . .20; 

of n;> vc lay agents. '4.108; 

of native women labor-is, i.-jn : ,,f bapti/ed i. 

>an adherents. 2J. 701: of native catechumens, 
89.400; of native communica 5: of bap- 

tisms during the >-. adults and 8.890 of 

d)ild: :'N',IS and seminaries, 2.171. with 92,- 

8DI scholars and N>minarists. In the medical work. 
> ( H).674 out patients were 

treated. The number of missionaries sent out by 
the societ ; and 1887, the first fifty 

years of Queen Victoria's reign, was 900, a \ 
average of 1H, the average of the la>t ten of those 
_ .':'.. The numlH-r s4-nt out U-tween 1887 
and 18OT, between her Majesty's jubilee and herdia- 
mond A as 600. a yearly average of 66. < >n 

vith the M 

!i (not in'- 

ludinR Wives,; nil .1 Ut.e 1. 1H{7. there Were ft 

flained missionaries, 110 I 1 -.MI women. 

The advance in the aggregate numU-r during th<- 

ars exceeded by lit that of the fi: 
eight Tears of the st N .ry. 

Sorlety forthe Propairation'of the (Jospel. 
The one hundredth r.nd ninety-sixth anniversary 
of theS.c-i.tv for the Propagation oftb Gospel was 
celebrateil in Ix.ndon June 2o bishops of 

and Canterbury severally presiding at th. dif- 
ferent session*. The secretary, reading an address 

ess of the 



of welcome. 



Anglican 



( *hur accession as baring" been 

marvelous. In 1W7 there were onl 7 bi*h. 



owning allegiance to Canterbury, and in th- r 

- there were only 16 sees; now the 7 had 
:i to lr nnl the If, I n ,lj a j, 

A here iuw there w.-n- 10 sees, 

and the 4 natives m: 

years ago had increased to :?<n). In AuMnilia 

were now 14 sees, and in New Zealand the single- 



handed labors < had led t rfon of 

9l Iwyn was the chief. an<l there 

. M -. A . : ruld lie made 

,if t i ' .reh in e\ t" the 

,-iiipi: inistered through the 

agency of 766 i win .v> diod-v.-v. \\i,, 

Mali> n ;..iiial and mis- 
.:id t-M.k part in the 
:,- "f papers and i> 

v*e to the (ndition <.f n-liu r i"ii and the ]'.: 
inireh in th.- countries of their n-idemv. The 
Bishop of Calcutta spoke of "'I'h.-i -fthe 

and Church nrgani/atii'ii in India"; 
the Hi-hop of i .pur. on " Mi i.-n. to the 

AlHirii:inrs in India": the lli^lmp nf South 'I 
hurch in.Iaj.an " : the Bihop,,f |\',,, 
that country; the I: i'o\\n. 

on "The Province of South Africa": the Hi-dmti 
..f St. John'-. I. "ii "The Church's Work 

among th- : the 

Hi>hop of Itlocinfontein on the \\..rl< of the ph\-i- 
cian in the iiii--ion field: the Pii-hop of (ira 1 
town mi the mini-tries of women in the m 
field ; the Archl.Miop of Kupertslaiid. on " Tl,. 

~:ical Province of Canada": the P.i^hop of 
Perth, on the work of the Church in Australia; the 
P,i-hop of Jamaica, on the West India j.n.vince; 
Hi-hop p,|> th. on "The lielation- ..f the Angliran 
Church to the Cliun-hes of the Ka-l ": the I'.i-hop 
of (Gibraltar, on " KnglMi Coi n the 

Continent " ; the P,i-hop of Mis-..uri. on the .1 
tic mi-M-n- of the I'rotrstant Kpi^copal Chm-ch in 
the 1'nited States ; and the Hi -hop of Kent ud 
the foreign mi iuis of that Church. 

Other >I isviutiar\ and Henooleiit Suciclic-. 
At the meeting of the I'niicd I'oanl- ..i M:- 

of Canterbury and York held in May. a resolution 
was adopted inviting the Society forthe p[, ; 

tion of the (iovpel. the Church MissionaTT Soei.-ly. 

and other missionary associations in the Church of 
Kn.u'land to conference in on; -idi-r what 

!iiii, r ht be taken to mitii:ate the c\ils a; 
from the division of missionary ii 
gani/ations. The Committee ,.ji L-pal Ih'-abilities 
of native Christians in India reported that after 
videiicc fn.m the majority of the Indian 
bishons and from several mi--ioiiaries they had 
found no serious disabilities for which a remedy 
mu-t be sought by legislation except, perhaps, in re- 
gard t<> in. Mimittee had recom- 
mended "that when both the parties in a heathen 
marriage subsequently profess the Christian faith 
they should IM- encouraged to make a solemn and 
public profession of their desire to maintain their 
union on the basis of Christian marriage, that a Spe- 
cial form of service to !, u-ed in churches on s U ,.|, 
-hoiild be prepared and promulgated l.y 

nd of the Church in India, and that appli- 
cation should le mad.- to the legislature to permit 
the registration of such public acknowledgments 
of tie the continuance of their mar 

i-t on the comlitions which attach to 

tiara recognized by the Church. 

The annual n ial Mi ionary 

i in LOII- 

don atay IM. Sir William Dunn. Halt.. M. P 
. 'The v-ciety had -jK-nt more tlian . 
iliirii..- r in colonial mis-ionary work, but 

for the In : incurred a sncill debt. 

The nial and Conti: 

f,, r isjm l'lH.02t> was fl.fKK) in excess of 

that of the previous year. An old debt 

still remained, and an additional I' 10.000 was 

needed for all purposes. Including the sums raised 

and spent in th. me rose to 

An addition of i'1.700 had been made to 

rnent fund, which now amounted to 6,- 









884. A younger clergy and laity 
Assistant 

.:-,. a,,- 1 
i| 'initial i-ai*. 



1.800 men MM! women porpoaii 



stem** MO of *..., i,x, UOM tntothemrrioe, 

to work a 

ciety wan returned .. 

:iinal fun 
lia.l i-iuii'lfl n.. , ommitti to rota gmi - ' ". 

\ Mini in 
mlilrcM that the H- 

k linM I 

it was 

h a 
r. because tho local suei< 






1 urt-h Mm 

!, ii in.i'i-- f !' i. A . .; . >.. , ..;.. -,:; ^ *. .'.;.:n. 

mission building*. ^ to 900. mul 

in ilu* pr, 

I In- < luirrli Army. The report 

annual u. '-'.j 5, 

.r had been one of grnU 






erangvlivU, nunra, 



chial misaiona 

l--,L ta , 



id .1.. 

xicial depart limit in the 

vJhriaf u h - In r-.- i ilii . . :.- 

*'. ji'i-l more than .V) | > had 

obtained a freah start in . !aUir 

I... in,- \\. r k .-. apBcofad bv t) !' 

income had been CTTjfcV 

rlii'linc i'(i 171 frin ' 

i* of consul* : HIM! u.^t, , 
? lli> *. ii-t\ I.H.I a -urjlti* 

uitM li.il : tmond j> 

futn!- 



rlarinp that tho mi->i, ;. -I crrafrr 

urvh. an<l thn- ami 

f the 

\iw aiith'' 
I Ii i The thirtr-iMchth anni- 

\rrsiry r.-.o tin:: f :!.. L: : -:. .: 



n h |f,.U* 

' ' 

: . . . . - . 

inff the Jrar. 

*tlbhf 

for the ymr had u, 
turned a balance of 

n. n,. ai.i,u. smm- riptiomi i.. r- '.- , .., 




nit- b)rrtn lodged ag. 

-- ' . - '.' , , v 

Irea Uertng was rren to tb* prote-U. became no IrcaJ 



'- - ,/.i - - . . 

the objection taken. bt they 
.rave rendaJ that objections 

hearing and adjudicating on tmmvrVea if of amV 
oportance and made in proper form. 

' -y thai the (Juenis bmch had mled 
that objections coeJd not be br.nl. In tbr Hamp- 

aid issue to the an hliem<p to 



farther 



objeetiona. 
that nothing vnt mo 
a.lrar 

al'lt-totak *t*p*to 




. -rstis. It was represented daring the 
up that the daily eocharbt we* now celebrated 
h*-*. incense was used in 887. and proper 
vestment* 







the dead were sttll largely 

.M to n-- r .nwcrated 

the sick was not fully recogniacd. There va* al- 
most too much elaborate music, and vutting was 
greatly neglected, even in many - advanced per- 



l < fnioo. April 

resolution vas unanimottiiy passfd to the < 
that the confirmation of an ekrlion t 







pearance of a merely 

:*ar with 

/ . . 

Religion from the patronage and control of the 

was held 
risfeM. P.. presided. The report mentioned that 

! .: ... '-/';' ' ' 

I useful in furnishing oujiorl 
advocacy, by repretrntativr* of the soetety. 

rl, 

erratly to Mrvnpihrn th, F . luireJ a well as the re- 
ar bearing on the work 


dUetabliehment, the question of 

it. anl the tlefeat of the *sec4ejiaB** emsCsV 

' 1H86 and the carrying of the I 

The formation proreeding* of 

the educational aseociations. and the course pur- 

.- department would need imtr 
.ni watchinjr. The iinKaiing demand amomr 
rchmea for Church reform and the 



ft*** \ n _ il I .'rig.^-.!^ ;.. --- 1 

n nmoameoiai pnnmpm* in pew pmrea or cir* 

^ society 



II 



N 



i of ritualist* thai the 

the time* were opr rating to hasten the termina- 
ting connection between tin- mil 
pom and terkviaslksU bodice As 1'nrlmm, n: 

.03 *1. 

J.-al la&aliou. it might become necessary to mist 
llnaiH tal charge* which would pmrtically further 
widow the establish^! rhurrli nt j.ul... 

the pa* year * Churchman's Liln t 
had been established. A resolution was 
adept*! callin*; upon the friends of religious liberty 
to tJwjWTwiSaut delay oo an educational | 
to be pre**rd uj>n the constituencies and u|>on the 
nU administration. The year's Income 
-d been 4^886, and the expenditure 

. The first report 
prated 



of the Church Krform Ixwrue, which 
at thr annual raw! ing. May 



^- v% 



lit. covers oni 

prestnte<i that substantial progress 
bra made in advancing tin- purposssaf the 
Dilation. The membership was increasing rap- 
and nearly half <>f the present 800 members 
future action the council 

advised the concentration of all efforts on getting a 
short enabling act through Parliament which would 
-set the Church free to right 

' Htftuti nal wlf-government, sul.je.-t t,, tin- 
control of the Crown, and in all matters <>f 1. 
lion subject also to the veto of Parliament/' The 
Church could thus gradually effect all needful re- 
forms itself, especially those connected with the 
position of the laity* discipline, patronage, and 
finance. A letter was read at the public m< 
of the league from Mr. <i lad stone expressing his 
sympathy and approval in the tentative efforts for 
the gradual enlargement of self-governing powi r in 
the Church, and adding: " I am far from sorry to 
have belonged in 1858 to the Cabinet of Lord Aber- 
deen which gave to Con vocation its first in-talliii'-nt 
of fn-o action, a gift which had been rcfu- i l.v Mr. 
Walpole on behalf of the Govern im-nt of Lord Derby 
in 1858. Viewing this, with other ( 'hurch mutters, 
as a whole, I am astonished at the progress made in 
the la** fifty years, and am confident that many a 
convert ' would have been arrested on the I. rink of 
lange could he have been endowed with a pro- 
vision of what was to come. It also excites 
a lively thankfulness to observe that all this progress 
has been attended with a marked improvement of 
feeling as between Churchmen and nonconform- 

;-'v" 

The Church Amoriatlon. The chief proposals 
of the scheme of Church reform recommended by 
the council of the Church Association ci.nt.-m: 
the readjustment of the incomes of the dignr 
and inferior clergy on a fairer basis than at pr 
and amendment of the mode of ap|N>intmcnt of the 
bishops; that the Church should t the 

election of its chief pastors, and the bishop's veto 
should be abolished. The scheme aims at securing 
valion instead of imt.ri-.nrm-nt of clergv for 
disobedience, greater equality in incomes, with com- 
pulsory retirement for gross scandal, immorality, or 
incapacity, and provision of liberal pansfolM for 
long service and old age. It advises that the < 
Uon of church wardens be restored to the parish- 
ioners and their number increased according to the 
size of the parish. All requisites for services should 
be provided by them alone. And either of them 
1 have power to remove ornaments introduced 
without a faculty. It proposes that pari-hi..n,-rs 
should have a veto on all appointments of parochial 
clergy, and the laity should have a legal franchise 
secured t hat power to form parochial 

councils be given to the parishioner-: that no 
change be made in the services without approval 



parochial council ; that sales of I, 
u ami *ai< ntattan be abolished: 

that a diocesan patronage l-.u-.l be f.-nm 1 ami ail 

i I iy and with ii.s ad- 
vice; that parishioners should ha\.- p..\v.-r to |. m -- 
chase advowsonsof their O\MI parish; that il.. 
hold of the fabrics be vested in the inciiml.riit and 
church wardens f,.r the tune being, but only as 
trustees for the parMi. ilereliciimi of duty to be a 
vinlatmn of trust: that the linaiicrs be OODtrolled 
by the incumlN'iit and th- church warden- jointly 
un<ler the direction <( f the parochial council ; tha't 

n be reformed so as to secure a I ru. 
resentatioii of both clergy and laity, thus couMitut- 

national council ; and thai 'the & 
courts be fused into the high court of justice and 
their pcooednre be assimilated to that of th. 
courts. 

A memorial a.ldressed by this as>.M-iat iu to the 
Queen, bearing the signal ur. men. 

asked her Majesty when selecting future bj<.||,,j,x to 
confer her patronage <>n tli.-e \vh" are opjM^nl to 
the efforts being made to revive the conii ional 
and to re-i.,re the N the ma. which her 

Majesty <n her accession to the throne publicly de- 
clared to IK- both ".superstitious and idolatn 

i Inii-cli hclciise. , Church Cnmniitiee for 
Church Defense ami Church Instruction was 
forme<l in the autumn .f IMiiJ b\ the amalgama- 
tion of the Church iM'eii.s.- [nstitutioo and th<- 
Central Church Committee. The \\ork of educa- 
tion and organi/ation performed | to the 
union by these two bodies is now continued and 
carried im by the amalgamated body, which, with 
the assistance of the .md other local com- 
mittees. is endeavoring to extend the field of its 
operations throughout the whole of I'.ngland and 
Wales. The receipts of the two bodies during 
1896 amounted, including two special gir 

2,000 and 1 1.200 respectively, to I" 1 ,'.." I*, while 

the expenditure wa The w.-rk of the 

societies proceeded without interruption through 
the negotiations for union during the whole year. 
The general committee, at its annual meeting. 
April (5. by resolution, reaffirmed the necer 
continued and extensive organ i /at ion in defense of 
the ( 'hurch and of the di-eminat i"ii of information 
among all classes as to its origin, history, and 
work. The Archbishop of Canterbury add'ressed 
the meeting in reference to methods in which 
boys could be taught and encouraged to learn 
concerning Church matters. 

Home Hciinion Society. The report of the 
Home lieunion Society, presented in .June, r 
sented that there wen* many sign- of an ad 
toward that out ward unity which must eventually 
be accomplished. Wherever social Imrrier-. had 
been remove, I a more friend!} was now 

assured in all communications with Nonconform- 
ists. Avoidance of overlapping in the mis-ion field 
was also mentioned as a means of promoting a bet- 
ter understand. 

( hrislian K mu Ic.lire Society.- At U 

Dg of th- for prom. .ting Christian 

Knowledg. 's amouii' E !.'' I \ 

were voted for the building of :W < -him -hes ami 
schools in Canada. British Columbia, the V 
Indies. South Africa. Mid-China. Australia. 
Zealand, etc. : f -hip* for the training of 

Canadians for holy orders and for studentships for 
< 'hristian girls in 'in-: ' for an endow- 

ment fund for clergy in the poor diocese of Alg 
and 2,000 for the maintenance of the medical 
work of the society in India. Grants of publica- 
tions were made for various it at home 
ami abroad, the aggregate value of which was placed 
at fl. 









i In .-land Tern 

rk an- 1 l: 

all I 

Ui'l, 



' 

. 



vsral ir 



letter from UM bmhop, also *. 



r.-The reply of 



If n. .( n t uii 
ftbiifth a i: 

ffal !;,!,- f taBMM -.f 
r .-. 




Tnsy than point out 

, ' , 



tt tii 

mall ' j. 



f mi.t ,rish priest* 
rganixed temperance work u UM 
l help to a due diacharfS of the 

Women In tb- 
rganisalion of worn. 

. thr 11,,),. \.,,t>> \. ,|r. , r--,l 

nan referred to the great influence 
MB in tbeprr* i it 

tful men 



was recognised by thoughtful 

an one of the leading ideas of tbe 

ion Body gare an address on 

-neysaid that hi* favor.- 

Bmstfco that dtMoa boold hold a Ugh po- 

irvh. and be was dis- 
thr taking of rows. 
i I'nhiii- Meeting.- The Rev n 
ung. rector of St, J.-ht,'- < hun h. I'ortsea, 
having been adrertised to take |rt in a pul.lir 
in connect the Portsmouth and 

n.t-tant Aviation, ih- 
heater ddrsSSSd him a letter deploriii. 

nn occasion and mode of 
n to protest againot ritnai 

> replied, adn, 
u the meeting, and rxpL 

that the Baptist chapel was chosen merely as a 
.ce, and eipreesed surprise at 



nasntnUfordi ** 

n, wears not at 
sprasnd in that IH 
tbai. the form and matter of holy 

the Mibjcct coming from oar Lord or his apart**, 

,v ..j- E .... k... -r,.i.v ; | ':, - . ,. 

,'.-.:. 

ing on this matter in UM dsarsas of ntwinnml 

deed! doss UM Council of Trwt. in whkT'ovr 

father* t<k no part, tocsch UM snbjsrt 

Tbe whole judgment of UM Pope, the aawwsr cws>- 

N -bfnfw on two |i linfa nsmily. on UM 
practice of the court of Rome and UM form of UM 
to which * attached a third 

not easy to eparale from the 

about the former, though it v in our opinion, of 
less importance. As regard* the practice of UM 
Roman court and legate in UM aisteanth century, 
although the Pops writes at SOOM 
Here be U really as uncertain as 
ce that he has nothing to add to UM 

tain 

I* and thnr bearing* at 

and ^hops arknowledf* with UM Pope 

that th. ,,f band, i* the matter of or& 

priate to the n be conferred; -that the 

&* far a rnally 

maiiifeated. is to be asrcrtainsd. so that me mar 
disrorrr if it agree* ith the mind of our 
Ues and with the ttatntos of the 



We 



Chiir they add.-allarh 

so much weight to the doctrine . . . that each of 
ths Mcraments of UM Chnrah owrM to hare a sn> 



't writing on such a matter, srring th 
M th 



the ciril and religions liberty 
n>wn. As regardel thr lay 

in. mU-r- ..f th- hun h .-f I!? (fUlld, il ..- .. i . 

assumpUonon the |iart of tbe bishop t 

that : ti any war n- 

meeting. It was al*> 

|i could hare him. as be not only 

could tolerate in tbe parish of Cmham. wb*re the 

ritua ticca and lawlessness, but imilar 

proceedings took blaoe in other churches <>' 
diocese. Recently, at a confirmation svrrice * 
Agatluis, the bbhop had taken part in a procas- 
:md was prwwlsd by acolytes with lighted 

' 




' crrlain I. th in it% form and Us IT-. 
and a* t> conflrma: . doctrine ahoajt a 

I form in the 



ton imtirrfmir 




is IM not only spondinf to that part of the Pope's boll that dsnls 
ham. where the with the qnssiion of intent H.O, UM archhishons 



,,,.t merely aidi 

datWons of her 
included by v 

that if the bishop bal k.-i.t his episcopal cont'rart 
-aim t<> banini *trang and erroneous 
.tis contmry to (;M|\ w.-ni. 
no occasion tor USB to aiilress the meeting at 
n or for th,- bishop to write him a letter 
doing. Mr. Young attended 
. jt-Mrv^i it. denonnctr 

iur.-h. Th. IJ.-v T. Slnnprr. 
ricar of Christ Churvh, Potsdown. who had re- 



i irvr mvuuviu mummm 
imn..,liatrii f..ll..n, k - 

nssd by St. Paal in reference, they 

lion of Timothy as bishop as 
the purpose. -Th. 



.- ' 



tial to UM Christian priesthood, and. in ov o| 
exhibit it more clear! r than is dons in UM 

mcntaric* and pnti*W " \\ ;r. 152 '.K. 
addition for the office and work of a priesfwas 
made, it would not seem to hare been dons in ricw 
of the Roman controrerey, but in 



L6 



u AN < nu;< 



the Pri*bytrians, who were trying to find a ground 
'*kx opinion* MI our prayer In. un-h 

.' .. :':.;.:.. ' 

ilh thrra and other n, wn with 

the Koreans, In answer to other assertions of t he 
Pope against the intentions of the chun-h. the 
Utftbttftoi looftne ordinal of 

mn. "The 1 



f makrnge 

com." and the words <>r it,,, preface enlat 
phrase and emphaMiing iu meaning ft* quite clear- 
IT setting forth I hat . "to keep and oon- 

li oome down from the 

mrlto*t times* and Trv..n i.tl> t., use and esteem 
Mnse, of course, in which they were 
ved from the apostle,*, nn<l luul U-,-n up t.. that 
time in use." Th* arfnmn1 b closed with a r 
t >on of i he charge that in overt hr M, ,- ih, 

Ifath orders by <>f their validity in the 

haii made it the l'o|e " 

thn>w al. MII. I pronounces sentence on 

an lii>i>-hops declare 

I' pe in their 

1 unity in the Church. " \\ I 
which our lirothcr 
written from time to time in 
other letters are sometimes very true ami a 
written with a good will. For the difference and 
debate between u and him an-.- fr.<m a .1 

f the sHf-same (,,-pel which \vc all 
believe and honor as the only true < : . \\'e also 
glad IT declare that tin-re is much in his own per- 
son tnat is worthy of l,vr and Hut that 
error, which i inveterate in the Koman commun- 
ion, of sultstituting tin- visible head for the invisi- 
irist will rob his good works of any fruit of 
peace. Join with us. then, w \,,u. most 
reverend brethren, in weighing patiently what 
intended when he established the ministry 
- Gospel. When this has been done more will 
follow as God wills in his own good time." 

rotestswere uttered against the ten. .r of 
thi- 1-ttcr and the |>oint of view from which the 
question was regarded in it l.y Arsons and 
ties maintaining Protestant priooiplea, lii. 
tional Club Association ami i 

mation Siciety issued a declaration that (1) "while 
holding firmly the validity of the orders of the 
Hair- _.and, we yet unhesitatingly main- 

tain that her ministers are simply presbyters and 

that the statements put "forth by 
I bury and \ ork in reply 

to the papal bull concerning Anglican orders on 
the priesthood' and 'the eucha- 
ristic sacrifice/ as well as on other points, are not in 
harmony with the doctrine of the Church of i 
land, asset forth in the articles, litnr-\. and ordi- 
nal: and we r. m and de> 
liberate protest against these statements as being 
nothing more than private and unauthorized opin- 
ions of the two archbishops; (3) that, as a malt, r .f 
ri.^t. altar. n>r pn.pitia- 
erifloe te to be found in the i,.- a i standards 
r I'hun-h. which mlnnlv <mly th, Proti^tant 
n established by law ' : and further 
recate any attempt mi the p. 
individual bishops to negotiate terms of communion 

reien churches.* 

ThaOmittatoC the Irish Chur M j n 

Juno tinMniinou-ly adopted a minute cniu-rrning 
the letter, in which they expressed themwlve 
strained. " with the deepest sorrow, to dedan- it to 
be as a whole, both in matter nd tone, unworthy 
.f the Protestant ami lUCormed Chunh of 
land. That it should have emanated from t). 
arch) - hurch i-. in the opinion of the 

committee, a fact of solemn and portentous signifi- 



in M.-w of the ^Mcrament arian 

The i-ommitlee fe.-l it to 

upon tin-in to record their solemn 

the unscriptural \ie\\s .; 
the art-hbishops on the doctrine of the Lord's Sup- 

: he attempt to claim for clergymen 

f tl.- "hurch the |io.siiion and functions 

do^ma aJiMilutdx without 

sanction in the standards of the Church or in 9 
ture. and in support of which an attempt is made 
to minimi/e th- f the chan- - ma<t. 

in the ordinal at the Ueformat 

A letter address-d by the council of the National 
Church I'nion. in .June, to the An-hbish 
terbury and \'..rk. expressed the : that 

unable t. 

m. nts contained in the ., \fter <h- u--inn 

of the points of the letter in detail, th. 
Hud- uneil regard it as | 

found regret that Nour lordships have not in 
j>articulai- ad"pti-d the inti-rjiretat ion of t he I 
laries ,,f the ( hurch of Kn^land followed by the 

her leading dr. .' t he 

.'I which would have commanded 
the cordial support of every loyal Churchman. 
The adoption, mi the contrary, of an interpn 
in favor only with an extreme and comparatively 
modern lehoo] of tlieolo-ians .-an not Imt further 
inereas,. our i-r.-riit unhappy ilivi-ion^. whil. 
attempts to render such an interpretation ant 
tatixe would rend the Church in twain. It i>\vith 
the utmost re-ret that the council are constl 
to di>M-nt from statements publicly .-d forth by t he 
archbishop* of their Church: and" they trust 'that 
_rrace will accept their assurance that imihintf 
'but the most solemn sens,. (l f responsibility t 
and the Church would have induced them t'o under- 
take this painful duty." 

A [let it ion addressed t t he ( t )ueen. in .Inly, by t he 
Church Association, invited her Ma utioii 

" to the recent public action of their < < 
Archbishops ,,f Canterbury and York in taking 
upon themselves to address the head- of the cor- 
rupt Latin and (Jreek Churches, thereby claiming 
independent authority to speak in the name of the 
.ishcd Church of this country, and aU., to the 
fact that they have attempted to' justify th. . 
ti.-n by nii<i|Uitinu r the le^ali/.ed formularies of our 
Church, while addnoing, as authoritative, documents 
which have noofficiaJ charaeter." The memorial- 

1 that the (Jiirrn would, in I 

with her coronation oath.be ; maintain 

the I'roti-staiit faith within the realm, and ' 
quire explanation from the archbishops as to their 
unauthori/ed action in tl, :I,IILT upon the 

Coinocations of ( anterl(iir\ and Nnrk. In 
the Convocation of Canterbury the upper and 
lower houses, at the meeting in .Ianu:> 
upon - mmen. led for enla- 

the repres-ntation of the Her^y by iiiei 
numlH-r "f proctors. The uj.pe'r \\on-- unani- 
nioii-ly requested the arHibishop to take such 
as were necessary for elucidating or amendii. 
MOW observed in confirmint: the elect i- 
bjshops. The i I'ishop) on pr. 

tion of this p.-titi.,n to him intimated that the 
had .lecj.le.l that it was not the buin< 

with that matter, and that 

there fon- the |M-titiotl could not be received. <>H 

this subject the Hous4' of Laymen unanimously rc- 

solTed tliat the form of confirmation of bishops as 

.rrie.l out should be altered so ns, on the 

one hand, to prevent the x-andal of calling for op. 

hear them. and. on 

the other hail- ,ard the Church of i 

land in the appointment of fit persons to her bishop- 



III 111 - 



17 



riot. A resolution adopting the lohsms of the 

ial rvfrr. 

i and the 

11 that iiM i . -. . .\ 

i > r . I - i ' _ . i 

I lil.nl tnlMinal. an.l ).. 
M.I.- ttiMn.^t i;t. Mft* ' f -!-.! 

convocation. May II. the 

I- r ! - ' ' 

opt a small art a. 

l MM*Jt*ttaf thl ill M f '.. . .,- . BJ : 

it wa*..f \vry xm\<- iin| H >rtaiiiv that tliorcaan asso- 
n as possible. Tbe de- 
part M allow ,-oapt.v. 

boird, tad thai 

board tboseoflloersof the ( hun-h wh< 
all iikc- to sre connected with the manaj 
r example, M f 
aeon*, and the pr- 

if these aesodal 

MI the question of what scl 



' - r a.rra.,l 

xr of btynMO in Mi 

feeidinsj ths> Anciinut ooMmsjBinsj In the reeesM 
< ' 

' bsshap. 
;. ft a* a4opUaM. 

t , 

bio 

' 












-..;. . 



r.-hliiabop 

id. . i- 






ubretton 



l 



and indtucrial 

n the minds MM! rones the eonsrisness of 




. A . 

tioti. It 



WM very decidedly that t 

form It WAS 

Tl.. .ir. bbU i- ill m ; -: 
ecoodary edocAtiooa 



ii .f 



ons, and loose wno pro* 
tlddoubOeM 

?cordance with the teri rt pre* i 

..th I... ii m Julv. 18M. Had MH h a 



Mipr.-ina. x -f I/,- r j. :.:' -.,, 
-rdom for self.rojhjlMl by 

BJMJ I Of r- f -: . .- 

MMs, :. - fc 11 - .- 

faith ami -J-- T.,., . f tbe Cbreh. 

In Cation of York, the BOOM of U? 

!....; and concerning the beosisoBS 
hill ami tbe (^ucrn Vi<t<>na 
fun.l. unanimously passed a vote of thanks to the 
uehbiohoi 

clergy of V^igland and the defense of the Anjrhnn 
communion, contain 

Coatorbury to all thr biehoM of thr 



Rcnolutio 



The Convention of York, at it* 
Adopted a 

Imlia: also a 
km in any 







tOMthcr K 




rgmniationof 

iichtcbeme with ! 
>JP to the Chun h. 

benefices bill l- qumJiAc*- 

<il. I be made clear that power to 
i to a commiffUon to rnfon^r i hr at- 
.JMV of witneene aixl to rxaminr thorn ttpon 
oath. Itaskml xhopand thu| 

to consider whethrr any ami. if in. what Mrj- 
UM.- recofrnin* tea 

.minimi 

Uual.a orratc a rlnerr 

MMV 
EDH D 



I 
> 

. 
- 



beth Conference was 
MOffpted ' 

uragrmrnt.- The 



Ht the third 
K WM sommoned by Arvhbiswop 
MlwwottoMMejlollssoyofsjL 

.-.,..-.-, 




Tbe devotional ferrirea w 

f ..jirnu . he 

W. tiafJMlhf wftb tbe 
at I^mbeta Pnl 



with a 
July 3 the 



n of tfce holy 
.ly 1 

(fc 



br -hop of York, 

ristted Bbba Fleet, Ule of 






Thanet* the spot where St. Augustine is sn 
hav* landed when he went to England under in- 
direction of Pope Gregory to preach the Gtj 
the ihen heathen people. A service was h. 
the cross erected by the lale l^-rd (iraimlh- IP 
jsjsjnrr of St. Augustine* simple memorial of 
gmy M..IU- bearing a Unn h 

forth t:.- f*-i --f >' ^I-T 

they 

bv toe trustees of the castle, ami 
nh nary Roman remains, o n July 

terbury 
an addrest of welcome by Arch. 

>ftrr which ii xi-lt was paid t 

ippuaed to be the oldest parish in 
England and to have been the place of worship at- 
tended b/ Queen Bertha, wife of KM - Kthelbert. 
I th* tun.- of the con .gustine. The 

words rhanied by Augustine and his party as they 
entered Canterbury were sung as an anthem by the 
choir. Another service was held at the cathedral. 

was attended upon invitation by repn- 
tives of nonconformist bodies and civil officers. 

The regular sessions of the conference were be- 
gun in Lambeth Palace, July :. and were continued 
01 general meetings till the loth, when they were 
suspended, in order to gi\e the committee* oppor- 
tunity to in.-et and consider the matters presented 
t. them, till July '21. At these general mee 
papers were presented and formally di-eu--. .; : < >n 
the Organi/jtt ion cf the Anglican Communion 
asaCentral Consultative Body; (b) a Tribunal . ; 
erence: (r the Relation of the Primates and Metro- 
politans in the ( olonies and elsewhere to the See of 
rburv; /ithe Portion and Functions of the 
I jambeth Conference ": "The Relation of Religious 
Communities within the Church to the K pi scop. 

Critical Study of the Holy Scriptun 
sign Missions (a)*the Duties of the Church t<> the 



followers of (I) Ethnic He .lu.laiMii. 1 1 1 h 

Islam;(6)I)evelopment of Native Church. 

lation of Miasionarv Bishops ami Clergy to Mi-i.,n- 

ary Societies ": M Bef ormation M>\- M the 

Europe and Elsewhere"; "Church 

hurches of the 

Rest; (6) to the Latin Communion; (r) to other 
Christian Bodies : -TheOflice of the church with 
Respect to h.. In-trial Problems M) the I'unn- 
ployefl ; (6) Industrial Co-operat in ' . I i.-.-n-es in 
birin. : iitiomilServi, . d Adapta- 

tion of the Prayer IJook." A fraternal message was 
received from the General Asx-ml.lv of the Cimrch 
tland. As in accordance with the invariable 
rale of the conference no corporate answer could 
be returns! to this address, the Ar -hlii>h<ip of Can- 
terbury undertook, with the approval of the con- 
ference, himself to write expressing appreciation of 
the brotherly me stage. A special reception was 
giren the bishops by her Majesty the i^u-.n. at 
Windsor. July 18. 

The bishops attending th< Umbeth Conference 
met again at Lambeth, July -2'2. to receive and 
- r -.; rts of the various 4 ommitt i whi.-h 
hal bwn sitting at the Church House and to h 
formal resolutions upon them. A memorial n--'lu- 
tionof the late Archbishop Benson i.iiry 

was adopted, in which mention was made of the 
fact that -up to the latest m bfa life his 

thoughts were given to the defense and maintei 
of the principles of the Ch 
.t a break an 



;~ 



anywhere u> our orders, sacran 



creeds, ecriptares, spiritual irift*. in all that 
pacts and frames the holiness of the catholir and 
apostolic Church of the ages/ These were his last 
-. written just before he passed, in the act and 
attitude of worship, after the early MIC] 
through the confession and under the very 



ance of the absolution, to receive the seal of divine 
r and forgiveness." 

Th- : the con: reo to the 

public in the forms of an encyclical lett-r reviewing 
the whole; of : jti-n^ f.. r which th- 

|.o||-ille,anil the trliorof \\hirh 

-.1 ; and the reports ,,f 
- \\hirh. it is explained, rcpn-riit the 
mind of the confcicm in BQ far only .. 

niied or adopted in the resolutions, T 

tier, following the course of tin- P 
ti.n> in a he Mibjt ' 

icni|.. . in Itoth of which 11 is 

urged that the n 

tn>l should lie made most prominent; theii 
and sanctity of marriage; industrial proldo 
which the brotherhood of man should U- iv-ai.hd : 
duty to the poor: and international ai 
.i-tieal .subj.-cjs iwhich are th- 

1 in the resolutiiinsi. the iir-t is t|,, 
ti.in of the Anglican communion, with 
for -trady and rapid inteiviii 

hes for the de\clopment of unity of feeling: 

nil roiisiiliative body, to sii]i|.lv' in format ion 
and advicr. but without <.therthan moral authority, 
under charge of the Archbishop of ( 'anterbnr\ 
the formation of provinces with archbishops, SO 
that no bishop should be left to act absolutely alone. 

ionj communii -mended in a gnu-nil 

way as capable of rendering grea' to the 

Church, b. kOWlsdflM to need more regula- 

tion. The critical study of the liible by coiii| 
scholarship is st rongly commended IB essential to 
t he maintenance in t he Church of a healt hy fait h. 
The I, should not be tam- 

pered with in matters of doctrine, but can not pos- 
sibly provide for all needs i:. nation of 
local circumstances, and a limited discretion is 
.mended to be given to local bishops to make 
provision for such emergencies. The n. 
increased facilities for theological study in colonies 
and dependencies is insisted upon, in order that 
preachers may be properly armed for the lef. 
the Church and its doctrines. Christian care of 
and the defense of native races f r ,, m de- 
morali/.ing influences are urged. The lettc 

I the opening of correspondence with the 
Churches of the Kasj : the cultivation of friendly 
relations with the Moravians and with the Scandi- 
navian Church : the emphasis ,,f the divine pu 
of visible unity among Christ i.-r 
latiou; advises the appointment of commit)' 
bishops everywhere to promote united prayrand 
mutual co i between representatives of dif- 

ferent Christian bodies; and recogni/esp 
ore of the Old Catholics and other I- 
escape from the usurped authority of 
Home." Although "such movements may - 

end in quitting not meivlv the Roman obedi- 

but even the Catholic Church itself, and sur- 
rendering the great doctrine of the sacramet 

Is, . . .we 

must not anticipate that they will until 

they i na are 

to the conditions to le met in 

dealing with tie hthe Mohammedans, and 

with the other religions. Wnile the Jewish, Moham- 
i.and the other n-li_ limited to have 

some good dewn ii._ 

to be cautions le-t that go.,d. >uch as [| 

exaggerated as to lead us to allow that any purified 

form of any om- of them can even in any way be a 

Mite for 1 1 Qospel is not merely 

velation of the highest morality: it reveals to 

os also the lore -.d contains the 

promise of that ;i by him by which alone 

' moral life is possible in man." While 












other con > 
. 



*i i bwti done in thu 
The 



to h.. 





DOT, MfeCtad o. 



.an- 









ur! 



.c-ra. ml - 
gtican own in ui 'nation ..r ad* 

,ili.l Hint 

fMoafted to take toon *tetM as be BUMT think moat 



I |.ft.*di at the 



; .1 ' 

- ?.,'...,. . ... 

'Oil ami IB* Ul~, TC BifttOO 



! kit opmiAjr wUlrvM to ihr 

0tfct|i~| rmngr of to|4fli to br 






. 

lioa of 



, -h 
lrr : 



JUl'i I 



' 



m D0 



i IIM- 



o 



' rather 
n-r and defcrrncr I 

iiifriiip-inriit of t 
" \' 'iHclecl be licnated to see with- 



|l-id TV. "miiM-ii-i:' .. ' \ H* t.. 

' 

urvh 
nl bloving* havr nttrnded 

ll-tiali ml*Uonah. 
with 
ha* u a pooit.: 

ih,- .In.- growth and maniferfat inn of thai unity of 

mark ih. < 

rroalion of an 

'-rutil. Kramf. Italy. 
and York are rrauosted 



the Her. Dr. Moole, on the - Cbatriftwtio* of ihr 

VJ MttBal MOTMDr' 1 ' . . ' 

.... !.< 

urrh 

i go Mawkma" (trvatnl uodrr 
vrral hraiU rkipcnmt of f 

.h.ir.-h. -. th.- . . t ,.-x ..f indepeadent aialnni 10 

rk. ami n.r,ij.l mt*- 

ami ArrhHeriarfin tW 






niain- 



The Church and 1 ii- 

KHaliMi 
-TW 

i lUrr* io a fhurt-h." by la* 
f Natal and loa: and M Thr I' 



of ihr Church 

nr and ot ben. and -MHbadftof Plain 
ml rSamnaffi 
eomparrtl ^ 

htlraroo of L ndM aad 
1 Kdocalk 



for me 

thnn : n. 

nlrni of the Moravian Chtir 






1 ! I _' 

of th. - 

"f ' 



with 

a> r< -i OH 



waim tor op- 

vrr and mutual < 

h oil ,-nl thrir- 

-.; Ijaro 



^bylhrBWwpof 
by I>r. <;.. and-TI 

1- : M -I'-' i' : , r Mr.< ! 

Canoe, Moor* 
*tiao Sorial f 
\ t a devotkNMl MMHiOK j rrad 

Ihr I 'If Ihr Charaf 

f Ihr 
lan Min- 

(Ihr IK : and "TW Denv 

... T. . i Work " (the Biabopof 
- Practical bV- 
(%BiDrrcr. and in Olker 
- 

.didatr f 



L" 



\K< Ii.EOLOGY. 



Cause* affecting the Supply of Suitable Men. and 

v . . ,- it." 

The working 

and va.* addrwawd hl-i*h"p .-f 'untr- 

oO, M I 1 ., and U 

M '- p * '.:..::. : 
OM and for women. At an .-\.-iun- m. 

hbiabop Beam's Last Two l*m|nnU f.-r th- 
:>M(inn and Maintenance of h 

rhun-h Ifefpiw m 1. 1 rhurvh lr 
AI,.| ist.-nution Fuii.l"- 

.. .-.!: i:, AM, M i 1 . OMB ol 

HiuiiM.r American. Mairnitinl 
can Ituin*. ( 'f thr nun* of ancient . r 

11. Holmes li.'i : and 

dwetibed in In- |- il.licatioiwn IH.IH-. 

|>prh|Ms nn- tntinp ivmark 

whole than tli<iM> m-nr f ^lany 

.pi "M moun- 
tain i.'-s M aod one aooo oomes," he say- 






until n< -t f natural <-..ntmir 

Then 1 was H vast sy>trin f Kvi-l <-..uris iin-l,i>,..| |,\ 
IO ami li.inlrri-.l l.y |.\ rami-l- \\ 
1 ll' uioiinlaiii dc- 
, >- K.II 1,1 

in an- K'MTI|M .| liy Mr. 11. .lines 
a* surpassing in ina-nii u.lr ami in 't| : 

of |Miinilation Ih 

\i . . j 

-tlM'Wcll-| -rul|.lun--<lr, -,r;ilrl l.lllld- 

: 'lilral A 

. . bat if the entire maat of the ruined 81 

to )>< 

I ii|i iti a siu^i,. H M ,,,||I|. it wonlil lun-dh 

.'iiid of tin- Sun al ..... In bulk, 
and tin- whole Imlk of tin- Troiilma 
many tinn- thai of ii> rlii.-f j. \rainid." 

Hnins oi QnechmictopUcan, - mi \m\ 

ruin- 

Hi -it\ ,,f Qoechmii ..imut 

|sj iiMi-ihra-i of Chilpancingo, cap, 




or THE TBMPLBB AT grFx-iiMirropucAif, Mexico. 



,f ihi- 



to 



peaks 



nt inhal-i 
'"'slopes and j.ic-ks his way 
MUnmU he is fairly da/. -d l.y the 
rart array .f j.yrannd-* and torraoet, which n 
heighta. tnit nvi-rstin-ail t 

of naturnl -..nt,,,ir. and n, 
'.iinsartua .,rt." Climl.ii,. 

of the larger j.yraui _T..MJ, ,, th- suinmit 

.*th- author 1.1 

of the mountain and th- Hiirnmndiii^ \. 
and rang.,of whu-h h<- ^y- : "Th- .-n 

urth of a mill- wid.- an _- ,,,. a rly a 

milo to the north, lay *pr-ad "it at my 
surface was not covorl ^^ 
piles of ruins, as I had expect^l. J,ut th.- 
mountain had been remodeled by the hand of raan 



' 



f (Ju.-rn-i On a 

dition in -.-ar.-h of ih- ^it.- of th 
found it v.-ry difficult ..f a<-.-.-*x. iut. 1 
reachc'l it. di^-nvi-ri'd ruins d. -noting a city ! 

d.-ralilr fxi.-nt. II.- return. -1 ^'ork : . 

and. havini: mad<- hi- preparations and 

-i<m ,,f n,. 

thorouirh exploration ..f the ruin-. II 
tin-in a" 01 it a- that 

'f th. '..k.-ninir not an 

.ntiqiiity. Twenty-two t.-mt.les and nu- 
merous altars, forming the principal moum 
of th- i/.-d. Tin- l.a-.-s of the 

altar* lar. :.l- .,f ( , ,/,,! were di-tin- 

...1 in all part- ,,f the city. The le m p], - 

.illy Imjlt of -ton.-H. ,,f large dimensions, care- 
fully of many the foundation^ aloi. 
mained. In other cai<es the walls rose a few feet. 




' 

Altar 



Mr 





:i fc 

f .i.'t a bead aralptttr**! un *<*M. mofariuf 

HflHfli -ath. Tl. :*d ihr MtiruUr 

lc I** Uf.<* kfv 



JMaHdrv.. 



lli. 
. in the ,-.. 

oa un uf 







. ' .. -, - , 












KH. .' > 



LfTTVBO I1KAU IV 
ft v 



l*en already . 
^,n.i Mban * : ha* JIM grai .; 

of larjrr .i/.-. and (oar other biorfe of 

--teral heart; 

nacm ; and it b mnicctured that a tar** 
rth waft uiied a* a 

.Tid 1-41. 

m thr 

-. 




Tvo 



.ftfg* 






-tr|*. am- 

na, KaUih. ami 



: 
' hladnUma^ UM trf or*- 




. . . 



a largr ti 

tion. in win. h showed t)iat they 

untrrx Variooa other minor 

.Cahoot 4 f rrtdaej 

- valf .ffarded 

iwat ittfulr r 

<'tad at *howinjr thai wmlen pipai had be*a 

Haw hnnr WN| at thr 

' a l("inaii t.. n at Chitelet, Kraare. in 




tradnf oT the pip* kd to U dt 

of a hitherto unknown rat 

lYmpIr of Artr.- 



kft 

Kalhrh.-. ' 



... 



i pn: 



i aNmt afterward cotn|4H9tjr tlei 
rtn ilr i ia of auch A ImQdlaf 





by Mtt*ri 

44 a 



1 



ihi.h I' 
dinjr imiMdlatelr at the 

am 

-.1 at Alhea reported a n 
the Var. Th. 

(l e bail baa* carried to r 



' 



rtprtatnted human lhat the MHHIM off aa fa 

r:..u, hn 

. made at I'alraa. ewperially a itatoefte 

lUhe,and va- 4nfvlar and beanty. vbicb 

ritxw animal*. The be attiibutrd to the third ortitun 

v Xapia Xo^iir. In the 

workman. I'ndetfrotmd pa- of ofllc. 

saoes *vm*<l numerous than in any th* niina of an old baafliea in the MoabHe 

Kino* ami at Teja Medeba Kkopbaa M. KoidrdfaJe*. librarian 









inm.1,- which had p|* I""* 

ndWf. a geographical 

*nd Kg>r h Irts ,.f 

alr^iiH- ami KgYpl remained. It ap|-r- t- hx.- 



, . ... [a|| | Ufa Mia T. '. r ,.'.. '. : I- - 

.sand 

tiawervx -evwal tears a^. in th.-ir 

*rt w 



the rhara.-l.-r f the let: 

fromth,. . ""1 the absence 

of certain -.-.. r-l pin. uld have been 

,i rrv Of lat.T o.m|-Uion. to U-tweeii 

ftaoonlvii* t. th..M- f.. r whose identitv the au- 

.,. ,.f the impheuorof 

an earl v mart vr ran be cited. In addition to the 

. the 

plan of Palestine contains also the K- .man <h 

.t first, second, and third Palestine. The 

v IS regarded as an important addition to our 

resources for Hebrew and Christian archa>ology, 

history, and geography, in respect to which the 

uth> i " advantai 

(hat U inakw us acquainted with a number 
of place* hitherto n. [t gives to the Chris- 

tian geogr.. MS of that jH-riod ; it 

designates exactly the cities and sites of the time ; 
r'the identification of certain pas- 
sagas of s npture,as, for example, the prophecies 

ob concerning his sons Joseph and I'.enjamin ; 

t delineates exactly the shape, style, ami foun- 
dation plan of the houses of the period. It is rep- 
resented as marking " where there were plain.- and 
caves, deserts and oases, hill- and mountain-, i 
and creeks and woods, springs hot and cold, lakes 
and (tools, boats and ships, palms and bananas; and 



%MMsatri * t \ I'liiui^ uvn u. 

Babylonia. Ruin- of Nippur, 
made in the " Annual Cvcloiui'dia " for 1806 to 



are all designated in their natural colors/ 
The map appears to have been prepared with con- 
scientious care, and is regarded as accurate. 

Baal bee. An appeal has been made by M 

Casolani for th. n of the ruins of the tem- 

ple of the Sun at Baalbec. It is believed t hat t h.-re 
were originally 58 columns. Of the 8 that remained 
in tf art of the last century 6 are now 

standing, and some of them are rather dilapidated, 
The little that i* left of the roof of the peristyle of 
the temple of Jupiter is also fast crumbling, t'wo of 
the largest slabs that form it being in imminent 
danger of coming down. 

' |nir. Reference was 
'yclopaxlia " for 1896 to some 
<>f the results of the excavations carried on by the 

I ition dispatched from the t"niver>it\ of lYnn- 
syfvania at NiftVr. the site of the ancient Nippur, 
m the Shat-rn-Nil. More cumiilete and definite 
account* of these results have been published in 
book* by hr. .!. I'. I'eter>. the director of the lir>t 
expedition, and in the editions of the cuneiform 

recovered, edited by Prof. Hilprerht. The 

d feature of the ruins at Niffer is the mound 
called by the Arabs (tint el Am \mir's 

daughter." which rise* to aU.ut l<"i . the 

surrounding plain. It marks the site of the great 
Zifgurmt, or trer whii-h was built by 

iror tr I tahu. about 2800 B. . 
and added to by later kings. Around thi- tt 
pl. rations wen- I by Mr. Ilav: 

f the later expwlition. A renemblance'v 
between the arrai 

causeway connected w 

plo of Khafra and the temple of the Sphinx : and a 
question is suggested as to which i- earlier in origin. 
The tower was found to rest on a massive platform 
i'-k. but beneath this was a second nave- 
of ni'ich finer construction, built of large 



reeo the arrangement of thi- tempi, and 
that of the early and of the 

<ewav connected wit h it and that U-t we-n 1 1: 



, nearly all of which were stamped 
with the name- i Naram-Sm. 1; 

-"i|.. The*c kings were both described 

alder of the temple of Mllllil." wliich temple 

has lii-eii reino\.-.|. Northwot of the teiii|>le the 

..f a line of mounds marking a I'ampart 

brought to li^'ht the remain* of a -olid brick wall. 

:iid of unknown height, 
a foundation of solid < 

puddled i Miilar 

wall, of half the thickness of t tf foiniil at 

Tello by M. <lc Karaec. ' ..f tin 

and rlnsi- to tin- rampart wa* a chamlier 
about ::C, feet loni; and 1'J : without a 

A ay and therefore snppo^-d to lia\ 

in- upon the plat- 
form of Naram-Sin. which was built by I'r (iur. 
ith it was another chamber similar toil, the 
relic* in which showed it to be the ten,; 
Hiaii; It had been partly restored 

: (iur. who had aUo erected the upper chain- 
own archives This chamber had been 
rilled some time between the reign of I'r (iur. 
2800 11. r.. and the rise of the Kas-ite d\: 

and the pillaging is s U j,| ((( ,, 
taken phu-e during tin- Klamite in\ 
The excavations \\ere continued by Mr. Ila\i 
virgin soil. :!<) feet farther down, through the ,/ 
of ruined buildings, accumulations of broken pot- 
tery, and fragment-, of inscribed stone objects and 
well-constructed drains. Tin se remains proved 

the existence (.f at least t \\ .. temp il t lie 

pavement of Naram-Sin. These strata had 
disturbed and the buildings pillaged, but much 
remained to cast light upon earlier pha-< 
Kabylonian ci\ ili/at ion than had been opened to u* 
before. An altar of sun-dried brick, about 1. 
by 8, had a rim of bitumen around its upper 
. and a large deposit of white ashes on 
its tot.. Around it was a low wall marking the 
sacred inclo-inv. and outside of this wen- two 

.f terra cot ta. decorated with rope pattern. 
Southeast of the altar was a brick platform, about 
i square and 1U feet high, built of fine un- 
baked bricks, round the base of which W 
vents, leading to a drain jwissing underneath the 
platform, in the roof of which \\ 
known keystone an-h. 

More than 'Jfl.lMM) tablets and num. :ibed 

fragments of vases and */ i from this 

ible number of them of the period 
previous to Sargon. Among them \\eiv broken vases 
and other object-, many of them of the m< 
type, that had been \ot ive offerings t<> t In- shrine of 
Mullil from the earliest t jme. A stone bowlder, in- 
'1 with a lineal inscription of a king named 
: Kigub Nidudu. b- :,d indorsement 

by Sargon in arn-w-h. ade.l characters. Among the 
broken fragments w. of more than a hun- 

dred vases dedicated to the temple by a king named 

from which Prof. Hilpn-clr 
omplete text ..f rjo lii. 

- were found beneath th> 

gotiide pavement. When examined along with the 
earliest monument- from Tello the in-criptini- 
foiind i complete hi-t'iri'-a. 

to affairs of which no mention is found in the annals 
r afier. They n-lat. rimi- 

and form certainly, whatever thi-ii 

1 known. The 

ihem is the inscription, written in most 
archaic <!; \ led 

" I^>rd of K nia. " the land 

of chanm s a war against 

the city of Kish.the modern HI llynn-r. whose pri-t 
ruler had entered into alliance with tribes called the 
hosts of the Land of the Bow," and describes how 






: 



BOaqMftd the KMV - f Ki*l *.-: mmi it, ,rr.4 1 

f the murt ItilrfMl i Ih0 *r 












fajia. or 



ti,,-,. ..;.,.- . f i-.v . |*bf( 

A* that 

IJIPMI 
empire as extending from t 

HI } mace." 

though 1W. Ihipr.. 
4 |^rio,| 

.me of Sara* 



U. U lamctr r. and oofHalatng 8 M*J Of Jt^i*. each 

f 

.1. fn^-in. l.lrviawlt 

> plMMned thai u u |n of a lafyer c^-lW 
.. TW fuiluwin* u tb*. ir*k 1*11 rf ikr /.^, rt 



Th- y , rt 

- ^ *. lia^U^iC Malii H a*>e* H ^ 



that tin \ ar. ..f much 
loath* of 



I fljrurm of flanea, bt ' 
Mind. In a mound of peculiar shape 
Negadn ti m came U|M>H a 

paategna lel. with r-- of < oiumn*, 

bae-reliefa. Twenty-one room- 
containing a arcophagii- 
4 central room had one larirer than 
ting upon a ( M -detal of w>lid r- k 

ar the feet were the remains a|>* 
f a 1'ion. oompoaad of pieces of ivory ; and 

v^n l.f.-s,/,,! 

i were 
ith inscriptions of ao remote a date that 

'}>n-tc|. Within tli. 
was a nmmmv case wrrtv 1 

tiannhip. aiul thr fl The 

wall- place* were in PO crumbled a coodi* 

!iat |*rt-..f thr in- rated. 

..I in all thr rooms tigl 
and bearing <>t nai 

.al iiamr* vph- 

agi consisted of a frw ntgns, not wnti- 
1 in Miuare* nimilar 
* on the rase*, The seal* on thr vast* in 

from scarabs. The chief aareophagtts. aft. r 
: ned. was cloNnl and walrd f.r nr- 
body Uto be un r . 

nii'l . -t *-i .. inb U supposed to be of aseariy 

N - -A large stor 





' - 
And' UMB Ihalt thov ame cWriy u> CMC oot 

kinffdoaiorOod.aexi^ 

crpt re keep the Sabbath, ye thall no! M tW 
Fat! 

Jeeus aaith. I Hood in the midrt of tW 

i. ami in the fee* WM I on at th*. and 1 

all men drunken, and none fond I aihir* 

among thawi. and my eonl crieTHa over th* aorj|> 

nr heart. . . . 

uWlMVterthareare . . . and there 

n. Rafce tbr oa 

an.l there thuu ahalt flnd me. damw taw wood aad 

Jf*u* with. A i<t 1 hH t. not aOTftfaU* tn 
hi* .. .-.Kintn. MMM BwH . 
thenilhal kt 



irat upon t beat thai know aim. 

v cttT bUi MKMI tW lop of a 
hiirh hill, and lUblLlMd. can nntWr fall w be 

All i l I r . f 

l>, ],,. 1 1 .. r > ! 



TKr 




room al the end of ike nailery, witbowt 

* ere dii!. in obnhenc* to tbe 
of tboat workx 



Hunt in f 

:f thr * 
hail UM-II nnpr im-uinl 

t ween t 
-f the Christian era: 

ripidea. and 
and fragments of early copios of th. \Y Trrta- 



nfell n.i 

rlvr .f a library 
ami thrnpaded 

; ublir an- 
e flr^t and ninth 
poittooa of the 




Unds. TWeollacliiNii 

copies of thr 

liturriea. going as far bark as the Unfa) 

'..--,. 

aldair ar 

Contain, and on attsjaurt of apedaMaw of old 
forms of writing and punctuat**!. difTertnir 
both the Eastern and ^Mtern styles Next to 






an* fragments of the Babylonian and 
Talmud, which are of g* 




8MPMLV ' 

. . . ! .:: ..:. irgi quant 
t.f autograph doeMMOts, 

.rtornth mittirirN with ImniiN li-gnl |*pcrs, 

-.-,,:' ...:.- '. - -. ..:.- 

Tlbt~ntli llrtt*Ht,. 

'from the 



,,., 



remains of a temple of Set at Xubi. near Nagada, 
IMS brrn presented to the Ilriii-.li MIIMMIIII. It was 
.*IIT piccem win .:ht at 

nt objects, but were after- 

r.i '.rra parts of a whole. Several pieces 

are still missing, bat the general structure of the 
object is damrhr defined. The -I , ; , 
and 6 inrhe* in diameter, with the upper part 
carved and terminating in a head "huh is sup- 

- 

givtw a total height of 7 feet. The shaft is in- 
scribed in fin. >s. with cartouch. 

: H. of the eighteenth dynasty all 

1 in dark cia/e into the white, sandy grit of 

ite of which the object is composed, ami tired 

with rich blue glaze. An important part of the 

. wiui foill. : ciillertion. 

and has been presented to the museum to a< 
pany the rest. 

\nnuuities of II Kab.-Writing of his last 
season's work at F.I Kab. iii whieh he was a> 
by Mr. ^utbell. Mr. ' larke observes that 

-ibt true, that so far as we can tell 
he tomb of SeU-knekht is the old- 
est of the rock tombs there, it is hardly probable 
that there may not have been otl..-r> older than it 
Baried beneath the slope of sand that lies against 
the north side of the great wall were found several 
mast aba* of brick with paneled sides: bowls of 
diorite two bearing the name of Sen. fru were 
with other things in the wells, stain-use tombs 
were aim fou ml similar to those at Nagada. a number 
of Libyan burials, also a cemetery of the twelfth 
.*tjr, part of the great wall and part- 

within. The remains of ma*tabn* similar to those 
found out*ide and of the same period win found 
inside the inclosure. The wall was evidently built 
regardless of the ancient sanctuaries. TJ,,. ,j a te of 
the great wall has : determined. While 

the inscriptions in the immediate neighborhood had 
already demonstrated the importance of Kl Kab in 
the sixth dynasty, the researches have now carried 
it b* iirth dvnatty. when, judging by the 

ui.s. it "must ha 
of no little consequence. 

lie Implements from l-\pt and Somali- 
land. A collection of prehistoric flint implements 
Mr. II. U. S,-i n Karr in 
' - - te<l inJui i .; th< roonu 

of the Arrhamlogical Institute. The mines :,- 
uated in the Wady-el-Sheik district, in the :, 
desalt of Egypt, about :io miles distant fn.m the 
the types of implements are new to 
science. Only two pahrolithie imi ' the 

earliest date were found in this region, others m- 

1 in the exhibition came 

, N : !:,.. : . . : ,1,,- 

western desert. At some of the mines are - 
about two feet in diameter, filled up with drifted 
sand, and surrounded by msasfH of excavated r---k 
neatly arranged. There was usually a central 
work* place where most of the objects were discov- 
ered. In some mines a number of clubs or trun- 
cheons lay distributed uniformly as though hurriedly 



left when the iiuarrics were abandoned. Other im- 
tiliMiient -- "f dint and quart/ite are frmn Somali- 
iand. They wen- found <>n a l-mg low hill about 
KH miles from the eoaM. The coiinlrv around 

was of limestone, in >..me places overflowed i>y 
lava, and the implements lay in . and 

that these disco \ .:.i l>.-ariu[: 

on the (jue.Mion of tl ..... riu'inal home of the human 

race. <>f their identity in form with -...me from the 

. -I her plaees t here call be 

no doubt, and we need not heMtate in elaiming 
them a.s pala-olithie." 



,,f th( ptian race 

I bv M. le Vi. u the 

Bulletin et nemoira de , 

i lll'ee 1 heo- 

on the subject: 1. That the I. from 

through the isthmus ,,; i | m | they 

came, partly from Aia. through l-!thiopia: and :'{ 

that the majority of them originated in Africa and 

passed into Rgjpl by the west and southwest. M. 

.i-i-d on the lat- 

in I'abylonia and the comparison >ft: 
mains of the eariiesi known Kgyptian art with the 
probably still earlier rcn, -|y found I 

for believing that Kgyptian civilixation \\a- derived 
directly from I'.abylonia. 

Historical \alnc ol .Mr. I'clric's hi-co\ ei i.-. 
Prof. 1'ctrie sjioke at the annual meeting of the 

Kxploration Fund. Nov. lo. of the results of 
\\\^ labors among tombs .if the fifth dymi-' 
Desha-heh as being of the greatest interest for the 
early hi-toryof Kgypt. From the mas> of bm.. 
hid DOW collected they had, for the iirM time, an 
insight into the great question of the populations 
of the country. They could now definitely say that 
there was no' clear change during three <-r four 
thousand years, and that a distance of ."iu miles 
made more dilTerenee in the type than a lai 
four thousand rears in one place. They had the 
fortune to find a group of statues of "the fifth 
dyna-ty. and to bring to Fngland one of thetw.. 
best, which was far the fim-t piece of Fgyptian 
statuary that had ever reached that coin 

Algeria. Mussulman l.'iiin* of Kalaa. M. 
Blanchet. working under the Ardia-ological >,,ci.-ty 
of Con>tantine, Algeria. re|iort> the disc., very .if 
the Miis-ulman city which was in the eleventh cen- 
tury the capital of northern Africa the Kalaa of 
iJeni llammad. This city, whieli onOC had SO, 000 
inhabitants is DOW OOTered With grain fields. aii<l 

i"h it the traveler has t.. ride wveD hours. 
among the mountains. Many ai-cha-ologjstv 
passed within a few miles of 'it without suspecting 
its existence. M. I'.lanchet has exhumed ,,n tin- 
site a mosque of a I >out 'joo by iso feet dimei! 

. d with L" 'Ids and sustained b\ 

umiis of ros- marble: a palac,-; a public fountain ; 
a Castle i: '<-d on the top of a 1'ock 

and flanked by towers, the least ruined of which 
was about 1" feet high. The discovery <! 
additional ijit -i bat U" .Mussul- 

man ruin of the cp,,ch of this one was known to 

;n Algeria. The monuments of Tlemeen 
built in the twelfth <-entury; those of Kalaa date 
from 1'KiT. A new < -hapti-r in the history f art 

evealed to us. 

India. Kuins of Dim put. Phe ruins of Di- 
maput in Assam consist of a numlM-r of t 
r|iiaiititi'^ of broken pottery, and a number of 
carved speckled gray sandstone-. jn< -los.d in an 
area about a mile s/juare !,y a brick wall of later 
building, with a moat and "a gate. IMmapiit was 
sacked by tin- Ahoms in 1 .":).". and has been unin- 
habit- liile a d ; grown up 

all over the upper valley of tin- I)huniri. The 



BLKX 






BtoatJftrsoejTeil _--.: . . - - _ ... :; i: . . ; . . .. . 

4u* flowvr*. and MM, The departure* in !4ttejnbered4i;Mt. The 

twMieti. 

(OOjQOO in It*?. 

fewer 

base, whil.- n,. free ends - 

male*. Among the i 

H *,M-J,.M ..ru'in. At | -r. ..'"'.,, ' - ' > . . .- , 'I . 

taiifc't-l in rowa.in onegr...i|. A.l-HiMr of whioh llaVMOagiw* are octtipW 

:,. eai-h |ir -f u.-h ,,,..rrt,iijr from Ksjejift and other Buropra rout. 
Stood doe east of a doubl- *ha|d stimeai mrntanr edtarik>i 

-ond group a 
.ml cp"i| 4ones thaiir*! 



-. 






I ii. -d ttnivenrttk. .r 

K round stones were evi- and Rneno* Aymx 



cuoan bore in their 
.ingornamrnu of aome kin.l.all 

ti*m employe*! preclude* nt \ 
.o worms to any par 

of human 

In the Uke of NVmi. le southeast of 

i: 

houiM 'n<* >n \ 

recently been disoovered several massive mooring 
rings and tops* 
twmt-iv.l t..ti 
inouths of bronie heads of lions, wolves, and Me- 

fi,,,r propet ptaoej ! i...i.li an modaled ,-, 

.mil the fait- art- 1:' 

tbrepresei. .nth- 

: .oir long immersion, they are all | XT 

\i:i.l MIM Kll'l I'.l ll . a federal n-j 

1 a House 
r are 80 Sena 
HOB and 2 f<>r ' . and 80 Repre- 

very 80.000 irihal.n 

are eleoteti f' 



Him 



I I 



I m 




ilmrti. 

lhalthe 
Jan. It, 1HW. a- 

!la: ami 

in paper. 

.n.l Marine, 000 
Irraand Population. T.- .^in..^!. 1 .ir.-.^ i..| at -I 



Finanoa The jyvenae for 19M was $9jHft.- 
ft.M in p>M and KUMM^P i paper. eoawared with 

... > ,-.. ... *.;: ; 

: , ,-.-, *:i ...-..-. 

ami ffBLJMLatr For IMS 



^i A (Tar 



|.rovincvs and 

Mav n.U am! 



. T 

,..,-.. 



populnt inn 



pattoi 

.'i-'ii 1.1KV.OOO. 

iHl 




IB, 

:i*fnr the Pbwnrr Iteptftme*' 
for the debt, tl4jDO?.M f r I 



ment of War and Marinej 



rxtfttyPMtr 

w of the D^art- 



M 



liLIC 



The estimated expenditure of all the province* 
-1M was $JO.ai J 

in 1895 was * 

*::.->:./.; 1 . : taj at ' : 
the prWncial debt* in 1895 w- 

*'* ' < | " '. 

:liti<isi*4m,4*a. In 189 
ChMltai |issii 1 ii a-t for the unification of the 
nation*! -! debts. The settle- 

mtttl of the railroad guarantee was also approved, 

ptais* msaSotioo of 111 claims against the Gov- 
irrpimg two oompaniea ma to 

arrangrn 

TbedebUof the Federal Oorernrocnt at the be- 
of 1896 amounted to 78.483,515 sterling, 
of 55I9.I28 of external loans, an in- 
of $91.H83.(W1 

390,700, and on* of $88^502,338 in paper. -iuaI to 
4.733.691 Thisdoesnot IIP nng liabili- 

ties reported to amount i,. $1.370,000 in g -1 d and 
ffrflaWfon in piper on Dee. 81, 1896. The debt 
-., . v ..;.;.:..- n 

paper ami $1.4>.:1I m gold. The state d 
s n/m .000. 



The new national bank, opened on Dec. 1, 1891, 
after the old one went into liquidation, has 62 
branches, with a total invested capital of $51,987,- 
*66 of paper and $58,961 April 1,1895. 

It* note circulation on Aug. 81, 1896, amounted to 
$46.000.00 ed notes of the national 

banks to $117.046.150, thoseof the Central National 
I tank in liquidation to $90,019.538, those of the 
lUne., Hipotecario to $30,000,000. and those of 
smaller institutions ami of the municipality of 
Buenos Ay res brought the total of the paper cur- 
rency in circulation up to > ..:. accord- 
ing to the report of the C'aja de Conversi n. The 
amount of notes redeemed in the year 1894 was 

ny and NlTy. The regular army n.n- 
sisted of 1.659 officers and 10,404 men in 1 sii.'i. The 
43otrerninent pn|MiM-l in 1WMJ to bring the .-IT. 
Up to 15. men. The National Guard ha- about, 
480.000 men enrollel. The younger members re- 
oaive a brief military training, being called into 
camp when first inscribed, at the age : t \\.-nty. and 
drilled for sixtT days. The rest of the National Guard 
is drilled on Sundays for two months of each 

The narv is one of the strongest in s. .nt h Ajner- 
ica. The English-built armored cruiser " Almirante 
Bro .'iO tons, protected by 9-inch 

faced armor, carried 8 TJ-ton Armstrong j 
The first-class cruisers "San Mart: Vare- 

a" .i^-d from Italy. The Nueve de 

li-placement. armed 

with 4 6-inch and 8 4'7-inch quick-firing guns and 
24 Hotchkifls guns, has made 21-9 knots with 
natural draught. The ram cruisers ^Libcrtad" 
and "Independencia," laun ii<d in Kn-land in 1890 
and 1891. are powerfully armed and well protected 
for their ze 200 tons each car inch 

Krupp-. m'.iinted to fire at an ang and 4 

ii- k-finni: Armstrongs and having 8- 
incb plates on the aides and on the barbettes. The 
powerfully armed torpedo gunboat built 

place the lost " ftosales." has made 20-5 knots 
with forcrd draught. The smaller -Aurora "has 
a speed of 18-5 knoU. The new protected cruiser 
-Buenos Aires,** of 4.500 tons dbplaccm. ., 
14,000 horse power, mafle the extraordinary speed 
at her trial of 23*2 knots. Her armament consists 
of 2 8-inch, 4 Clinch, 6 4-7-inch. 16 3-pounders and 
8 1 -pounder guns, i , a power- 

ful second-class cruiser, of third-class cr 
there are 6, and the torpedo fleet consists of Hi 
first-class and 4 third-class boats. Four destroyers 



designed fora speed of '; knots arc l.rinu' oiiilt in 
and. Two old mom :iarlnr de- 

1. ' M-. 

< inmerre and rrodnction. The imp.: 
men .mount, -.1 ; d the 

$118,937,000, gold value. Th.- valuefl of 
M-S ,.f in; and 

wearing apparel, $:J7.::"i.ii i ; arti.-le^ of i 1. sii.- 

548,370: in-n an.l mannfactuivs tl 

565; beverages, $8,798^.">1; timl>er and ma: 
lures of wood, $8,s: Iroad m.i 

.iliulactures. ^V. 

949: various metals, $1,4^50,009; pottery and glass, 
als, $4.W{(' . ,: and ,!. 

$.:J06,8:M : "fth.- total 

ttd animal prod- 
$39,100,000 agricultural pi." 

manufactures, $888,9^ mineral pn.<lucts. and $358,- 
554 miscellaneous jprodoote. Tin- <juantitN .f \\o,,| 

.: t..n-. having ;: n two 

years from 1 1,230 tons; of sheepski 

oompared with 25,509 tons in is 1 .*::: of \\heat. 

, 118 tons, again>: 

876 tons in the jreeedii : meat. 

1..H-. incr. a-inu' trom ',- - in IS'.H! and 

imports of coin and bullion in : 
:{,338; exports, $118,'J7:i. In is'ujthe n. 
of specie were $6.000,000 and the < 

000. Tin- average rate of. A a- 'J!H. au'.'iin^t 

Toe total gold \:ilue of imports in 
1896 was $112,000,000, and ..f export^ $lir,.o<M. 

The value of the commerce with radi of the prin- 
cipal foreign countries in jsjjj is >^hown in the fol- 
lowing tai 



COUNTRIKS. 



Great Britain 

France 

Germany .... 
Belgium 

rmt.-.l Si 
Italy 



'.. IHJXii 

ii.i',-j.:.u 

7. Jl). :',-,; 






10^08,10 
MMB.MB 



8^18,087 
8,088,106 



Only 15,000,000 acres out of -J 1 0,000,000 ac-i 

cultivable land was actually under cultivation in 

There were 5,500.' under v, 

yielding l.-KKMMMi tons in IbSMJ. Oom i- u'rown BX- 
teii-ivcly, and a con>idcralle area is devoted to 
raising flax. The suu'.'ir plantations C" 
acres in the north, yielding rjo.ooo t..n- in 1^'ii. 
The area .f vim-yard^ was 71,188 ftCr n, 
when the wine crop was 4'J. .';:. -'"( nllona Th.-re 
were 4,447,000 1 .702,000 cat 1 1. 

sheep, and 3,885,000 goat- and other animal- in 
1895. The number of cattle slaughtered it, 

and in LSI 

; iter<<' from the pampas of the . \rgentii, 
pulilic. rrngnay. and the -out hern pn.vin 
Brazil. T: >-r>H slaugntered 

660 i bead in l*J>6. 

N.n i-.ition. D 'J.496 

steamers, of 5,461,4< s :{.:*:.' sailing \< 

red from forei-n port-. Almiit 

86 per cent, of the import trade and ">1 pi r rent, of 
\port trade pa-es through the IOIM 

of the republic in 

Comprised 75 steamers of j l .r, i acity, 

and 125 sailing res* 

Com m II n i < .it ionx. -The length of railroad- in 
i'iO miles. The capital ex- 

penditur.- up to 1896 was $466.016.879. The gross 

;md expenses 

i of the total capital outlay. $4:.'. 
xpended l,y ;nent 

on the Government lines. $111,393,069 by compa- 
nies on guaranteed lines, * '<*> by companies 






I -HH, 



a length of 2" 

.'.4MJ40 internal and 
tten and MrkeU in 1M*\ 




- 



n 

for 



; 

f f lO.OOOjUOOof 



ralry m th. Ai 

> ' 

. 

. 



me was autboriaed to raJea * loan .f 









.... ... , 

' .-. 

ml HI 

argv made by Uw 

.. i . M 





' : ". - 

' 




dfsdas eguafua- 

V. . ' * 

" 



ool |y 






..:.. 
ee At I be 

eta I 



J l in Buenos Ayrci 





.:- I! , 
. . ., 

.4.' ' '' 
" ' ' 

.".- I ,. 



- 



. . , t 






pnrvtfi . I'i. 

M' <lf tllllll 



inn (iorernmt'iit f.-r 

.nclitry linr nvi-r tin- 

iilty Iny i'n tli. 

mill tl'mugh Patagonia. 

no will U fixed, 



sari 

lion, ami I'r 

. - aj M.: - 

arbitration of the Queen M 

il quarters on the assert their p 
.ir large proport 

'-' -- - ! 

! -,: 



in 




and wan 



r a I'ubl, 
a recall In May. un- 

ttejaMd b) PederaJ 



-! ./. " -' . . ' " 

lion to i rwht alm.i 







r>; . ...... i .... . .- 

In his message Pra 

the proposed modifications in the Urutni 
iff. ami threatened retaliation against the 

.... , . . . . . 

i Republic, but he hoped 
iitintriea would render extreme meaaures 
nnccnaanr In conaaqmnrii . f tu 
bnpoatd 

. ami other Argentine products. a 
lull a> frnmrd in , ..u r -m bodying a retaliatory 

ting irticulu 

niceli^>eTaildacri;ultnr.l implements 
mat-hi: the subject of the debt the Pi 

message that t > 

give effect to the law for promoting full payment 

M,| would meet the 
cxtraordinaiy expenditure f.-r aman>ri 
resorting to new issues or loans. Attention was 
t o t he necessity of commencing the redemption 
of tbe paper money ami f. rim MI* a rash neatra. 
Locusts caused a failun 

cerral for the fint thrre months of 

than a fifth of thr ,,u 

shipped dnrinir the corresponding months tn ISM. 
o tho harvest wa* so poor that the 
stributed seed wheat to colonista. 



- f | - : r-.-'.- 



. 



and new taxes and ma 
hoi that were needing 

\i:i/n\ \ 

ThapoiHilii 

- - >:- i" 



accoand ako- 

- 






..i 
' 



Aecretary. l*nar'k 
in May to Mirr. 

I 1 14ft 

'<ney4ieneral. J ^ 
of Instruct^. T KI.Jt^; 
of the Supreme Court. Alb* 
; Associate Juetkae, John J. IU.I 

v - I> IMhnne: 
liaiamlei all Democrats, 

Finance- The bonded debt 
100: the filing debt, $St7.1 

nrstooouMaoding 

of PimaOoua 






*. 
dowitjr, 



$?, 



County, f I.V.. 



AIM/ 



ARKANSAS, 



V. 



v. $5*163 



ud 



. $43.. 

;- -.- , 

< MI account 
oflnunirtpelUiea-iM 

* I '-' 

1M1 T)w U*al liahi 

* n ::,:.': i- * 

report showed ' 

:05, a redaction of $8.600 over 
the* previous year. 

YalaalleM. TV ,' figures show the 

' tn\nbl,. | 
Hi lU,r'l of Kou 
$fej$t77.1<>: m.pr-.x. Mient*, $I.898.28.V> : town 


. v .;- . ,;.; ,.. -..;.;;;; 

, - , - ; ...'.. h-ep. vj.;].- 

, - . $g0 160 . railroads, 

* - ,. $i.212..-il4.52: 

-..-;: v 00,0 M ' ::. (leaSl OD the 

i laid In Ui nit Bjafi 

Lacwatun- that be oonsidcrrd the report of 
us represent ing only about 

one third the actual property value of t he Terrifc .ry. 
ami recommended Uurt corporations be compelled 
returns: also that a more exact and 
equitable system of taxation beado] 

valuations in the capital ooon! 
the Territory showed : Lands, 259347 acres, value 
MttUBI. value of improvements $800,515. 
value $8.438.886: town a. 
7. iraprovemenU $1.1 1 T.'.'l". total $3,47 j 

.8.070 head, $80,966: mules, 198 head, $8,688 ; 



19 bead, $110; . - : 

.;<:.;.., $71.701 : g ats,25? head, $810; 

111476 all other propcrt v. 
$1.1*6.1M : rnilrfii miles. $468,940.17. 

Total value of all proper! v in Marie- -pa County, 
IftjBOl.Ol' 

\ iine.itiuii. i <-nsoj towed !;.!::<; 
children of school age for 1896. an increase of 

.-... >.. n: \--ix per cent, of 
these were enrolled in the pnoUo schools. The 
number of school districts in the Territory i 
and there are 296 grammar and primary schools. 
Average teachers' salaries are $7'J.!M per month for 
males, and $66^6 for females. Total sch,.ol expend- 
*214.450.HX. In May the 

.- ' i''''. | I ' : S:;II.IMNI ..f tMOdl f--r addi 
lional school facilities. The sum of $38,264 ha- 
been expended on the reform-school building, not 
yet finished. 

Territorial Prison.- vintendent re- 

ported that up to January, 1897, 288 prisoners had 
been received and 184 discharged. The gross ex- 
penses of 1896 amounte.i to $33.731.82, and the 
x ;,..:, ,..., ....,,,,,, 

' V. . ,.,,.,- ,/,, H ,,, 

-76--a redu-tion on the i . m cost of 

15.17, and of <mcost of 

$151 The toUl value of the prison i.roi"-r 

estimated at $148.1K. T) !,a- a libnirv of 

-:". : .' ,:..,-; :,.;: , : I,;. 

charging visitow to the prison a fee of 85 cents. 

Irrigation. to secure water by arte- 

sian wells in some of the valleys of the Territory is 
proving highly successful A i wells 

have been developed between Fairbank and Ben- 
son, in the San Pedro valley. The last well bored 
gave water at a depth of 140 feet, and a larjr- 
.-. basbsenfl ;i.^ - 

Agriculture. It hn- been suggested that Ari- 

M Phoenix Herald" ha- the follow- 



successful crops of cotton were irrown in this \al- 
inip- !! of it. -liMi |...unl-. \\a- <>n exhi- 
bition at tin- N ion. and it was 
i.ronoun-'d l.y . \p.-it- to IK- of the finrxt. tli,. tiUr 
being eqoal to the famed sea islaiul cotton. This 
bale Was \>. roj. ,.f t.-n a.-r<- which yielded 
iily a splendid iller Imt an enormonj crop, 
principal troiiMe wit h the husiness was that, 
and railroad tarilT-. 

.-.-Uld Hot eii||l|iele with H 

farther >t that had water transportation and 

and abundant labor: and that i- principally 

the difllculty that remain- to-day to pr-\rnt the 

growing of COtton in central A i- no 

tion as to the facility with \\hieli it .-an be 

raised, tin- line. |..n:: flbei it will |imduee. or the 

great <piant it y it \\ill produce ; 

The experiment >tatiui .f the Territory was sup- 
plied with (Jeinian imar-beet seed for distribution, 
an<l all residents were duly notified that seed 



cotton, and 

ing to MV on the sui 

unknown in the Salt River valley. In 1 







be secured upon reijue-t. Tobacco ha- been i:r.i\\n 
in cMii-iderable (|uant it ies alone; the Killito. in I'ima 
i'ounty. and experiments are beiiiLT made with it 
in other -ectii.n-. Au-tralian salt-bush ha- been 
grown upon the experiment stat ion ground- at Tin-- 
son without water for over two year-. The |... 
of the plant- is upon the SMM north of the 
where it i- exceedingly dry. This is held to indicate 
that this forage plant" i> valuable f..r at 
The station at Tuc-on has distributed seed j 
throughout the Territory for the purpose ,,f !,, 
the plant thoroughly tested. The f the 

Tuc-on Experiment Station announced that he had 
ed oilers from fi.n-i^n capitalists to enter into 
contracts for ramie liber in the rou^h at from $40 
to $50 a ton. and stated that from re-ult- obtained 
>erimentin^ with ramie it mijjht be ^rown 
with ease in the Territory and onu'lit : 
paying crop. The date industry i- receiving much 
att'entioji. and experiments have proved succe ful 

pie-lion. 

IH-t i 1 1 insr. IMst illini: is carried , ,n in Ai 
at only 'J pl.i - ^^ sa, Maricopa County, and I'ima. 
Ghrabam County. At the r.nner is a grape distil- 
lery and at the latter one fruit and one urrain distil- 
lery. Distilling in Marie.. pa is carried on mainly 
for the purpo-e of supplying brandy for the fortifi- 
cation of sweet wines, the oonnbr having produced 
18,000 gallons of snoh wine in 18 pt immdv 

!'-r 1 his purpose only '.17 gallons were reportecL 
I '.randy u-ed in the making of wine is by law ex- 
empt f'rom the !Mi-ceii- 

Mininir. Ari/ona i- reported as raj. idly coming- 
to the front as a gi Bivproaucii 

With the comiiletion of tin- (Jila. (Jlolie and North- 
ern n.al to Qlobe the fourth great c.,pper camn of 
the Territory will be opened and <] 

iy in Operation Bisbee. Clifton, and Tnitcd 
Verde are said to be immen-e prodm-ci-. though 

none is be; i to its full capaejly. At 

i -iher are fmind associated with 
r. the former showing grxxl value-. Th-- 
Whiti- Hills camp, in Mohave dm- ..rt.d 

to have yielded about $2.<MKMH)0 in gol.l and 

\I;K\NS\N. 3onthero State, admitted to the 

I'nion .Inn. ]'>. l-:;; ; Miilr'-. 

The population, according to each decennial < 

adn.i-ion. wa- !7.:,7J in IX|M : 2M!.sj7 in 
00; 1-1.171 in !- 25 n, 

1880: and 1.1->.17U in 1MJM). |; y . 
on th- -,f ls!C, it was 1,248,056 in that 

l-ital. Littl<- Kock. 

'riiment. ] :. Eblloi ing wen- the - 
officers daring the year: ' !>aniel \N'. Jones; 

Secretary of > : , - . Hull; Treasurer. 

Ransom Gulley; Auditor, Clay Sloan ; Attorney- 



AUK ' 



:. ' 



>li. Ju: 






LjMt,77VJO; p v \i"' ! v . 

i< of i he State ** .aiian. 

surer of the li.nl ..f Tru*ter 

i\th. the tune of the K'ivt. r part of 
r $1 l.rtl 7.4** 



llia'l l*'K'i"latu: 



il value of railroad tracks, 
D board M real estate. *M 
rval estate. $11 7.161. 2,V). 

'le to pay 
; valur <>f milr>ai 

rsonal * 175.397,482. 

ivoiial |>r 

i that $100.000 
ii his office dur- 
"O.OOO acres of 

IHJfrl mm lond TV 



imount* to $1.989.906.40, The receipts were $1,- 

175.991.1.:. at,,! t- 



rmal schoob the Superintendent 

Peabodv appn.pru 
in Mpol m< ntiiii; the appn.pr:.i: .-. I., gii 
laturi- for the . ' the normal r 

In half < 

nice was so encouraging that 
the sessions were extended five and nix weeks. The 

in attendant, at the 
.kund then- an- t! 

,hodv 

aid 1 t--<l the muni- 

from -Jrt in I*...; 
man- >lored teachers of eastern 

vn n01j97tJb' 


ral 

i;rnluteil 2*i in April. 

th Insane f-r the two years . -n-lini: April 1. 
which included $8.000 for re- 



imir*. The are rap 

- In rrgard to the i> 

*, we ti 
aUmt 1 1 i | r 

a. 4- -. : . ' ' 

: ' . i . ; r - i- f - , ' . . 

- 

i the average wa $18 JT7 

lravrlit, K 
pupil M-huul. The total 

ine Sortety hs 



The Penitentiary .-Tht value of the building*, 

I'"! DTi la, ft'- .' 'J^' ..r. Hi !. r , i.ii H .-- ' 

age. The share-crop system of working the mmatss 
1 profitable, and a farm b to be bought 

... '., Btote 

lii-nr. tor's report ifives the ftg- 

ures below for I^VWI: The arT insurance com- 
i have written ruk> 

. 

paid \ommum .:.-. |60I B H 
am-, r,,,,,,*!,,,-, bavewrittsfl ... rUa *.-i. 
received premiums, $1^97309 ; paid loss* of $tt*V 

> have paid taxes at 

$88,173.w; an increase of $9.405^)9 over the pre- 
ceding two years. 

Kail ways. Steps have been taken toward the 
l made by convict labor 

and owned by the State, as provided for by the 
Legidlatut MI the capital to the Mis- 

i decision of the Supreme Court a railroad 

company was held not to be responsible as a com- 

r baggage which was burned at a 

1 A. M. after h . 

i after the passenger's arrival; and he could 

' mages only by showing such negligence as 

i make the company liable as a warehouseman. 

I ;.|.d < Otlull. 

coal to the amount of 494.000 tons, and 

n crop wa given at 700.000 hales. 
DlftT" irK (.rvat ex 

been caused by the reported f 

.at muni Sal i rw, St. Framujlhia- 

.-hita. an-. 

Ijiwleiwaesm. Tw 

.irtv were 
mi.l ti t. iistilling in the mountain* of 

August. 

man was kflsfd and another brutally U-.tn. at a 
negro picnic near Kendall Mills; as a result, t * ,. 
necroes ware lynched and another was shot, in an 
affray growing out of the affair. 

Ihimare h) Flood. (treat loss and suffering 
were caused in the spring by the heavy floods. The 
lowlands in eastern Arkansas were c< 
water, nouses wore swept away, many animals w<-ne 

t.ed, and some human live*. 
was sent from various sources, and the Legislature 
, . ..n.mitt. v t.. investigate, and passed a 
law , tie for payment of taxes. 

it Derlslonn. PU* WeUt-Fisrgo Kxpress 
.my brought suit against a 

h the com- 

pany van taxed, on the ground that the rule of 
assessment laid down in the .. wa- unfair 



other thu provide* that the board in as- 

sessing the taxable property of Mich a corporation 
*hall ascertain the value of the entire capital stock 
of such company, and shall therefore fix the sum 



ARK \\-\-. 



at which the property of any such express company 
shall be assessed in 

proportion of the aggregate value of the capital 
lock of Mich company a* the number of miles of 
railway within - ,,vrrmhich it carrieson 

its bmnnest bears to the aggregate numU-r of miles 
of railway within as well an without th. State over 
i such company does business. The company 
liimlsndiil that thii wns unjust, because, while it 
camion if* business in , \dus M . 

rail* t- it carries it on 

veil, and has realty in other States, but 
Boor toil claim* the valu 

took is ba*tl in j*rt upon such realty and its busi- 
ness over water ways The decision upheld the va- 

Inw. 

By another Supreme Court decision it wa 
alejfjd that railroad companies are liable for the 
killing of ling* by train* tnmui: 

In a *se turning upon the liability of a corpora- 
tion for negotiable paper issued by one of its officers, 
the decision held the corporation responsible, 

IxrrUUthe Session. The thirty-first biennial 
session of the legislature began Jan. 18 and ended 

I* Moose was elected president <>f the Senate, 
and .1. C. Tappan Speaker of tin 1 1 

The total number of bills introduced in both 
branches was 558, of which -J47 w.-iv in the Senate 
and.'ill m the House, of these 55 were passed. 

Hills were introduced providing for a railroad 
commission, and much time was spent on them in 
debate, with the result only that a concurrent reso- 
lution was adopted proposing a const it ut ional amend- 
ment to be submitted to popular vote, authorizing 
-.at ion of a permanent railroad commission. 
ier constitutional amendment to be submitted 
authorizes the levy of a road tax not to exceed 
three mills. 

An antitrust bill was passed, declaring all com- 
binations made with a view to lessen, or tending to 
lessen, tree eomjH-tition. or to reduce or control 
prices, to be unlawful and void ; and making the 
penalty the loss of charters for corporations, and 
for any person -.f engaging in such bu-i- 

ness a fine of not less than $500, or more than 
$2.0(10. and imprisonment in the Penitentiary nt 
less than one or more than ten years, or in the 
.nt of the court by either such fines or such 
imprisonment : the provisions of the act are not to 
apply to agricultural products or live stock while 
in the possession of the producer or raiser. It is 
further provided that any one injured or damaged 
by such a combination "may *\ir for and r- 
in any court of competent jurisdiction in this State 
of any person or persons or corporations operating 

trusts or combination to the full consider 
or sum paid by him or them for any goods, wares, 
merchandise, or articles, the sale of which ; 
d by inch combination ortru-- 

Another act provides t|,,4t "hereafter it shall bo 
unlawful for any keeper of a saloon or wholesale 
liquor dealer in Arkansas to keep, exhibit. D 
suffer to be used in his saloon or place of business, 
any adjoining house subject to his direction 
tn.l. any musical instrument of any kind 
what- f.e purpose of performing 

having the Mm. , S |, R 1| he 

permit air i*xing. wrest li- 

other exhibition or contest of d- 
that it shall be unlawful for s,,,.|, j,. 
to be used in and aU-ut his .;,;,... n by any 
person, to use or run 

in any manner or form whatever, any billiard 
pool table, or other table commonly used for 
ing howling, tenpin alley, or any 
other devices commonly used for gaming or playing 



any game of chance. The penalty for viola t 
the law is a fine of from $'J"> to $1(K). forfeiture of 
. , and prohibition of renewed License f.-r t hive 

r< am 

e law against Missouri horses a ,,d 
mules went into effect it Is like the^issouri 

law a \rkansas cattle, and is a ret a. 

:i by I lie a<-l to the ('oiii- 
ires, and Agriculture 

nil or limit the operation of the act accord- 
ing as. in his judgment, tin- a-riniltural int. 

tfl reijiiir.-. 
Other acts pa- 

nsinn-tion of .1:0, ,d roads. 
nt disorderly conduct n 

.leetioll d 

protect conductor* and other railroad 
ploy :intf that any oin- who sh ; ,|l falsely 

rep'ort the men to their superior officers >| m ll be 
deemed guilty of a nn-d. ad lined not less 

than $HM) nor more than $."><H. and be imprisoned 
in jail for MX months. 

To re(iuirc railroads to carry bicycles as baggage. 

To allow disabled and indip-nt ex-Coiife.! 
soldiers.^?.") annually, whether they have families 
or not. 

To amend the l< .-tion law. 

Appn'priatinir s*'jn.(MMi for county normal schools. 

To tax barrel whisky lioii>es in cities. 

Allowing fanners to orpin i/e mutual fire insur- 
ance C0lll|..: 

the protection of railway passengers ap 
imposition, fraud, and annoyance, providing I 
ally of $25 to $50 for each oil- 

lion, .lames K. Jones was re-elected to 
Tniied States Senate. .1. \i. , was tin- 

candidate of the Populists, and Powell Clayton of 
the Republicans. The vote stood: Jones, 11-4: 

.avion. :{. 

due incident of the session was the rejection of a 
resolution, offend .Ian. '.20, to restore a portrait of 
Washington to its former place over the Speaker's, 
stand in the Hall of I. . from which it 

was taken six years ago to give place to a portrait 
of Jefferson Paris, and t<. place the latter on tin- 
left in the space now occupied or Washington's. 
Another was an excitement caused in the 11 
March 6, by the offering of a resolution t<> displace 
the portrait (.f Davis temporarily, and to substitute 
for it that of William .1. Bryan during the hitter's 
vi-it to Little Kock. There were loud cries of 

\\ , 'li never take Jeff I 

down!" and the like, and a motion to tab 
resolution prevailed without d. i 

An important matter that came before the I. 
lature was that of the settlement of the debt . 

to the National (Government. The origin 
and status of the claim are explained by 
Clarke as follows: 

r more than t v. I there h;. 

troublesome and complicated dispute bet ween t he 
I'nited States and the State of Arkansas, gr< 
out of tin- ownership by the former of ci-rtaii. 
pon bonds of the latter, and against which the lat- 
-sertcd the right to offset an unliquidated 
claim for a failure upon the part of the former to 
1 to her a large quantity of land to which >hc 

it led under the act of ( 

3, 1850, known as the swamp land grant, and va- 
rious . I'nder authority of acts of the 
sernbly of Jssi. and of'the act of Con- 
gress of Aug. 4. 1*1M. the f Governor, acting for the 

a. and the Secretaries of the 'I 
nd of the I 'ing for the Genera. 

eded to consider these matters of 
difference, and Deluded a set- 

tlement by which a balance of $160.572 was, as 












a flnal rvmlt, found to be doe to the Tnitrd 

natr and lluuw hrih ft.-r thr agres- 
was ign<*l, but consideration om. 

ussion. At there*- 

ular M ,i-.ii f< 

i with anonymourin uUr* at- 

1 



tie settlement so far as the 
werv alo Alkd 

ltoH,,f part i.f 

idrr to tnan.r 
.s-iiat . i. a large ma;< 



: r-<'ittat !. ' 

to re- 
sist its pajssjsjsu Tbeir rral |Hirpose wa* 

Mirr againrt the a of a 

..f tli.- I..I-I Kail- 

othrr railway comiann- 
{.000 acres of land gran 
wamp laml grant ..f ltt.10. A major 

n ron.l.t..,,, || 

amendment be adopt rt that the con- 

flnn.. Stat 

should, within ti- \ ;!. r- I. a-.- to the railway 

assigns all <- said 

$78.000 acre* of 

The compromise plan of m-tti. - 'ling 

. were 

. of thr milroad, was 
afre* houses of the I^egialaturv. al- 

Assembly sdjourtuil ith<*ut hn\inu r pn^tl any 

MM-... and for th- roiitity normal 

<<^ed a resohit 

us extending the sessi* 1 14. 

- nior to call an 

- h he did. naming April 

|XN-tal M*M| 



nmmt ana for o 

for unpniM-im nt f 
ro* 






up; invectpUe te 

ijrht and 
tax wa^ | 
tenwt on State bonds held by the pernuuirnt rhool 

fnml. 

.-< tempt to M^Minc a railmaii commMon 

ml at- 

railmads were patud. One rr 
9Wf)?np In- 
(Julf Com: .it it build 800 miles 

Miln.-i. fn.. Ami ovcntnally t 
1 in aid of railroad -o: 
Texarkana. The thin! m., thc< 



lion of Suir railroad and telegraph line* br con- 

outline route* for road* and advertae fbr offer* of 
monev Mid oth*r property. Whenever the mm of 

uay begin the 

MM*^nwtM mrit. 

1 : ' 



Prrnridinf for the purchase of a 

', 

Allowing HUU eonrieu 



.:..' 






plants to srctirr pay 



' 



and efert 

Aii.'.-i,dn. k - IM- (M. la. 
Bsffulat: 

bra noli ".- wtm . mt i ta 

; roride for payment of inter** on * 



on 

OfJ 

\ , 



mn 

The officers wen 

*ection: A, Woost* 

: II. (ari R.- 



th 

^.|l.r- 







Han P. Man. Tn x K.Y.; D John Oal- 

Akron. or ,!.-i M. H .. 

M.II. Ith II. W 

urn. 
TOtmheth. Mx-rrtarr. 

abridge. Mam. (office, Salrm. Mai.. 
General wcrHanr. Aph Hall. J 

' ihon. It) 

Ith.t. a. N \ ' ! 

Iowa City. !:. 

Arbor. V H. .\in\ 



A88CM I.\TI\ UK AD 1 OF BCD 



ington city; I.Archibald 111-. .uada. 

Iward. N 

^. The usual regular 
- council with which the 
^nsiU session* wa* h.ld unh.- II 

:, hcad.pmrter* of the associa- 
tion, on An.-. T, at 'n..n. At this seesion the final 
. ; ing to OH iff* - ' ' ' ' 
inn wet* settled, ami the reports of the local 

,.-...:. I-, ,- '. ',:..: ; a. '- : r 

Moeral session with which th> 
SHI was held in the auditorium of the Central 
School at u' was 

s])sd to order by Secretary Putnam, who. after 

... ; .,,:.-. d 

hinuooesii r Prof. Gill, who promptly declared the 
meetingoprn, and then called to the chair the 
Yioe-picwident of the n--.* iati..n j.rvscnt. Mr. \\ -I 
.H presiding officer in the place 
of President Gibbs, who was unable to attend on 
Account of illnevs. A short prayer was made by 
the BeT. Frank .1. Van A- d then a tenor 

f Thank-;: mil Pease, 

Hon. William 

i the association in a short 
but plea-ant address, in the course of which IP 

:in a scientific city. There was formed here 
years ago a society by that pod man !'.< la llubbard 

/at ion which i- now 

in session here. We are founded on id in 

this building for a place of meeting we offer you a 
vliich affords you an environ- 
ment that must have it* influence upon your work 
within its halls." He was followed by Hon. Thomas 
\V. p ; ,lmer. f.-nner 1'nited States Senator f Of Michi- 
gan, v more at length and offered for the 
f the a>-oejation the following apt 
tion of science. lie referred to it as "a 
classification of phenomena so arranged that ^-\\- 
ral principle may be reduced upon which rules of 
action may be established in particular cases." Mr. 
HeGee replied to both addresses in fitting words, 
after which ad -eminent." was rendered 
by Miss Mary L. Denison and Mr. Pease. The 
usual announcements then followed by the perma- 
t he general, and theloral secretaries and then 
Miss Denison sang "The Dan/a." at the close of 
which the meeting adjourned. 

Add res- .,1 the ll.-tirin- Prcxideiit. ( iwini: 
to the death "f D. Cope, the retiring presv 

.:icil of the American 
.'ed the senior vii-e-jiresident, 
Theodore N. QflCof Washington eit .-d to 

the presidency at tl Prof, (i ill 

was Invited to present an address that should be 
Descriptive of tae work of Oope. A- the scientific 
careers of (till and Cope began simultaneously 
that is, their first published contributions to s< 
were accepted for publication on April 'J!. iw.t. by 
the Academy of Natural S<-ien-es in Philadelphia 
and as they had been ft , more 

aiipropriate subject could have b. t , by 

Jill. The a*- ,r this 

addrww in the auditorium of the Central ; 
School at 8 P. x fhe title K 

ldress by Prof. Gill wa- Drinker 

Naturalist : A Chap- 

wn long friend-hip with 
as indicated above, he gave a brief b 
sketch of the m-re imj-.rtant events in the hf,- ,,f 

aid then con-i.l.re-i 

essiv ^ to herp iithy- 

ology, mammalogy, and DllsjontofofJ, aft-r wliich 
he exam; es|H-cially 

those relating to evolution, closing with an a- 
to forecast the position he is destined t 



the li. 01 the tiiM named he >aid : 

,nd herp. :i art : he left il a 

mainly for t he nam- 

'! it the e\piv ion (.f the 

! all structural feature^. The refor- 

mations IL ion of the anu- 

ain|ihiliiaiio and the saurian reptiles were 

..illy notable." The ichl h> olo-ical |al.-r- ..f 

-d as unusually valuable oontribu* 

gjesj of ichthyology 

has biMii much accelerate i i >y t hesc labors. 




THEODORE N. OILL. 

but by the investigations they <-halleni:'." Col 
i\\X his work on mammals, he said that "he always 
iered the old and new the extinct and recent 
forms together. lie refused to lie liound by con- 
sistency or liy precedent, either set by himself or 
other-. Fre-h discoveries ojiened new vi-tas to him. 
and he modified his views from time to time, and 

aS Often ll* he received IieW evidence." Most Of 

'- contributions to tt, >f paleontology 

wercdNciis-ed l,\ Prof. (Jill in the variou- bra: 
as above enumerated, to which the fossils properly 
belonged, but he made re: his pulilicat ions 

on palaeontology, and closed that section with tln-e 
words: "The evolntion of the various animal, and 
especially mammalian types, was also continually 
the subject of Cope's researches, and he at tempted 
to trace the passage from those of the most ancient 

d to tho-c of later 00 
philosophical view-. Prof, (iill -aid : "The 
mission of acquired characters wa* one of t! 
cepted ami nu-t fheri^lipd dogmas of C"pe. and 
the belief in traiisini-sibility .f such ch 
an essential of the creed of "o many who have be- 
lli* followers in Ameriea. that a -pecial school 
came into i, nown as the Neo-Lamarckian 

and also a- the Am- 1." 

In elo-in-. he com pared Cop*; with Cuvier. Owen, 
and Huxley, and said : "Co|>e covered a field as ex- 

of the three. Hi- kliowled. 

structural' -.swas 

probably n metrical than that of any of 

with whom 'he i* compan-d : hi- command of 
material was greater than that of any of the others; 
his industry was equal to Owen'-: in the cle, 
of his Conception! he was equaled by Huxley alone; 
in the skill with which he weighed <lis.-,,vered facts, 
in th> of his presentation of those facts, 

and in the lucid methods by which the lalx>r of the 



.. (Ant* 






*a aved. and the conception of the no* 

lerous PTffpftritV^i* facilitated, he was uneuiialed. 

'*ean less than that of 

I,,,,. tndl --.:.. 

' ' 

y oliNL 

.f U 

a* an off- 
> oonsiatsnt at ins ei- 






In 

! 



'. . , ,,..- 



As soon as this organic 

Mill With - 

iiftidered suitable by the c< 

berra-l an.l .li--u 

are to prepare abstrtf 

_-|\r thrill 

newspapers, to also oomiiiot: 

,'my. This section 
wa i.n-s, 

>.r. The subject of his ad- 
dress was "A t'haiitcr in th 

It wa* a Ketch of tli f tin- 

-. m '.-. "' ntim iii ' " imagin try, part . iku . 
rt ..f tli.- th nml tin- 8rt 

iiart teenth cent uric*. The speaker re- 

ferred, in open that the square root 

From thi da' 

nppl i. -I to n negative nutnU-r 



was brieflr trat^il throojch sevei 



, . vi tan w\ ,--..,:-. : 

In th,- 

\V. ... : , r . \ I M 



Polygons,** which was pobttafM 

that it 
tiflc treat ment < 

:lir work 

nn.l .' 

lh 

..-h (frrat l 

intornions on the othor. with 

i U-twewi. 



r.- \ ^' 



>mmon to n - / PbMsj in an 
ran Ouadraic Surf.i-r in the 

CT of the 



. Willum H. MeUler; 

Mag- 
nal I; . Magtietti l*rrlination sod - 

Theunr of PartorbaUons at*d i 

IU 

of 
Wuudwai 

Nrwtxiian 
.ngStaiMl 

A Krinarkablr ( 

ml ai..,.. 

Hi II 



. : s ' ' : 



Alfred 



rential filiations by Ap- 
m P. Darand;and 
un Ihffrrrnlial 
in Mathematical Pbyaiea," by 
U-r Macfar 

presiding officer of this section 

in Hrown f nivrr.it >. lli inaugural address was 

I. one- Range Temperature and Pressure Van- 

i 1 e began by girtnc a history of 

inpts to provide Miitabie apparatns 

played an important j-nrt in the manufacture of 
HMcopes, and later those instruments baaed on 
an advantage over the fusion 
.inriit*. The gas thermcM: 

ful method of absolute pyrometry. 
I';, BBMkai :-.- v .' . . ' :--..- - 

:, ",--. .' ' - 

<" 1*lk^M t *-- 

was oy rnnsep in loasv insn uw 
reoonaidemi in detail. 




clusiou reached that the data f urnisbed by t he 
Rssohamntlt will rrmtuallv I. .....t.r,i ~BU. 



r rattftv uf miasurenmnt or of met 
ing that an accuracy of 5* a! 1.000* 
sanhul ail remUts abov, 

law subject to increasingly hi 
Turning to the applications of 
, f.-rr^i t. the vana!i..t 



illition with 
w an effect 
th< 




i -r Truman 
TOL. xxxvu. 3 A 






K.-u:t. itowd] 

1 1 . 

01 prwvre ra^uiany more marm^u 

rasamrtattd 
f the earth, and the 
drawn that* ti 
w generally admitted, to due only to 

.;-.--.-.. :!! ! : ' - 

luction was next taken up. and 
. rs as to the age 

.'.--. : ' . 

loalt with. Passing trow thin 

entropy of liqui<U was considered. 

* to only in its infancy.- be said. ~*nd 



UK \i> OF soil 



only a year ago were any results of a satisfactory Polytechnic Institi/ r, N. Y., presided over 

obtained." The paper ended th n n-f.-r- this MH-H.-H. H^ mbjeet was on Expert Testi- 
to isothermals and smral k. 



. 
coMnl before the * 

iuul Twit of a 1.S50 Wntt Trun-f. 

The Magnetic Survey 
of Mart In 

At by Gases at 
ores " mid - The Measurements of Small Oaaeoos 

... . u i:.;. aj 

I- .',.> i: ' v - M-:!--d 

. x ; -.,|| iol Liquids," b> 

M, the Coefficient of IXpan- 

ii GaM*." by Edward W. Money and 

,,f H.-at mi tin 

:nit nii.l Utimate Strength of Copper \\ 
ink I'. Whitman ami M: 

niid their I'M- by tin- Weather Bureau in Explora- 
tions of the Upper Air," by chai rvin: 
outs upon the Acetylene-Oxygen Standard 
Cla>ton 11. Shan.: "Arc SJN 

thur I.. Foi.-y: -nil tin- Brightness of 

- irfaccs under Various Sources of Illu- 

1'. Whiiinaii ; "Note on the 

Construction of a S-nsitivc Kadiomet.r." by F.rnc-t 

: " Photographs Of Manometric Fla 1 
;ard L. Nichols and Ernest Merrill ; " The 
Discharge of Bfeotrifled Holies l.y X-Rays," by 
'. c'hilil; "A Final Determination of the 
Kelat Lha of the Imperial Vanl of Great 

r of the Archives." by William 
:i Electrical Thermostat." by Willis 
An Apparatus for Testing the Law 
n of Energy in the Human 1'. 
toWUbu :' Ed ward I',. Kosa; '"fiie 

BtotricCooductirityof Certain Specimens of Sheet 
Ota*, with Reference to their Fitness for Use in 
'.yton C. Miller; "Graph- 
ical Treatment 'f Altcrmiting Currents in liranch 
Circuits in Casv of Variable Frequency," by Henry 

iy: "<M Simple Nonalternatini; Currents, 

by Alexander Macfarlane; N Exhibition oi In-tni- 

mining the Preouency of an Alter- 

nalink'<'urn-nt." by George S. Holer and Frederick 

Bedell: "The Predetermi nation (.f Transformer 

Regulation." l.y Frederick Hedell. Richard F. Chan- 

::. H. Sherwood, Jr.; "The FiTect of Pres- 

snre on the Wave Lengths of the Lines of the 

1 -;.-.':.. Eicon i.:-." l-y W..I. lluin- 

rm of Coal Calorimeter," l.y 

Charles L. tes on the Recent 11 

-. in the r nited States." l.y Charles 
-. A N- \v F'.rm i.f Harmonic Ana! 
mk A. Law*: "The Determination .f the Sur- 
netTsnsloD of Water and of Certain Aqueous S 

V f the Methorl ol Hippie*," l.y N. 

Ernest Dorsey; M The Series of International Cloud 
Observations made by th . , Weather 

Bureau and their Relation to Meteorological I'r-.i- 
lema, vt bT Prank II. I'M-, low; **Th 
ion anci Quality "f 

Length produced in Iron Wires oy Magnet i /at in." 
ron H. Hnw-k. rical Resonance and 

Dielectric Hysteresiv ,rd B. Rosa and Ar- 

thur W. Smith; " A Method of the iMermination 
.f the Psrfodol Kloctrieal OsdDations and Other 
Am.lications of the Mime." by Marpint K. Molt by: 
*' Tne Influence of Time and Temperature upon the 
Absolute Rigidity of (^u :.- i 1 j. 

Bani 
Horiiontal Candle Power." by C'. P. Matthews. 

,*/ry. Prof. Will nun P. Mason, who oc- 
cupies the chair of Chemistry in the Rensselaer 



in..n\. This addros not on. i|,,. ,-ntire 

,| from the .lanilpoint of pra. ' lenoe. 

, the iiuest ii>n hoth through ihe . -\ 

the lawyer '. hut \va-~ ,p ;l , t 

s\llal.us. pointing out the province nf tin- e\p,n. 

i! lie Illicit IM- Milij.-ct t... and 

suggest mi: the '.hiti(.n f..r numerous dilliculi ie*. 

i-iiiii- tin- duti' 

a fatal error to know too much, and a pit into 
which the expert may fall i> pi .r him l.y 

ijui-ti"iis lea.imu' him to yenture an opinion upon 

matters outside of his sj.ecial r an- 

swers, well within n "path leadiu- to t he 

point in (piesijoii is the ..! i \\| M n 1 1,,. 

line of inquiry crosses into regions \\ in -re i he \\ 
feels himself unsafe his prop. 

I'lifortunately. th- M in- 

\ited to take thes,. collateral flights |.\ 1 1,. 
empl..yinu' him. as well as by (tion. An 

. cases, is sui. i<> I:,, 

thorities quoted against him. so it hehoo\c> him to 
be familiar with the literature of t he sui,j ( .,.t % M> as to 

be able to point <>ut that sooh and such a wi 

not up to date. <r that, if the entire pas-;. 
quoted in full, it would not carry the ftd 
siruetion that its partial i.resriitati In 

conclusion, he said : " Th- i nesx should le 

absoTntely truthful ; of oonrse that i> assumed. I. ut 

1 that he should be clear and terse in his 

statements, homely and apt in his illustrations, in- 
capable of In-ill^' led beyond the field in which he 
is truly an expert, and' as f. imale 

i-ii"! il (.(' illegitimate knowl- 

edge. Mount in:: t he witness stand with these prin- 
ciples as his :;uidc. he may be as-ured o| stepping 
down again with credit to himself and to th. 

fes-i,,n In- represent-." 

This section met in conjunction with the Amer- 

< hemical Society, many of whose nn i 
were also members of' the chemical section of the 
American Association. The papers presented to 
either or^atii/ation were grouped under 
heads and were presented before subsections as fl- 
.nic chemistry. presi<led o\,-r by Albert 
I'.. I'r.-scott: inorganic cln-mi>t ry. |iresid-d" ovi-r by 

William A analytical obemistrj, presided 

over by Louis M. I)ciinis ; agricultural chemi-t i-y. 
:.'d ovi-r by Ilar\ey \\'. \\'ilev : industrial chem- 
istry, presided oyerby William noMurtrie; |h\ 
che'mistry. pn-ided over by Arthur A. Nbyes; and 
physiological chemistry, presided oyei by I! 

W. Wiley. 

The f/.llowin^-named paper- i and di- 

r-lissed before the sect ion ; " Alkyl Misinut h lodid.'s " 

and " Kola Tannin," by Albert " I'.. PteSOOtt : u The 
Chemistry "f Methylene." bv .b.hn t*. N.-f: " < n 
the Action of Sodium on Met hylpn-pylkeioM and 
on Acetotihenoii " and " <>n the Const it uti 
some Ijy.'i- by Paul C. Fre.r; "Tl, 

coiiiposit'ion of Ib-ptane aii.l < ' ili-hTem- 

bv Arthur W. I'.urwel! : - I h-rivatiyea 

!- 

t.-rmination of the Volatility of Phosphorus I'm- 
. ar-1 W. .Mori. -, : M l,'.-.-.-ni Progress 
in Analytical Chemistry" and "A New F,nn of 
Discharger for Spark Spectra of Solution-. 
Louis M. Mennis: "(Qualitative Analysis: A Point 
in Teaching that was not a Full Success," bv Ar- 
thur I ' "1-T Stamlard for I 

..rid "Contributions from the. 
Lalwratory of Water Ana!\ :-. .Mas;,,-hnsett. In- 
stitnte of Technology,* 1 by Kll.-n II. Ifidianls; "A 
Comparison "f Methods for determining Carbon 
Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide." by Louis. M. Dennis 
and C. G. Edgar ; " A Preliminary Thermo-Chem- 



in: AI. 









William S. .\Mn.-,: - The 

. a Kir:.-. 

fl." bv Kdward Locomotive*.** br William 



Laboratory aa 
Krai, 



UM I MMtt 
d Kuluhuric A* 



I 



\\ 



!. I. I 
lh. 



Some Contnou- 
ation in General,** t>\ 

sof Agricultm 

i.- M.I. .: \ :..k.\ -.-.' 1 l.n i-y W. Wiley ai : 

; !. ol r ! In Pata in I 1 . itt< r and Lard," 

I* I. M.< . il I'r .' ' f II _ < . n N : 
Plague," l.v Kmil A. !> > 

'..Ilium 

Uoltoii ; a! 

'sMaiiioa/ fiMiMM and Enginrr ring. Over 

laided. and > 

:r-vv In ..|-ning he said 
ha subject ..f dtnamn - atel 

ipplied mathematics 
uaehaoioaJ aciaooa. 

that thr t\ .mim should know aome- 

f tnathrmati. ' him 

ffrTof the atatu 

t.--l at the preaant 
dudes a tti< idamental | 

tton to the ln 

Science of work ami 

ment. or momentum ami velocity. The only 

! \nami.- nr- f-r- .-' nnd \\*> ;T trgrals 
: -u l.ne and with the*o all 

tmn-f.-r and trans- 
heat, chemical reactions, indu 

-forms to-day the severest task of mathe- 

j named papem were read an.l 
ouaeed U'f.r the section: M Development of Rngi- 
ries by Scientific iieeearch 



II 



i gave a history of 

T. , 

addi- 

and tli.' j.r 



i < ^ 



: ' . , n ' i ' ' < 

ili-ijUti,,ii ,,f the Knerry 
1 ormula for determining thr 

ng Problems,- by John J. Klather; -On Kn- 
. i.l with the mounting 

!evy PreasurM.** by T. Gray. 
<oroa f .-The presiding of. 



waaabjent fnun tiu- eoatry. hating g. 

tional ( ontm-* ,,f uolo- 



. 

* 



UM aooi .. to i n 
n-nd before the sect 

I 1- !i .1- ' .. : 

element H and feati 
coal field elataratet 

thnt | .1 rtnml; 

: the an-n 
claimed, gives a local n 

adding great^ t-urd< 

nomenclature, a fault of grologi 

.rge.1 a r.-f..rm 






nominated by 

Coal Bed a 

ln forma- 

orer. and the geological 
f the grrat Ap|lachian 
e hope, m the author amid. 
Miiy and importanea of 



' 

: . 



c the amioM on Tneaday. A 
aeadii (tola 

flag mi 

-nit .r- rv*,J. 



. 

;.,-.-. 







MMnpnaMladlieforf that U-lv ,-nlv .,rr read. 
fullowinrnamed papen were 

anoea,** by William N. luce; 



rad.v armelw: -Ob- 

servations on the Uenus Barrettia." hv Koliert 1*. 

t^ Resrirches rrlai 

.ago and rank 

Lewr o Ixwrer Abandon 

astern Michigan " and ~ -^ of 

the K.-i.-nt (irologv amund I> . Frank H. 

Tavlor : M Raeeni Earth Movement in* the 
I<ake Reg: 1'rrplaciat 

jraphv and l>ratnagr of IVntr 

' ?- 

drographi, Investigations bv the IV 
Geological S Frank H. No 

* of Huron County, Michigan.** 
by A.C Lane; -The Geological Age and Fauna 






It T1IK Ah\ OF SOU 



llucrfai.o Basin in Southm 

respecting th Origit an Loe*v 

. . 



- . -,:. 

,. 

AAloyy. 

lir. I. . 



;;.., 



; Jai . .- . 

: - Ma : \. \- > 

was rwuded ox. 
rt of the D. 



->ne,l t.. 



ill the vacancy 
vrnGoode. Ir. 

Howard spoke 4 of Species !> 

Aracv ofMan. with SIM 
He sbowd that natural spread was for 
the role, but that with the improvement of .... 
mereial intercourse between nations the agen 
man has become predominating. II- ipoJM >! t he 
international introduction of useful plants from 
foreign countries, and of the oooMfooa] Lntrodno- 
lowering species which escape fan col- 
l,vat -ds. The intentional in- 

wild animals has generally been 
: . . Intro In km of the 

Banish sparrow, of the Indian mongoose in 1 
Bale.. v mg foxes from Australia into Cali- 

fornia, of the gTPsy moth from Kurope into North 
America. Accidental introduction- 1. 

jiowcrful m extendin- the range of species 
and in changing the character of the plants and 
animals of given regions than intentional introduc- 
tions. The era of accidental importations began 
the In-ginning of commerce and has grown 
with the growth of commerce. The vast extensions 
J trade of recent years, every im- 
provement in rapidity of travel and in safety of 
carriage of goods of "all kinds, have increased the 
opportunities of accidental Introductions, until at 
resent time there is hardly a civilixed country 
firmly established and flourishing 
within it- territory hundreds of species of animals 
and plant- of foreign origin, the time and mean- of 
introduction of many of which can not be exactly 
traced, while of others even the original home ,-.-,n 
not be ascertained, so widespread has their distri- 
bution become. 

The following-named papers were read and di- 
cossed before this section: "<>n the Relationships 
of the Nematognaths," by Theodore (iill : "On a 
Collection of Cephalopoda from the Alba- 
Expedition," by William K. lloyle-. -On the Char- 
acters of the P.rain- of Nematognaths and Plecto- 
spondyls," bv Benjamin T. Kingsbury : The Insect 
Fauna of Genoa giganteus," by HOOT <;. Hub- 
bard . - -styles of the" Plumularid.-v," by 
Charles C. Nuf ^tudy of the hevelopment 
raateriaerechU" and u Brood XVI of Cicada 
Web 

and Harvard F.m- 
< 'liar'.--- S. Minot ; 
-Geological Distribution of "the Golden Warl 
Oberholser; "On the Malod 
Cam- is pvirma, tt by Walter f, 

rows ;** Remarks on t he Distribution of Seal.- In- 

.." T< mw rsr 

tun- Kxneriments as affecting the K.eeived Ideas 
on the Hibernation ..f Injurious Insect*," and " Ad- 
dition*! owrvation* on the Parasites of o 
leocosti^i. d 0. Qowai .uiters 

. j S \ i .- Spedei ol 
Ceres. . ;iliam II. ,\-hn.. i I; M Tb i 

Twig Borer (Anarsia lim-atei L 

Marlett : - A Successful Lantern Trap" i 
nacular Names of Insects," by Charles P. Gilh-tt : 
"On the Preparation and Use* of Arsenat of Lead 
as an Insecticide," bv Philip II. Rolfs: -Insect* of 
by Francis M. Webster and c. \v. Mal- 
ii of Phena-.-lus primjevus, 
the Most Primitive Cngulate." "Ilomologies and 




Nomenclature of the Klements of the Molar Teeth." 

ition ami Variation, and the Limits of 

u." and "Skeletons ami lie>t.ra- 

. ICammalia,* 1 i-\ ii born. 

Also a joint ses-i'-n andQwai held 

ISfiOD was held on " <),- 
,." in which llenn I'. tabon and 
niton were the chief participant-. 
/.//. The pn siding olli.-er ,,f t!, 

Ithara. M. Y, i '.riinental 

.Morpholo- points ,,f 

different aathoritiei during the last 

one hundred and fif' 'id claimed that the 

leading idea in the study of morphology held ly 

aataorities during tnis perioa was t'he imlu : - 

tive method for the |nir|Nse of disc,-riiiiiK' funda- 
niental principles and law-, not Dimply theestaltlish- 
meiit of individual fai-ls. whi< i, 

acteristic <>f the earlier period when uie dogma of 

prevailed. 

i.-d aii<l t! -radiially 

\\orke<l his way up to the propo-jti, . MMT 

a new period in the study of comparative 
jiholoi:y had m it been entered on. Then p. 
direct tO t)tt Subject of ln> adilre-N h,. r.'f.-n 

.mental morphology as including in it- I 
est sense the domain of cellular morpholo^ 

iianges resulting from the directive or 
forces accompanying growth, but it wa- raii 

experimental morphology as applied to the inter- 
pretation of tin- modes of progress followed l-y 
members and organs in attaining their mr|'ii 

individuality in the tracine; of homolo^ie>. in tin- 
relation of men; iated by anta.L- 
correl pi-ndenre iv of 
function in homologous members on <\ 
internal forces, as w-ll as the course which deter- 
mines the character of certain paternal or maternal 
structures, that he di>cus-,ed, and perhap- 
IIP. iv r.-trictedly the experimental eviden.-e- touch- 
ing the relation of the members of the plant, a- 
expressed in the metHmorpho-js theory of the ideal- 
istic morphology, which subject ti th.n 
di-<-u- illy and elaborately, giving numei- 
ous illustrations to emphasi/.e his idea-, taken from 
' investigations by prominent Ix.tanists pub- 
li-hed within the last ten \ 

The following-named paper- were read ami 
cussed before the section: "Change- during Win- 
ter in the 1'erithecia and Asoospores of Certain 
j.lieji- " and " The Kry-iphea- of North Amer- 
ica: A Preliminary Account of the Hi-tributi.n of 
the Specie-." by "Benjamin T. (iallowa 
Contributions to the Lii, lli-tory of Bsxnafc 

. 
''by Albert I-'. Woods: - WakkerV Hyacinth 

Bacterium." Description of r,acillu> pha 

Species, with Some Ifem. 

ami "On tin- Nat:. 

duced by Fungi and with Special I; 

enceto'that pr-du.ed by liacillus solanacearum." 

by Krwin F. Smith :" Note- ,n Jamaica," by 

DoUg ipbell ; " No!e- on S 

.lid t oinpari-oii of the Pollen of 
Pinu- .nd Peltandra." by George I''. Atkin- 

Toductive Ortran- aiid l-jnbryology of 
Drosc 

Seed Coat's" by .Julius O. Schlotten 
" Morphology of the Flower of A-<-iepias Cornuti." 

.: Bf I'i. l..'l._ .pon the i 

ress of the Botanical Survey of NeVjraska." 
the Trees receding from toe Nebraska Pla 
and ' risticfl of 1 U Vegeta- 

tion of Western Nebra-ka," by Char:-- !!. P.essey; 
-on the Distribution of Starch in Woody Stems," 
by Bohumil Shimek ; "Mechanism of Root Curva- 



in: AI- 



irl 



.Ilium grandiflonuB 
'. i. an<t 

l M U 

Oii l'.-i.. ; . i: 11 1- H I ' ' 

MUMfcrifl 

^u- of tht Arum Fain. 

IWml; M M<>*am< 

m,l itn.l Diawsvd Organs of Abie, 
.v.th JfoidtaB 

mi'l hn- 



ner of hum 



r of tin* 
Inrlan I. 



y was defined as <1> attributes or 

)n fined to humai. 

lion or }ii.'ilit\ f i-.-nu' In. 

sling. anl thinking aft 

ings, i I- in- 

ititf well- 1 
(3) manki v oly; (8) secular learning and 

aj that del 

f,.r. in. si lul'jn - niAiu r- of thi ughl and ip h an : 

literature among all peoples. It* prominence increas- 

> rough barbarism and civiliza- 

Uoa sod .:.. ifting ta nl |h* DOM -..- ' - 

possession of vitality, and an animals rise above 
jilanta by the poamion man 

beings r&e nU.v,- all othrr thinpt t 
of specific nttr i ini-nialitv and ma- 

^.IH f,, r thees- 

l> distinct organic existence, so organic mat- 
passes form the basis for the essentially 
it ir- of human existence, 
" oment of knowledge i 



dicated l>v a 
tcii-ncr haa 

l ' 
iiti^ 



9ft forth M 

the gnwt f knowledge was i 

vn tha 
progruaeul fn-in tin- mn 

.1. norm 

mal, frni tho nirrvlvjuii! 

fnun tli.- i 

faith in dixa- 

iiual succeiaion. Turning apedai: 
man. it wa* shown that v . k -nn with 

of" thr human 
bodj ait'l 
IIU.T.- 

llMftll by thr m.' 

e races of men or ethnology. HIX! thai during 
recent yean research has been 

brain and iU operations through the rood- 



of psychology. Noting that thcr 

' . . - 

u a. Shown thai 



etutinv. that tlie tdencv 
a* Ua*d on them, and that ar- 



-...-. ' . . 

the whulr of anO 

" ' ' - 

Xewion. our mn 
r the per^Uoc* 

I'.. 



product* of ancient and alien Cndiwurk 
t their token valu. 

' ' R \ .. ... : ' 

\ffwton. our sun and mh< 

?. R --, d -'... .'-.;...- 

ha* or4or to be realued that 
BOes an inna' 

attesting the birth and growth of dieeomy aad is* 
*tntftfH T design and motive, and ail other human 

r stone an index to the 

!:.. ;.!.. j. r.,' .-?:..(;.,:.: .,.'.-, 

>n the written page to the thoBfBt 

h . I- un.i ,..n.,*rl.l, 



Hull 

: | 



' " ' 
..--. 

ions, affording f*-tnilatOTi 
and htrraturr. with their 




from Charlevou, Michigan, 
< >maha Tribe 



human things 

uiuai 

ul and db- 

; . . . 

ParmalM; 

lion as practiced 
>rt of the Totem: 
Fl. 






- Micmac Mortuary Customs,- by St 

" Recent Researches, by George Byron (iordoo, on 

::. i . , !;. ,r :!. I!-: :.:.- f r v 

Peabody Moseu The Jemp Kipedition and 

.-rican Problem," >j rSvder 
mi : M The Tajrbanuas of the 

I - Anthropologic If 
ite PaUioiciioal Institu. 
Hni: ,- EthnologSt Arrangement of 

etonlogio Material " and - 1'. ,.ulr \ 
. llarJM L8n. '.- \r. i 
'e Helatinof Rateof Mown 

ilmvl Ph^i.-al l*r-^^-v"l-> lUghtr 
\ x.v - : > : M - M 
Cattrll : A Gate of Trv|<annmg in 
QwlLnnl 

-hall 



Philippine*.- brlWc- 

' / i 
Took- <criptioa of at. 

the 
Anthropoloxic Work of 



I \ 



lie Artiflrialijuiiion 
Plan- n a* 

MHdfaH i in \\ rk -f r- - : ' 

- 

/x-ha Nut- 
tall : 
Matt Coreahaniti - day Cult 

rnU.l in 

ragua and Yucatan " ami - < '' .mj^ri* -n 
am! ' 

jin oTthe Week an.1 among Primi- 






UK AI' 



Peoples." by Robert .1 

Yilliam II. 

from 

afternoon Mt-ii.ui u 

Minion with Section K. when th.- f.-l. 
paper* were read and dinou**. Geograph- 

ical 

he Delaware Valley 
;. k U 1'iitimm : "On the Implement-!.. 

s*t. I Deposit* . H- I; lv:i ' 

., . .. Sand De| odtfl 

s.archsin the Trent 

rencbe* du>: on the La 1<T I 'aim. .Inly 
Investigation in the 

. 

Uollin 1>. Salisbury : 

nti'l "tu-n.-sis of Implement Makin_ k 11. 

< 

I Kronnmit '>*. The pre- 

siding officer of this section was Kichard T. Col- 

the subject 

s address u Improvidtnl civiii/^ition." At the 

,ui va- 
lency, wealth, r .iitnM. panic, prosperity, 
with concrete substances like 

gold pieces, but with states of mind: yet th.se ideas 

He at the foundation of commercial I and 

any of you e\er imairinc.l 

what would ha; niodern Rosicrucian 

<\ succeed in the turning of base metals cheaply 
\ na ntain thai this i- im- 

possible." Th- IILT the conditions that 

would be likeh md making the fa< r 

clear that the present monetary standard was by n 
manner of means a fixed on.-, he asked the aneaHOO, 
Shall we hav. for such an accident for 

-ttlement of a monetary system f" "Our 
present civilisation." he said. " is apt to be lop- 
asymmetrical : it is not abreast 

of the knowledge of the time, and is n..t yi.-hling 
to mankind n-arly the amount of comfort ami well- 
being it miu'ht I..- made to d... From a great num- 
ber of social ill- ami shortcomings, due ( hi.-tly 
to tl ;.in^' of the race upon its adult 

stages, I select a few of the more serious, which will 
re many centuries themselves in 

order to ra iniry among you whether it is 

not within the compass of hi. a\..rtoac- 

merely to gratify an al- 

tnii-tic impuls. in fnUOlmenl of'ethical 

ideals, but as a deliberate choir.- ,,f .liv.-r^inir poli- 
dat," The waste of war and c-.n^ant preparation 
for war was cited as "a malign heritage that has 
i- far back as can be tra 

abstraction of numbers 

by warfare and prr. army life do not ac- 

count for the decline t, ,,f t|,,. great 

a natural term of 
life for race*, a* f.-r indi- 
main: ',ded that 

a well-founded suspicion that what in now 



... 

.' ' 






in du- tun. . happ.-n to 



Rome, Cart hap- 

-objects of pernicious comp* -t:ii.,n. m 
thrift, luxury. th- Mi^ht of j, ; ,ra- i the 

IHJMM! at length. In 

closing, he sai the 

cnimJ.linj: of dogma, alreaxly 
thoughtful m-n within ' i-timl ]> . 

giving riv . What i-* to ; 

its supernatural sanction is !<>- 



The foll-'winu'-MMi: 1 and dis- 

, !'.rm: 
i with the Spoil System in n 

tion of the s\>tem to the 
- ami Municipal n\\n,Tshipof Una-i. 
I'uh. William 11. Hale: 

C I'o^itioji ..f Women " and " The Competition 

..tions ai I'ol.-nl l-'a- 

l.v ( miiiati.m 

I ;IM- of Sn; i Wt U : ' W 

implioii in the 1'niled 
ihar: "The 'I Mini; of ' 

Mil.' of th, 

- The Tniied Stal.- ou't the I'ulilic 

Lands and !), i hen-from." l.\ 

liolton \\ i ontriltution- to i|, 

menl "f V t| l( . Smithmail In- 

>iitu: iamin : "The rriiiiiotimi 

ri.-ulturalS.-i,.! 

is, and th<' Load- th.-v carry," iiv - 
(Jillelte ; "Animal Growth oi 
William II. La/.-nl.y : "The Municipal 
Ontario." l>y rharl.-s <'.. lames; a iid " A ".N..I.- .m 
the Silver Question," ly An-hiliald Blue. 

Popular I'caturc-. - ion 'iii.-iil t- the d 
of the p residential a.liln-^s on the eveiir 
9, an informal r.-c.-jiiion was pv.-n l,\ the cil 
of hctroit In the rooms of the Central Iliirh School, 

and on An::. L? a ocial reunion aii'i n was 

L'iven by the Ladie-' l{.-c.-ption Committ. 

i-M-ii' mad.- l>\ the chemii-al section to 

the works of 1-Ycderick B 

Ia\i- \ <'".. "ii A uu'. II. an. l' l.v the liMtaiiii-al 

section to the hothouses of Thoma* ; 

I'ointe on An-. \'2, while 

delegation of the association visited the \, 

in re-pons ( . j,, a special invitation sent them 
I iy the commissi,,!), i 

i! cars were provi.Icil and tl. 

entertained with refreshments. T \<-ur- 

sion of the meeting wa< made <>n Am:. 1 t. when the 
local committee provided a MeamKoat and con- 
ducted the association on a water trip through the, 
Tnilcd States Ship Canal in Lake Sic. C 
and through the many islets which have I.e. 
claimed from the shallows of that l>ody of water. 

Affiliated OruMiii/ations. other scientific as- 
sociations. taking advantage of the gathering of SO 
many memln-rs at the meeting of the An 
sociation, have adopted the pra-tj< ..... f holding 
meetings at the same place, and cont.-mporai 
with the American A ociution. litit at such hours 
as not to interfere with the regular Tthe 

i.ody. The fifteenth general meeting of the 

American 'Chemical S 18 held in hdn.it ! 

i 10 under the 
Dudley, of Alt and with Albert C. Hale, 

of Brooklyn, N. ! w.-re 

held in joint s,.^i,, n with the chemical s,,.|ion of 

Association, atid during the 

meiitioneil it- |,r.-i|.-ni pn-il-l. while later the 

ient of the el,. -ion filled the diair. 

Phe regular annual meetinir oi sti for the 

Promotion of Agriottltunu Science wa< held on 
HI and 11. Its president was Willia 
nd he was 



.ly. of C 

Halsl.-ad. .n-wick. N. -L. while 

dnarfai S. Plumli.of I continued 

as 80' i he ninth summer meeting of the 

ty of America was held . 

and 11. under the presidency of Kdward Orion, of 

Columbus. Ohio, and with Herman L. Fairdiild. of 

N. V.. a~ se.-retary. Like the Chemical 

in joint s.-sion with Section L 

of the" ass4*-iation. The Ass,,,-iat ion of Iv-onomic 

Entomologists held it.- ninth annual meeting in the 



A8S' Hams*.) 

_-h School .lcr the tioi, *itr of Michigan. 

I.I . f * . . / \ 



v 

ullur- 



Il.-Thr lIIV-r\r||lh ftfUJ meeting of 

^-ociaikm for the A.U nnianifof 
i pro- SciriM, h u. AWL Ift-M. 

A. >: 



1. Geography. J..* 



> 



form nun,- 

UB . . p ,. u 




j 901 pertoot regirteriay. Imt 

i.' u .1- lii! _ . . . i ',.1:.- . : \ 

IH KieotUu wh 

li.- Hnii-h A-S.K-] 
OM , I,,-',. I (.. rnriuU r-hij. an. I 

nc> The MOctAtion will oeto 

tfillh nliii: 'I.'.H- 

..(!,:;. !.! i i'\ ' '.. . i.:.. ' ' . 
II III Ill..r 



Bar- 

Schae f er. bat owing to t he abwnoe 
rkee Obaanratorr. of the Ut .<4en fllkd hi* place. 

'iC.Thc aaaxiition began its 
i hia. proceeding* with a m 
hanical Science and Bnginerr UeaoaAg,l& In' 



..Mrcbai 

UelF^ter; K, BoUar. II. 
(irncrml neraCari, A. G. Ver 



n dent aleot. The report of the council waaprcat 

acted a 



ZoAlogy. All cral aecrvtaiT. It contained a 

mmi 
< anatia. the Hon. Arthur 

iice ami 
Bureau aaoriati<-: $ informed I 

lie did not intend to offer 
nil. Department . ' at ceoeral eacretvr. Ho 

!Dce of genera) MN-rvtanr 
nmbaa.Ohio. jeart. and the council ex nrrv 

11 valuable aerricea which be had coortanUy rendered 
taric* of the aco to the association during that period, and recotn- 



ASSOCIATIONS FOR Till-: 4DVANCEMB* D IK r. 



BModadthat IW.Roberta-Au^^ appoint^ in 
nocMMootoMr.il Sehaefer hi 

.it.-n.l the meeting m Toronto, th. 
quOTtni I*rt>f. Robert*- Austen to und. 
duties of general secrvtary .luring thr meeUng in 

Ifa council elected thr Ml. .,..>; f,.n -., .:. 
science, who hare attend* -ft he NMfod*- 

Uon. : Ttvpnnding member*: hr I K 

r .. ' i:.. .'!' I..M i; . - - . ' !:- 

: and 1 

,,| i hut in accordance with tl 
he council, n committee waited upon 



Lord Salisbury and brought before him the ques- 
' . ,i :.- . . physiosJ 

laboratory. Recently it had b. H.at the 

treasury had ap|Kinted a committee to con 
Mi feral upon the desirability of establish 
national physical laboratory for the U-tm. and 
verification of instruments for physical 
lion, for the construction and preservation of 



of measurement*, and for the systematic 

determination of physic*! constants and numerical 
M datt>" useful for scientific and industrial pur- 
poses, and to n-jH.rt whether tin- work of sin-n an 
instituti. n. if established, could be associated with 
any touting or standardizing work already performed 
Vfcofij or partly at the public cost. 

' resolution was referred to the 

importance t. ; 

upon nment the necessity <>f establishing 

a burvau of ethnoj, .. Britain, which, 

by colleetini; Information with regard to the native 
noes within and on the borders of the empire, will 
prove of immense value to science and to the Gov- 
ernment itself. The (pie-lion was referred to a 
ned at some length upon it. 
and the council then resolved to ask the tni-r 

i Museum to allow the proposed bureau 
to be established in connection with the museum. 

The treasurer reported that the receipts of tin 
years 1806-*97 had I I th.- payments 

2,945. The amount in the hands of the general 
treasurer was 2,396. He explained that the bal- 
ance in his hands was larger than u-ual. owing to 
the fact that the meeting in Liv-r|M.<.l la-; 
wa a large and successful one. The expenses of 
the Liverpool meeting were -lightly above those 
of the previous year, being 157, as against 148 
for 1H9.VW. 

In the evening the association met in Massey 
Hall to hear the inaugural address. Lord I 
presented his successor, with the foil,, wing words: 

"My ta.sk on the present occasion i- to handover 
the presidential position of this association to one 
eminently d.-crvinu' of it; a man who has won 
world- wide distinct ion as a geologist and an antiqua- 
rian, while his many-aided gifts and his Denial na- 
have aroused the admiration and affection of 
all who have the privilege of his acquaint an. .." 

Inanirnral Addn-sn of the I'r.-juVnt. Sir 
John Krans chose as the subject of his address 
-The Antiquity of Man." In opening he -aid: 
M Once more has the Dominion of Canada invited 
the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science to bold one of the annual meetings of its 
members within the Canadian territory, and for a 
second time has the association had the honor and 
pleasure of accepting th.- proffer.-! hospitality. In 
doing so, the association has felt that if bv any 
possibility the scientific m , locality i's pro- 

moted bv its being the scene of such an 
claims should be fully recognized of th<.^ 
though not dwelling I, are .-till 

inhabitants of that Greater Britain who** 
]>erity i> so intimately connected with the fortunes 



Her count r\." Ib referred to li 

of thr -scientist- froni the l'nite.1 States as follow-: 

I this yt-ar ; ire of -n- 

iiaMnueh a> t he 

avMK-iatioii of the I'nited States ,,f An, 

-till mourning the loss of her illuMriou- ; 

ili-nt. Prof. COJH and some other learned BOC 

tfl to allow of th,-ir 

memlN-rs coining here to join US. 1 need hardly 
say how welcome their presence i N nor how gladly 

i to their taking part in our <n 
and aiding u- l-y int. < : ilioi li; |ii. 

lie term ' international ' seems 
almost misapplied. It may rather Led, 
a famil) pit herin^;, in which our n-lati\- 
less distant in blood, l.ut still intimately connected 
with us by language, literature, ma hab:- 
thought. ! Maneou-ly arran.i:.-: 

Then, tiirnii. il.jed of hi- a>i 

.id : " ll appears \< .1 hat my 

lection to this important jo>t may, in the niani. 
-nit ion by this association of 
iia-ology as a scienee. It will 

l>e expected of me that I should on the pres- 
ent occasion lirin^' under review the atato of our 
present knowledge with regard to the antiquity of 
man; and probably no litter place could be found 
for tl.' 'ti of Mich a topic than the adopted 

home of my venerated friend, the late Sir laniel 
Wilson, who first introduced the word 'pivhi- 
into the Knglish language." Coin-ernini; pala-olit hie 
man, he said: "When we return to palaeolithic 
man, it is satisfactory to feel that we are treading 
on comparatively secure ground, and that tin 

les of the last forty years in liritain alone en- 
able us to a great extent to reconstitute hi- hi 
We may not know the exact ideological period \\ hen 
first he settled in the British area, but we have 
good e\ ideticc that he occupied it at a time when 
the configuration of the surface was entirely differ- 
ent from what it is at present : when the river val- 
ley- had not been cut down to anything like their 
exMintf depth, when the fauna of the country was 
of a totally different character from that of the 
present day, when the extension of the southern 
part of the island seaward was in places Mich that 
the land was continuous with that of the continent. 
and when in all probability a far more rainy cli- 
mate prevailed. We have proofs of the oceapatfoa 
of the country by man durini; the loni; lapse of 
time that was necessary for the excavation of the 
river vail.-)-. \N have found the old floors on 
which his "habitations were fixed; we have been 
able to trace him at work on the manufadir 
flint instruments, and by building up the one upon 
the other the flakes st'ruck off by the pri: 
workman in tho-e remote time- we have been able 
to reconstruct the blocks of Hint which -erv.-d as his 

lal." After di-cu^inu' the ar-uinenN OOH- 
cernini: t!,. !ithi- man in ' 

n. he ref'-rred to the . . and 

then crossed the Kuropean Continent and spoke of 
the find.- in the valley of the Kuphrat. 
.May we not from these data attempt in some de- 
gree "to build up and reconstruct the early I; 
of the human family? There, in [ft, in 

a tropical climate, with the n 
readily at hand, may we not picture to our 
estors gradually developing fr 
lowly origfa, acquiring a taste for hunting, if n<t. 
indeJ-: u-iven t<. protect thein-elv.-- from the 

beasts around thetn. and evolving: the more com- 
plicated forms of tool- or weapon- from the simpler 
flakes which had previously served them as knives? 

t imagine that, when once the st;. 
civilization denoted by these pala-olit hie implements 
had been reached, the game for the hunter I 






career, ami th, 
in < .nomad bai icier! Tl 
(ill r a aerie* of migration* lo fresh 

.unaturally have en- 
sued, ami tnesr ' 

.M the setting sun* might eventually 
;.,-..i,ihi. j-.j-uunon finding 

r.irn, of western Kurope. where we 

.reed 1 Off'* of ih, - 

iiis section wns presided 
i* th naU>rian 

- aililreas consistrd of a plea for the 

r ;,-..! mitigation of purs mathematics . 

ami ' n sake. At tt. 

> that IUM! l^n taken by the 
i..anl the establish 
..il physical lalNiraioM II- HUH 

-how that, 
i i.- greatest benefit for those 

ranUfi oaa bi DbtsfeoToj StvSoping the suMsol 

han bv keeping the atten 

plications that may I* 

Evon'if i: ht IK* conceded 

he iinn- 1 hematics 

venr l.n.-r 1 f the subject 

growing ami full of increasing vi- 

taJity. 1'nleas some account be tak posi- 

*n adequate eatimat.- of the subject run not 

nearly the greater part 

will thus be omitUxl from consideration. For it is 
not t nay that, while many of t),,. most 

into ; t rv a-H tnily real 

n- to human knowledge as are the 

in the scope of pure science. It will 
v be conceded for tin- pr.^nt pur|-.-- that 
knowledge b good in an '. ami tlm 

* rthy 

greaUwi Miman in< 

can make. A refusal to concede so much wouhl. in 
a condemnation of one of the cherished 
ideal .. .-. Hut th<- mere pursuit or the 

mere aaaiduou* accumulation 

sifted and rational tied -m f.t. organixml 
tmth. To achieve 

uUite that may deal with the respective well .1- 
fined groups of knowledge, and for one particular 
group we use the various sciences, There b no 
doubt that m this sense mathematics b a great in- 



Thfe notion, Owing to the large number of pa- 

1 itself at tun. 

subsections, as follow: on meteorologr. on eleo- 
nml on general phrvica. 

t he more im|M niant jiapers presented be- 

n the 
rninYrtti. .1 A. Patter*.n: - On a 



Tensions of \V., 



of the 



M hi nation 
(h. ami 1C. 

t nation - irface 

lueous 

Mathodof t. 



ternational Kleotlio 



a Liiiuiii in Ti-rm- of ti 
fn -lar: 

h.- Behavior 
CrtUen.lar an-1 N S the Pnsi 

3 



KalYi . !4 adiai. .n.l Imperial Hrdrographic 

thode Kay*, u 

-|*<tra f U ?K n.. .sulphur. ft 

Hpertral Unea. by J. UmMr& 

oTBainlt 

' . . 

.. 

i Platinum Thmnomeier. M br 

nual KM 

the Temperature of Bs> 
ropa t **kiv Van Kijekevorwl ; "The tlimatologr of 

Canada.'* > l^krS aa 






with 

teors and N..*,.mU-r Fll Tra.lm..n.. 

irUne; -The 
DeTelopnienr of m Function*." br Harris 

alin in \Wt.,r Analjrsu." by 
iarmonic Analj..-." bV Albeit 
A. M -t ration: "-The 



iltftiOMOf Numbers which possess Symmetri- 
cal Graph- in Three Dimensions,'* bv P. A. Mac- 
Man i 7 nnquiaection of the Cyclotomic 
Kouatiiin.- by J. Larmor; - Increase of SegmenUl 

s** by Alfred 

Sj.n: Moii-tmt ions on the Form of Altar- 

natit . te on an 

OoriUator, 

ivanl B. Rosa; -On the 
neter in the Study of Electric 
11: ~0cillograpbV 

H. 1 >u.l. I, ll ;-(>, the Calculation <.f the CosUJCJoni 

itual Imluction of a Cm 1,- and a < "-axial 

ties: -On a Delermination of 

hm made in lesting the Lorenx Apparatus of 

and 

The Iterations between Arc Curr** 
ami Crater Katio* with ( % ored IV .as," 

he Source of Lnmtooi 

in the Fl * and O. 

Basquin : on Some New Form* of Gas Battai 
ami a New ( arbon-Consnming lUtt.n." b* 
lanl 1 ~On the Determination of the 

(i. MaHiregor; 
rntu for verifying the I jaw of Con- 

the Human Body 
tatrr and Fxlward B. R. 

lUt. :11 Sounds 

with 

aMiring f Sound." by 

Vfobotoi Md u r > ,-> \-- - - 
flMtoeji \-i - - ...--,- . 

natic Operation* of Kriinse Inrtru- 
meni * of the 

Semiannual In versions of 

renwtrial Magnetic Field 1 and -Observa- 
tions at 1 h Integrator^ 
by Frank II. Bigrlow; ~Th 

rc> F. Ii 

Uua. n the Change* in Length 

i.y Magntiiialionr by B. 






\>-M 1AT 



Brack. Diaraa- 



A. IV 

thur li 

\ illiam 



ilnr Suspension 
al Ap|r .mp- 






netic and 

Ham 

in 

Magnetism on Spectral Urn-*. 

t* SB of Constant Total Currvnt Shunt with 
Ballistic (talriiiiom< <>al- 

- 

\\ . i :. 

a Hem-arch in Tlu-r- 
aii* <>f a Platinum Ke- 

1MW _ jv II M Hi a Simple Modill- 

|,e rtoanl ; orm of the Standard 

Mih Temperature of 

..."hy 
..nan. and W i 

Air and Di.-i. 

Also the* foil 'nmit tees 

d. '< Hi Sei*mo" 

he Preset in Knowledge 

in Kl-<-tnly-is and Klcetric Chem On the 

L'raphy to the Klucidat i^n of 

Meteorological PI >c : - on Tahle.- .,: 

tain Mathematical Fun< at ions 

at the lien Nevis Observatory," and - on Klectrical 

B. Ckenn'*try. The opening address before this 

Section was delivered hy Prof. William Kam-ay. 

-f the discoverers of the element argon and 

..-mi-try in I'niver-ity College, I.,m- 

i - 

The subject of h: was " An t'ndi- 

sjiid : "I shall describe to you 
later it- . uriou- properties hut it would Ix? unfair 
n possession of the knowledge 
<f its 'most remarkahle property it has not yet 
been discovered. As it is still unborn, it has not 
been nani -taming of a new element i- no 

easy matter. F..r there are only 'JO letter* in our 
alphabet, and there are already over ?<> elements. 
To select a name expressible by a symhol which has 
not alreadv been claimed for one o*f the known !.- 
- i- difticult. and the difficulty is enhanced 
when it is at the same time required to select a 
name which shall be descriptive of the properties 
<or want of pn.jH-rtie-) of the element." After de- 
was longagoas 1817 Dohereiner showed 
that cvrt - could be arranged 

.mil also how lat.-r Mt-ndeleeff showed simi- 
larly that the elements grouped them-clve- ; 
tain' well-arranged classes, Pn>f. l; nt on 

tosay that subsequent to the disco very of argon and 
helium he wa- ped the j f ati- 

d out sev.-ral con.i 

in h: -_'on and helium that 

\plaincd hy the pros*. nee ..f another 
element, ** There should, therefore, be an undi 
covered element between helium and ari;on. with 
an at'iinif weight H5 unit>* high.-r than thai of heli- 
um arnl Mann loworthan that of argon namely. 

anon, shoald prove to consist of monatomic mole- 
cules, then its density should be half 

analogy still fu- 

to be expected that this element should be as 
indii! with other elernenU as the two 

allied elements." 

Among the more important papers road I 
ction w. 

W. An-: 
llelium" and M Demonstration of the Spectra of 



II.-liiMii and A William B "CoB- 

tnlu. ' , l-larth 

V, , i-| lt ,,f Thoi-iuin." l.r 
lit and 
. 
llydrogcn'in M 

.it ion of MineraU and M.-taU." IPX 
llartli-y and II. li..- N iii..n-l i\r 

the I 1 :. and I'r..; 

Li'juid l-'iiii-ni 
M..i->an and ,1. The I'crmealii 

1-ilemelitx of Low Atom. Ul'^eli 



Lithium and oiher Salt-." bl .1. Waddell : 

tinuation of |-;\|>ei ; ;,-i It ut ion 

and the At.v.j-pt ion 

and W. M 

tain Metal- on graphic IV. \\ . .1. 

11 : " IMmtogra: --.plo-ioii I 

Han-Id li. ;,|,. " ,in<l 

and |-'.lllores4-eni-e ..f ( '.-rtain 

Donnington; 44 The Formation < v7.L. 

\ Compound ofOzone and 

i.y I-:. 0.0. I'.aly : -The Int.-ra. t i.-n .,f Bydrobromio 
and IJron. bi .1. \\ . vValker : - Th( 

position of Canadian Virgin 8 -hull: 

\ W. 
II. Kill- M The Constitution of Aliphat^ 

I.y Paul < Ilir Chen; \I, t liyl.-ne." 

liy .John T. Nef ; I-'onnation 

Deduction." hy A. Lehmann : "Conih-n-ation 

:;id Amiii' A. K'lhn: 

\ \. u Ponn of P.un-cn Burner/' by Hugh 
shall: " Molecular Movement in M- 

bsten : 'i'ti-' < .HI- - of LOM mcurred in 

containing; Tellurium." hy T. 
l\. !!"->: "The liehaviorof Lead and of SOUP 
Compininds toward Sulphur Dioxide." I.y II. i 
kin-; "The Vapor Ten-ions of Liquid Mizl 
hy W. L. Miller and T. Lv Elosebrough ; "The 
trolytie Determination <! - md Iron ii 

Kolm : The Nitro-alcol. 
Henri; ** The Pla-ter-of-p.-.i-i- M.;h..d in Blowpipe 

Aiinly-i>." liy \\". W. Amli 
with Chlorine," i s.r.i. 

the following re|ori- of commilt< < 

\ and di-i-;. 
in I'.lemeiiiary Schools" "On pr- 

>f the. 

Klements," "On the Pn.\ imat Chemical C..n-titu- 
ent- <'f the Various Kind 

metric Naphthalene Derivatives." "On the Action 
of Liu'lil <>n Dyed Color-." " on the lilecti. 
Meth- ,"iantitative Analy-, 

Naphllialeiie Derivative-." "The : 
fclon Of Haloids from Pure Material-." "TheHihli- 

iiy of Spc-tni>-op\." "The Carhohydr;;' 
liar!. 

///. Dr. (M . r_-c M. Da \\-oii. who i- di- 

.uada. pi' 
- was on the 

< 'amlirian K'"<-- y." 1 1- -aid : " Tl. 

t ure and : ft he more aticjei, 



North America are prohlem- particularly Canadian. 
for th- ii their typical and mod ea-il\ 

jdnent either con-t itute or Ixirder upon the 
continental pmtaxis of the north. The <|ii. - 
involved are. 1 time perhap- 

! with a ci riain <!. 

world-wid. i phenomena than any of 1 

relating to later formation-, in win* r r|e- 

gree of differentiation occurred a- time advanced. 
:ti-factory cla ilicat ion of tin - 

tallillO HX.'k- helieat I; I'aheo/oje 

was first worked out in the Canadian region hy 

Logan and hi- colleagues a classification of which 

alidity was soon after generally recogni/ed. 









4 Of U*'li 

' tlut'ia, ai 



\. 



. 
. :' 






hal -I 



i-h I. 

. 



UH 
utd raoanitulaied 

lada, reviewing the work ami 
.agum in ih. Ottawa 

arth tlm 









.at ions and HtnKtare of Certain 

** -lAlrd 



. 
. 

/ai 



low and 

Igneona Magma* a 
J.ll. 

mrll; TbrUn.l.i-lra. 






!!*-, 



evidence waa flr*t found in the IM 






-aiti that. 






indamao- 






iletartea." 


ILwheasd 




-f th, iH-kMlllilllk' of til.- I'ttlfllttoic 


.11 in .1 




- . ! : n| k - .. baat of tbe Cm - . 


l. /- 




.i, a q M '. :. iln i( ntin h pal note .. .. 






iiclm>ion, be aai*l : "If all the aedimenUry 






rook !"!.. th,- nlm.-llu* iune are to paafn 








_ . . ' : 




ratine it U without inean- 








nial tr 




iiore important papera read IH 












B* ': :., :n Bo lUlWaflt IH Kofi ft 'ti.'i." > !.. \\ 




1 1 1* eon 




eral r 



- 



rere that " toe fM>- 

....... < 






an I 



Kmt 

f l>Uii;lanl." !> II. H. W,- P |w 
. 
man tinnital Kleral 

I 



erefi by a jmrti 

alt v 

moat apedea fhxn 



iU. ml 



Ch.-ili 
.iiiitinnn H 

Geography >f 

iracte 

.0 rrfrime d'uno 



" Note on 

in 

I'nUromie 
ivlwanl W. 



K. I-i 



deme of organuation. or 
ui egg laying. Tbr 

vcm fkwb and 
riant hecaoM H pff> 
ng toddanlj from ooa to UM 

. the altymal and the fluvut 

otnnoo, and abo h '.<mi 

and th. i^-latfi.- fauna*. Relative detutty and coo- 

tinuitt ..f iioMalaUon awm tu be ol viul innofUnea, 

( in chieflr tbee that act upon the life biMory.- 

.ldrawadev 
aion of alternat lua of grtieral iocu and kind red sub- 

be aril : - Tbb bartj reriew of animal tnmrfnrma 

laturnh*' -fa.Uj.U- 

pnpular'and uperflcial aide of thing*; 

that com|rativfly m.*leni adapUtioiu may be of 
peciea, and particularly 

luniinou. -rcaitae at time* they ebow 

.tureat work." 
ne the more important paper* read before 

rti:-tna 
gicalSfai 

rtebfmta,** byCSMdai 

ration and Pbeoacodltf 

Phn n- and KeMoratknis of 

inr Mammalia.** ami -Thr ncin of Mam- 

- and the 






AflBOci.vr: 



. \\ \. 



T- iBUad 

r ... : V\ - I-]M .-. 11. i :.-. i- ' !' 

. ' - .. :.- f ^ , 1 r .' .,: - 

,^,n from lluilnon Bay" ami " The BsoddiB 
.tmda, with IV Species of 

' .inxl in nntm 

-,,tho rVh Fauna 

x is illustrated 

:..! Ilutt.-rni.-s an ! 

.-Truth of Natural Select, on. Poul- 

>,v IMmikt Wth At- 



Uuilic," |,t ..irk- on llran. ' 

stanali/ liv A. H ntoraology 

taAmrrkV' by Inland <>. Howard: " < MI New 

.106009 Of tli- S-Hlh 

sSttahewfta,'* br J. P. White*ves; "On the Sta- 
tistics Of Bees," br : .-,--. rih: "The \j- 
. . uiny Woi " tai d irina the 
Simmer of 1806." by J. I loves Panton : "On a 
-,-,: ,"byL uisC, Mi.-ill: 
"On Recapitulation m Development, aj illustrated 
by the US Hint Masked Ci 
by M. W. Garntitt i:: "(in ftfosculo-glandular ' 

ii : "<>ii tin- Plankton 

i* r * i 4 A 



continuously during a Traverse of ti 
Unlit . i.\ W. A. Herdman: "Tin- Determinants 
for the Major Classification of PishUke Vertebrates" 
and "On the !> -nil Member in 

i . ,..-. ate*," by Theodora Gill; -The 
V . ,: - gniflcanoi oi the Comparative 

Study of Cardiac Nenres," by W. H. Gstkell; "<b- 
serrations upon the Morphology of the Cerebral 

itsmires in the Vertebrata," by G. Klliot 

Smith: "Some i the Symmetry of Actini- 

McMurrich: "Tl..- Natural History 

Lloyd Morgan: "<> i),e Ha-nia- 

tozoon Infectiooj of hinls, w by W. G. MrCallum: 

I<.M-'inlryonic Development of As|id>_ 

. ' l.y .!. Stafford: "On a j.artictilarly 
Large Set of Ant l.-rs of th<- h' .-rvusela- 

phon). with Photographic Illustrations" and " <>n 
the Evolution of the Domestic Races of Cattle with 
Particular t.. tin- History of the Durham 

Shorthorn/ Hughes. 

Also the following reports of committees were 

d and discussed : "Tin- Naj.L- Xooi 

Mi..l,,giral Laboratory. Plvm- 
.'ilogicnl Hiolio^raphy and Pultliratimi." 
" Index Oeneruni -t Sj<-i-i-nnn Aniinaliuiu." " /o.".l- 
ogj and Botany oft: dian I-lands" "Mi- 

gration of Bifds" "Tin- Afri.an Lak<- l-'auna." 

Xofllogvof tin Sandwich Islands." and "The 
B..logr of Oceanic Ma,, 

'ftography. This section was presided over 
by Dr. J. Scott Keltie, well known as the editor of 

Statesman's Yearbook." ami a* the sen-. 
of the Royal Geographical Sx-i.-ty. The subject of 
Ir. Kcltie'f address was on " Exploration and Geo- 
graphical Research." !! r-f-rn-d to th- progress 
made in geography during the past . atxl 

Ai.l * T\*t* tm*mt r-<itil irtt.tit of \ ff i<. Vimo r^Mnt i<.n I ! 



America were unexplored, and much of the interior 
of South America was unknown. In all parts of 
Asia rast additions hare been made to our knowl- 
edge; the maps of the interior of that continent 
>ixtv year> diagrammatic char- 

acter. TTie Australian interior was nearlv as great 
a blank a* that of New Zetland had not 

I remind you of th, 

progress which has been made during the period 
both in the north and south polar nn-as culminat- 
ing in the magnificent n< } 

It was just sixty rears ago that the great antartic 
expedition under Sir .Tamea Ross w.. 
ized: since that, alas, little or nothing has been 



ilow up his work. Sixty years ago the 

n tin- term, did not. 

: .oioii ..f tin. Victorian era. ami 

maybe said almoM to | m v- had its origin in the 

1 ' - :." which added a new 

-n to our - ,c,l up inexhaustible 

fields of research." Mr. Keltie then discussed ttu 

functions and Held ''!'''>' ""d uuli<'atc.l 

ways in which n-'carch might be 

iirofitably carried on in <ir.at Britain ami on the 

European Continenl. II- also n -ferivd i,, u |, 

maincfl to U done in the way of explaining the 

unknown or little-known regions of the 

kid, the moM important ilrm'ilt / 

a- pioiu er expl<. ration js eonei-nied. is southern and 
central Arabia and Tibet. The forbid-: 

wa-. referred to a- the goal <>' i\.-n- 

. In Africa he called attention to the fact 

that to the <oulli of A bys-Miiia ami to the norlh- 

.. li*udlf. on ihe upper Nile. : 

of considerable extent which is still practically un- 
kn-.wn. After speaking of the excellent work 
by t !i< .1 sur\e\ s of ( 'anada .'tnl t he I "nited 

vil to the fact that there " is ample 
scope for the Study of many problems in pi,, 
geography p:i-t and present glacial ions and tin- 
work of glaciers, the origin and /',//'// of lake 
L the erosion -f river bel<. the (iscillation ..f 
coast lines." The unexplored region* ,,f Central 
South America were mentioned, and of South 
America he said. "There i^ a wider and richer Held 
for exploration than in any other continent." The 
conditions in Australia v ! the 

it status of nolar and antarctic exploration 
fully described. His dosing paragraph consisted 
of a brief summary of the works (lone in i 
years in the new science of oceanography. 

Among the more important papers read before 
this section were the following: " KafiriMan and 
the Kafirs," by(i. S. Ilobertson: " Novaia Xemlia 
and its I'i, .graphy." by ]'.. I>.-lmar M-.r- 

gan : "Temperature observation's oiT Spit/be: 
by B. Leigh Smith: "Scientific Gcograph 
Schools," bv R. I-!. Dodge; - Kon -try in India." by 
!'. Bailey; "The c| ; ,-itic :i tion O f Geograt.hv. 
II. II. Mill: "The Distribution of Detrifclfl by the 
i-y Vaughn Cornish; i >n Certain Submarine 
Changes," by John Milne: "The Congo and the 
-,f (iood Hope, is-12 to 1888," by Kr.,. 
-.stein : " Institutions engaged in Geographical 
Work in th- I'nited State,." by Marc-us Maker: 
"The Hydrography of the I'nited States." by Frank 
II. Newell : "The Geographical Work of the" t'nited 
States Coast and (o-odetic Survey." by Thomas C. 
Mendenhall: "The Coastal Plain of Maine," fci w. 
Mr.rr: The Tnification of Tin,. 

iiisd'Ti : "The Man-en Lands ,,f Camida,'* 
by J. R Tvrrell: "The Daily Weather Sur\ 
the fnited 

graphical Work of the I'nited States fieol- 
Survey." by Charles D. Walcott ; "The T-.pograph- 
ical Work of the Canadi..' 3 v." by 

.L White: -The Economic Geography of Uhodesia. 

lourney in Tripoli." by J. T. 

'n tin- Direction of Lines of Structure in 

; "tkin : " iVtanioIngy as a, 

Branch of (Jeography." by A. iVnck : "Geograph- 
ical I 1 'it of the Lower Mississippi." f,y 10. 
rthell: " S.utheastern Alaska: Geography 
and the Cam.ra." by QttoJ. Kloi/ : "Th. 

f Mount L-froy and Mount Aberdeen," by 
Harold M. Dixon: !ix and Mexico De- 

serta." by ( >. H. Howarth: " The Material Conditions 
and Growth of the United States." br Henry Chmnett; 
"Geographical Pictures," byll. 'IJ. Mill: 
graphical Wall Picture-." by A. Penck : anl "Ge- 
ography as a Inivensity Subject," by W. M. Davis. 









AUo the following '. <->fiifiiittani v. 

rend and disci*** 

f. Ktlwar r ami topf r in 



tijr William II. 

'-I- V.1 , i < 



It i* im 



i|Mt 



aeh frwh Acc 
flown 1 u| im age ia never 

easy. r are some feature* so 

is. life -i and - apabk f idV : n::- ; u M thai 
pause* to ask in amaiciiu-iit if th<- a-. ..f the Kc- 
inisssnrn bad not dawn- in an 

.-." In response to oar needs and <>ur 
instances we are feeking a positive moral 
guidance in an enlarged conception of social duty 

labor 

. luit 



-ling* 

ith rvganl to 
whirh stands out before other inatt.-r* sharply 
marked and conspicuous. <f trade organization 

.- ,-r vth i ' beaeA m ieSaiaiid ", ii - ra i 



clause* of 






and capital 



tiooi ; fepam 1 

baa in some jnwtanwe beau 



for co-operation and ; 



the greatest delect of ail. (be weakness 



Dd i- I .:.'..: -..-'. .ii .' J I) : | H - 

uarvclous orgmntxation of 
adTooated an advance in eooooini* 





-,:. 

' 



I , i 



and UKM 

d Stat.i* of Am.-rica; 

, ..-.}.. . 

.-..:_ 



Frvtirh r.'\.'liiti"M ; MOUM OssOSsil 

thr.'at.-n.-i .-ij. IK \ u- r of England in < i 
and fourth d< 

:i4aiice.iMnl.|ird themselves in the 
opposition to factory r f..rm. ' 

> inon : ii.n-.rtnnt j^i|.-r- nad before 

loination in Cnna-: 

(iiltnnu: ;.-nn 

Monopoly a* a Tout ri but ion to tho >tate 

Lndustries, I*eaf- 



ryof Eeo 

Canada," 
irntfv.The pfi 

of the task of supplying the 
a new water supply. His address ti 
hat' are and should 
trninr icalengil 

.nil make no attempt to review the large nu 

llent connes which are now available for 

.g f n|'|licd science in relation toen- 

l-enenee of the results as judged by 

'.. A ; !.,-.< :.' . . . 

d rxitniin. .any calendar*, has 

...-... .- ' ..-:.' - ._ ' . . 

perhaps uppermost : Are we i. 
some cases attempting at too early a stage the 
teaching of subjects instead of principles f Com- 
i. including the practical work- 
will become tl 
of the student in office or works of an 

-tainlv seems t do not say 

' of this kind at college mar 
. 



UM-ful : but we have to 

anticipation of 
hi* office work divert the attention of the rtudmt 

the better mastery of those principle* which 
It is essential grmp at the earliest po- 



battle of hf. to anv branch whatever of the profes- 
sion or businssi of an engineer, but which, on the 

rary. qualif 

m hat.-* .-r branches his inclination or his opportum- 
ties or Us means mav suggest. There is some dan* 
ger in the usual limitation of compulsory subject* 

.uninations for certificates and degteta. when 
an examination has to be r*snrl subjects not 

rv ,r, 



ttJsory are too often entirely neglected; now- 
important to the engineer they may be. 
nt it happens that, unless an engi- 

.. . . . ...... . . . . . ... 

:. . :. ; ' .- 

, .; ., - '. 

. ' , 

of their neglect for the sake of certain subjects 

which subjects are not always the more important 
and too often include | 

venture to think, can not be rightly mastered in 
v. boob 1 ' - t - - .- . 

a certain very moderate standard in all such sub- 



\DY \\. . .UK. i.) 



proficiency, whether by degree or - 

.-. en " 



ini 



jects should be made compulsory if a cert inY 
1 gree or 

veninphysicn 

rr imp ufoce 

The Soiihuiges 
. Fool In hi 
tion of Canada between Lake Kne and 

iy of 
-:ty " and* M The Strangt 

pngth 

IMIII: 

the Rate of Condensation of Steam on a Met a 
face at different TemiN-rniuriHi ami Pressures," by 
II. L. C.llen.lar and ll. A. NVoN,,n ; - T.-is on the 
.it Massachusetts I n.st it utc 

:nreal 

Beotrio Tramway System," by G. c. < unnm^ham : 

-land." 

| .1. L. 

Method of investigaiin:; the 
Variation of the Magnetic equalities ,,f Iron with 

. rat ure." l-\ 1'. il. : 
the \ f I he Constants of Kl.-< -tricity Sup- 

:.|>erature and with Cun 

byG. \\. D. EUeks: " K.-H.-r Beari..--." i.y w. i;. 

Marshall: ^hip-." i.\ 

W. 0. Walker: '" A M-lern Pol Plant 

working a Ten | H. Allen: " KlTect 

iMTature in varying the Resistance to Impact, 

lanlness,and the Tensile Strength of Metals," 

Macphail. 

the foil- >orts were read and dis- 

':i ('alii. ration of In- 
struments in Engineering laboratories" and -(>u 
Small Screw Gauges." 

II. Anthropology. Sir William Turner, wh 

-.atomy in the I'niversity of F.lin- 
bargh. presided over 'this section. The subject of 
his address was M Some Distinctive Charact. : 
Human Stnieture." The distinctive character 
of man, such as his er-et carriage, the peculiarities 
of his spinal column, and his: special i/ed extremities. 
discussed at length and contrasted with simi- 
lar features in oth-r animals, and especially the 
apes. .tl cavity in man was shown to be 

larger than in any other vertel. rate except in the 
elephant and in the larp- whales, in which the 
huge mass of the body demands the great sensory- 
motor cent- (-rain to he lar^e. His dosinff 
remarks % know that an animal is guided 
Ahich it provides for its 

individual want- and fulfills M Nature. 

In man. on the other hand, the instinctive acts are 
under the influence of the reason and intelli- 
and it is possible that the association (enters, with 
the intermediate association fibers which 



them with the sensory and motor < -ntTs. maybe 
the mechanism through which man is emit* 



in- animal instinct*, so far as tin v are de- 
and sen.Hution. Th. ln-h. r we 
in the scale of humanity, tl rfe. t 

does this control become, and the more do the in- 
stincts, emotions, passions, and appetites become 
subordinated to the self-con* i u^ principle which 
regulate* our judgment* and tx-li.-fs. It will 
therefore now be a matter for wientific in,,,. 

nine, as far a the anatomical Conditions "will 
permit, the nr ; inch the association 

th in mamma! 

in man, the period of development of the a- 
tion fibers in comparison with that of th- 
and sensory fibers in different animals, and. if pos- 
sible, to obtain a comparison in these respects be- 
tween the brains of savages and those of men of a 
high order of intelligence. The capability of erecf- 



injrtln- trunk, the power of extending and 
.ip and knee joints \\hen Mandin-;. th< 

biliiy of the i move- 

iiHMit of the joints of in,- upper limb, the lalan- 

.id on th- summit of the spine, tlie 

mass and \M-iu'lit of tlie lirain and the perfection 

!iii-chani>ni are distinctively human 

They .. concerned in 

adapting the body of man. under the piidai. 
reason, inielli^- use of responsil.ilit \. and 

pOWSf Of Self-Cpntrol, for tin- di-cliar-e of \aricd and 
nii|Mirtant dniii- in n-laton to him-ell. his >] 
his fellows, the animal world, and the .-arili -n 
which he 1; 

A Illoii u' 'he paper- :v tliis see! ion '. 

-The >,-alp L,H-k: A Study of <>maha 1,'itnal" 
and "The Import of the Totem ainon- t he ( n,. 

iy Alic,- c. i-'letcher; M Sqaktktqoacht, or the 

' lannes of the Ntlakapamuci. 

ish Columl.ia. ' Ilill-To.it ; ;iack- 

Lep-nd .! 

! the 

Micmacs of N'..va Scotia." l-y Sian-l.nr\ li 
-The Lake Village of Glastonbnry and 'its i 
am'i! 
Munro: -S-nne Old-World Harvest Cusl 

F. T. Klworthy; ,\ Demomtntion of the Utility 

of the Spinal Curves in Man." I.y A .iarl': 

-The Causes of IJrachyri-phaly " and ' 
the I'.rainsof Sc.me Au-fralian Nati'. 
alister: -<>n Some Cas,-s ,,f TrepSJining in Marly 
American Skull-." l.\ \\' .1 M.- I. 
Trepanning in N. \\ . M.-M. ." I.y ( arl Lumholt/ 
and A. llrdlicka : - An Kxperimeiital Anal\ 
Certain Correlations of Mental and I'hysical'Reac- 
ti. .ns." l.\ Li-htner Witmer ; -The Growth of 
Toronto School Children," ly I- 1 ran/ lioas ; -The 
Physical Charact.-risiies of EaropeaO 
bom in New Zealand." I.y II. < ). Forln-s; - The 
Sen Indians of the (iulf of California." I.y \V .1 
.il and Philological on the 

Indians of Hriti>h Colnml.ia." I.y 0. Hill-Tout; 
"The Kootenays of Brili>h Columbia and their 
Salishan NeighDOn " and M Kootenay Indian I - 

I.y A. I-'. Chamlterlain ; "A Kock Iiis<-ription 
on (ireat Central Lake. \"aii<-ouver Island-." I.y .1. 
W. M. Mla.-kfoot Womanhood." by J, 

lean: " < >n tin- Hut Hurial of the American 
riirin- -i-lnev Hartland; " The Origin - 

French Canadians."" I.y li. Suite; "The Involution 
..f the Cart and lri-l,( : ar." l,y A. C. Haddon; "The 
.IcsnpFxj.edition tothe North Pacific," bv Frelerick 
W. Putnam; "Why Progress is in Leaps," by 

. ifin-tan." I.y (ieorge 

tspn; "Tin- Mangyans and Ta-l.anus of the 
Philippine Mauds." l>\ I)eati < . \\.|..-Nr: 
hi) tit ion of La nee- ] leaded Implements of (ilass from 
.west Australia." I.y Sir William Turner: 
"The ' ! Implement Making." l.y I-'rank II. 

Cushinu r : " Ad/e Making in the Andaman I-L 
by A. C. Haddon. 

On Au^r. 'J-l there was a discussion l M -fore this 

idences of American Asiatic 

I a joint session was held 

with Section C (geology) on M The First Traces of 

Man in t! \hich tlie following 

n were read: "The Trenton (.ravel-. 

rick W. Putnam, and " Hnma: in the 

Drift of Ohio." ; W. Clavpole. 

The foil rN were read and discussed: 

'he North iM-avidian and Kolarian I';P 
Central It . the Silc; -avations." 

,1 ami Physical Deviations in Chil- 
dren from the Normal. \nthn.pometric 
Measurements in Scho< the Nort 1 
Tribes of Cana the Ethnographic Surrey 
of Canada," " On the Ethnographic Survey of the 






1 1 



hloru A 
'brofjolofjr of 



;thetfc Nervous Hytm." by C'arl 1 
I / ~Thu nation WM j.re*. 

i' 

-rA. 



rteett Veal* that h.| rUled S&OS 



\- . . . - . 
.nt hiwlocrurr 



[es whk'h bnii|f ! "ii tnl w 

>**"i* fiber. In resnect ID another old nt 



.-.. A- 












f t.iu. ut all. -lln in : 

al is always sure to gi> 



Itlooh 



i'l w limy nt any 

ill new 

-;\. i, tC '!.- rtU I) 






hvthin f 

i:. hi 

M .. . 






! " . '. r '. : , ' Ii K 

MMBBMIUM 

l*rae drr HaMBo- 

I ' 1 1 \ ;.! ^ \ r > f t h< '.!:. I ' . ' - ' ' ^ . . 

tions in the Strrnpil. of th- 

M.-iii.inah.iii H.-iirr." i-> I'n.f. < .' in : : !' . . 

' 

< <inal 

II* Illllllor" ftll.l 

f Mime Piwt- \p|a- 

he Pho9pbonit 
! 
\ .itit-nl K 

Emulating the Effects of Electric H*y 
Jacques Loeb; M Qn .me Sogar 



rt-lr 

M a 



I 
innn: lnl.il. ition M a Factor in Sit 

('. S. Shemn^ 
l.y IM Klwtrie- t 'urn-iit." by F. Hraun. 
ting WM held 
h the "Chemistry and 
:ma discussed, and in COB- 
neetionmithmi : lowing papers were read: 

Meldola ; Kxistence in Yeast of an Aloo- 

* on the Significance of Intrarellular 
and Organs," by A. B. Marallum. 
Hol n y.- :.,r*iiall Ward, who since 

a.Mn-^ma* ,!,-*, ,t,, : ^ ad- 

vance* in our knowledge of the fmgi In opening 

heal. 

partmrtit* of Uitany. which were feildhlf toward 

the specialist ion of this scieace a fact now 

' -e openl v. nmogniatd. Already the 
eJtabUshment of bafteftfltffgffal laboratorie* eVi a 

-..-. -.- - . . . '...--.. 
fungi; of ajcriculturaJ sUtions, forestry and dairv 
I - : v .1- I i :. - .- - ' . \. r.. .. 
rvenlu of pffofiesa. After referring to the growth 
of specialism in botanical study and its rrmanl m 

rm ofawc.lt! 

Wanl rntcml upon a rrtirw of thr advances in the 
Mjri dunng the last three decadea. 

ifa E |S f.rr-,"V ,. " " .- . 

bacteria he ami ^ is one connection in 

which recent observations on cnxrmr* in the plant 

remarkable destructive action of certain raw of the 
alar light on bacteria. The English oWrven 
Downee and Blunt showed long ago that if bac- 
teria in a nutrient liquid are exposed to fanlight 
el Further reeemrcoee gradu- 
ally brought out the facts that it U really the light 



ASSOCIATIONS FOH T11K AD\ 



rars and not h natures which 

.- . : . . I :iv. ;.-..-. ::.:r- : Ml : 

parlance in limiting the life <f k- 4 , u-na in c.ur 
i rivers and that the MIH i> our most 



pom .,-ul.mn." The speaker 

emphaaiaed the need oT recogniiinff that ba 

ology only touches annual |*thTogy at a 

point*, ami of the public learning that, so far fr.-m 

ing synonymous with disease, Ui. 
..f these organisms appeared to IK 
rathrr than imrakml to man. Cam were ciUd as 

ology which had nothing ' '" Wll| > medical ques- 
tion* but investigated problems rai-d 1 7 th 

urist, and gar.i dairyman, 

w.dv- 



in connection with some great I 

The speaker then went exhaustively into 
UM discoveries regarding the exact relation of bac- 
teria to the various methods of cheese and butter 
manufacturers, and pointed out the value of the 
riiHaTffly* of many well M this 

subject. P "t with the action of 

fungi upon the roots of forest trees, and then ex- 
plained the nature of researches and the nit r 
organisms found in manure and soils. With re- 
spect to these it was shown that there now exists a 
sketch of the whole of the down grade of the cycle 
,-anie nitrogen in Nature: it only needs sup- 
plementing by the history of the fixation <: 

_.-n from the atmosphere by leguminous 
plants and certain soil organisms to complete the 
:. In conclusion, he dealt with wheat rust 
and the use of manure. 

Among the more Important naj>ers read b 
this section were the foil.. ta th- Mycelium 

Witches' P.P.,, m Fungus." i, v p. Magnus; 
urn Hirsutum : A Wooo-Dest roving Fungus." 
by. EL Marshall Ward : "The Nucleus of the Yeast 
Plant.' by II. Waircr: "A Disease of the Toma- 
toes," by W. G. P. Kllis: "Ths Chimney-ahaped 
Stomata of Holocanthu Kineryi: Some Coiisidera- 
:i the Functions of Stomata" and " Distribu- 
tion of Nebraska Trees," by Charles E. Bessey; 
-On the Species of Picea in Northeastern Amer- 
ica." by D. P. Penhallow; -Contribution to the 
History of Ranunculus," by John M. Coulter; 
"Vegetation of ^ion of' the Prairie Prov- 

ince,* by Boscoe Pound and F. K. Clements; "The 
Zonal Constitution and Distribution of Plant 
mations" and "The Transition Region of the 
Caryophyllales," by 1. K. c],. m ents : -Note on 
l'l.-uroc.Hcus;' by Dorothea F. M. Pert/; "Sperma- 
toxoids of i-.tegrifolia." by II. .1. Weber; 

"Diagrams illustrating the Result of Fifty Years' 
Experimenting on the Growth of Wheat at Roth- 
junsted, England." by II. K. Armstrong; "Pre- 
liminary Account of | \. -\ v M.-thod -I Investigat- 

ita," by Fran'is Darwin; 
Him II. Campbell; "Lecture on Fossil 

Plant.*." ' K-e of 

zoids th- b\ .1. L. 

William-; "Insemination in ami "On 

more than One Plant from th. hallium." 

J.Lowe; "Results - nmeiits in 

Crow Fertilization." by v. 

brid F.-rn. with R.-marks on Hybndity." | .F. P,. 
Fanner: "Morphology of th- Vascular 

Plant,-" and - The Gametophyte of Px'tryc hium 
virginiannni." by E. C. Jeffrey: M Remark 
Change* in NuinH-r of >iH>rangia in Va^-ular 
Plants," by P. O. Bower; " Notes on Pos 
tace*v* by A. c. - :-t.thrix a 

mycoticaand Allied Species of Stn-|.t..thrix." 
M. Crookshank; M Obsenrations on the < 
<**V by H. B. Macallura. 

Also the following reports were presented before 



: -<>,, ii , (l f Plan 1 

and "<m the Fcrt ili/.at ion of the 

:c." Oil ,-|y notc.l. 

this section met in joint scion \\ith Section I. 
Popular lYiilnrcx. i MI Aug. I'.t tli 

i the 
Coillltess of Aberdeen ga\ 

tion in tin building. 11111- 

l.-cluiv. on -( Metals." I A . ( . 

'. on 
the cvenii 

men of T Unti-: 

i-lc. and the Problem^ \\hich the 
Regio 

given by Dr. 1 1 s. Special sennnns were 

preached mi A :,. dral by 

1 1 Sullivan : in St. .lames'.s Soiiaie I' 
Church by President 1'atloii. of Princeton I 
sity ; andinSt, Michael's Cathedral b\ the K, \. 1 ( . A. 
llalpin and the Kev. l-'ath.-r l.'\.ui. The u-Mial 
t ional .service of the association was held in I he uni- 
^unday under the direction of the Ke\. 
Principal Sheraton. The- ning leetni 

on " Kart h.|Uakes and \"oi> d u;is del: , 

on Aug. 28 by Prof. .John Milne. The usual 
:i l>y the local executive 
inittec in the university building on Am:. '-'I. ( n 

J."> a dinner was given in honor of I.. .pi 
vin. Lord Lis|i-r. an<l Sir .lolni Kvans in the j.a\il- 
imi of the Horticultural iJarden-.. Tu.. inti-r- 
ceremonies during the week were ii atioDI 

of the University of Toronto <>n An-. "J". wlien the 
honorary degree of LL. D. was conferred on Lord 
Kelvin. 'Lord Lister, and Sir John Kvans. and that 
of the t'niver-ity of Trinity College, on Ai. 
when the honorary degree of D. c. L. wa 
on Sir John Kvans Lord Kelvin. Lord 
William Turner, .lames II. liryce, and Sir < 

bertaoik Tin- afternoon entertainment^ in- 
cluded garden parties, several of which wen- held 
on each afternoon during the week. In addition 
t.> the foregoing, a series of four special e\< m 
as follow: To Niagara river. Niagara Falls and 
return; to Mn>kka and return; to IVnetan- 
guishene and return; and to Hamilton. Ni 
Falls, and return \\ : d for Aug. 'Jl : and 

subsequent to the meeting the following BXCUl 

provided for: To Toronto. . 
river. Montreal, ami return; Toronto. Kin. 
St. Lawrence river. Montreal, and return: and 
T<>p,nto. Parry Sound. Algonquin Park. Ottawa, 

Montreal, and return, 

Attendance and Grants. -At the concluding 
meeting, held (.n Aug. 'J5.it was reported to the 
association that those in attendance at the m< 
comprised 1'-'" old life members, 8 new life meni- 
J^ll old annual members and members of t he 
American a-siM-iation. PJ5 new mem be r s, '*2 asso- 
ciates, 100 ladies, and 41 corresponding hoi, 
members. Total in attendance at the associai 

A report from the Committee on Kecomnienda- 

; art grants to the aniouir 

f..r scientific : was adopted. The 

grants were as follow: To establish a meteorolog- 
ical observatory on Mount Koyal. l'5(; to further 

the" fauna and Mora of the Plej-i 
beds in Canada. IX'O; the collection, preservation. 
and systematic registration of Canadian j.hoto- 
graphs of geological inten-t : the biology ..f t In- 
takes "f ( ;:>: the north we-tcjn tribes of 
'.75 : to orgaiii/e an ethnological >ur 
'.;."); the establishment of a biological sta- 
tion in the (iulf of St. Lawrei 

Ne\t Mcetinir. The association will meet in 
1898 in Bristol on - :. and for the 



I. PROGRESS IN 1*7. 









. Crookes. en r*. arc*... 






\ i l*i:m,i;i xx i s i >; : 







hr Sun f . ratmm, .. . MM ' il --> 

!... 

' ; - - 



M!! U- made 
till taki- }!.. 






ihaltcr*. of < nk 



f tin- liuhl 
!i< ll. ' 



!i photograph* taken at 



ormotia di 

It was dis- 
h Hie tele- 

ible. on a mile of 
our |>lani-l f< 
subtended an ancle 

seondofnn at (hr 



j I . , 
' the prominetttn. which emu 

..,;. .- . 

that they belong to the 




fern* that can throw 
ance H.0UO tail 
from in- earth i* in- 



. 



nt th.- tnith .-f thr \Vil~.maii h)|.Mh.-M. :hl 
rwi* .1. 

i measuring a large number of lines to the pbo- 
solar spectrum, and has found that 
e i* a difference of M-veral day* in the rotation 
od* of the outer and inner portions of thr 
osphere. the period increasing as the photo- 
re is approached. He is now engaged upon the 
at the measur. result 

i h tfrvat interest, a* be has perhaps 
rtant ili*..\. TV in twilar 
it ion of Stellar v 

..granner. afford. I. 

TW objects notably those 

in Piscea, Ursa Aajor. and Cane* Venatfci-asTord 
abundant proof when compared with star clast/en 
air The photographs show the nebu- 

lous matter broken up into tar and starlit* looi 
'AT* are well defined, but the 
iilou* margin*, as have those 



an ini| 



brtahtMei 
wUehthei 



differ* but litUe from the 



reimmetwd. He MJ that e^try spiral 
ai a rtelUr noSev 

mr* notd i> taM MD| ritj, UMii 
nebulous cooTolutkxw and involved fCara are T- 
metHrally arranged, and thb ia rtrong < 
,000milea that Owe* feature, are the rvevlt of known 




Miiuim magnitude, an 



nd wh.-n it wa* at half 
gratjtast smi fisiiiMiitioi btgam, r. *..-.-. ^ .'.. . 

trail of spots rmrmnlinc a long train of < ar* 

' a|>|M-ar. 

two n^a- 
>. a(T..r.|nu' a 

'itportuni? ' after al 

pots an> t ..n* instead of depressions ac- 

v. Astronomers are now 

hat the latter, whirh fr on* 

hundred ai v years ha.* held !>way. must be 

i* adurk 

Nurr-'ii!:.!.-.! lv a luminous atmoS|>bere (the 
sphere), and that the |'l5 an' m 
preesiopi. opening t< lark \*\* 

the penumbra is the sloping sides of 
tlu> hole, hundr.iN if not thousand* of miles in 
ii. i-th. The theory appeared so reasonable, and 
VOL. xxxvii. A 4 



rider* that coUisfcae between solUTooitoor 

of M ton , r . ndsV . nj la .1- ) brthtv rH - 



'. -;.-.-. , N - -, \ .r ^, 

and .Yen* Andromeda and many other temporary 
Man* are evidences of eoUWons. Photography. 
fora, shows os nebubr in all rtagea 

nebula in Orion, through spiral nebula*, to cluster* 

CflfWtlal S|Hx-trwiropy.-S|^trosropic analy- 

"iinmou* heavenly bodies 

.ue* with nnabatd enthtiMa.m. Someobser- 

tea make it a special and exclusive study. 

/eta ftippi* prrvrnts an abnormal spectrum, giv. 

ing. in a. : he tuntal h> .!nppn line*, a 

ond serien of rhythmical line*. Sme of t* 

be seen ii 

some being blight and other* dark. 

There IMS been a suspicion that helium is a mix- 

vo elementary gases, as by a processor 

diffusion it 19 possible two get to gases of widdy 



50 



VOCAL PROGRESS IN 1897. 



diff. r, :. densities. Samples of heavy and light gas 
urre examined uir 

;o the inch. nnl in n case was any din*. 

: in the snectra of various sample*. 'I 
hum lino was discovered in (I 
spectrum re vears ago, out until lat. 

could be found on tl,,- fart h. 
was always seen close to tin- D* lux- of sodium, it is 
also known as D*. The spectroscope reveal 

uer in the Min of 28 substances that we are 
familiar with herv. but no oxygen ..r gold. 

.(erring** : :--rt announces the 

safe arrival at the Harvard station. An-.juipa. P. -ru. 

a K'rrat Bruce photographic u*leMMi|* . \\hieh is 
under ful management of IW. Sln I. 

.mg tin- -J 
f faint *ti>. with the lare rism pla 






..irge number -f objeet- 1... 
l-ortra have been detected, includii 

lew, two new ntji .rina- and 

: ! "f tin- Algol typ.-. \V. 



.1111. having a variation of 2-?l magnitudes, 
.r has also been discovered in (Vntaurus 
,g on examining some of tho Draper 

of it DOOM bf seen on I hi- 5."> plates taken from Mav 
June 14. - taken on 

July s iiml 10. lHir>. i id.- was 7'2. In !>- 

r Mowing it had sunk to tin- eleventh mag- 
nitude. It was discovered from the peculiarity . if 
its spectrum as taken on July 18, which resemble! 
that of the nebula surrounding :!< Domdus. ami 
lao ' nil ('atal' \ 

Its j>|< trum. examined visually < 
monochromatic, like nebula, v 

llarvanl College Observatory an immense 
amount of work has been don*-. a- tin- following 

iry will show: During 1896 20,000 photo- 
metric light comjwrisons were made, 4.192 to deter- 
mine the form 01 the light curve of ihe Algol-type 
variab.e \V. Delphini. :j.438 of V. c.-phei. l.16 of 

rrulis, 74 of T. Andromeda. 752 com pa; 

i. and many others, including 26 
eclipses of Jupiter's moons. A study was made of 
parallel lines, similar to the assumed double canals 
of Mars, with the result that is unfavorable to their 
duplicity. In addition. 2,508 photographs hu\e 
been taken with the Draper telescope, and 2,770 at 
Arequipa with the Bacne photographic telescope. 
peculiar spectra have been found on the 
plate. 2'l of them having the hydrogen lines bright 
All these photographic plates are dated, numbered, 
and preserved in a fireproof building. 

Motion of Stars. The spectroscope, in its im- 
proved form, is being used to determine the velocity 
of approach or recession of stars to or from our 
system. In "Monthly Notices of the Royal A 
nomical Society of Knjrland " for June. lsi7. i* the 
result of measures 1 well with the BfUOfl 

spectroscope attached to his 'j.Vim-h refract 

ambiidge Observatory. Kngland. with the fol- 
lowing results: Recession Alpha Tauri(Aldeharam. 
30 miles a second : Alpha <>rionis io- miles. Ap- 
proach Gamma Leonis, 87'5 miles; Arcturus, 6'8 

:..... -. 

Broadening of Line*. Dr. Zuman has discov- 
ered that the spectral lines in a magnetic field are 
lima-l ;.is fact is const 1 im- 

iortance in connection with astrophysical i 
Prof. Lodge has succeeded in shovvtn^ that the 
lines not only broaden, but are split m. into twos 
and threes and even more. Dr. Xuman s discovery 
is con-idrn-d the most impf.rtant that has been 
made during the pn 

lioTa Auriga, This remarkable temporarv star, 
which in less than two months in the beginning of 



1809 changed from the fourth to the fourteenth 
magnitude, and then increase. I to the .)?! h. and so 

.ne. I f,.r ; . 1\ cliaiiiriim into a 

nebula, has red ; ..^ain to the ele\-nth 

magnitude. Nothii. i//linu r to 

astronomers than t: r of thi> extraordi- 
nary ' 

Neu llolil.le St.ll'x. ,.f doul.le 

aml triple stars has reached enormon- proportions. 
\\hi-i n like 

111. Whieli . ' the exception 

in-tcad of the rule. '--I.. mhly Notice** 1 f-T 

I li-t of 1 M :eil at the 

The position 

angles di-tniices. and n, ..f the r..mpo- 

and their places for 11MHI-0 j The 

! the 

southern >ky l.y Dr.T.J.J. See. while at Mr. I 
ell's temporary ..!-, ; the city of >|, 

di-c. ral new pain, and several double 

and wide pairs which he resolved into trip!' 

One which de-er\e- particular mention i- 
Mu Velornm. of nearlv the third magnitude, and 
Mipanion. of the eleventh. Tin- pair \\.. 

vio\isly discovered i>\ Kueil of s\dm-y. AU-- 

the - A-'iroiiomical Jo'urna'l. 
". \-suining that tin-re i- IM> tvpogiuphica] 
error in tho angle given, it i- clear that \\> 
here a case of i-apid. direct motion: a change of 

implies a period not far 1: 

century." He' finds t hat Alpha Pirn-nice- ami Kta 
Centniiri an- binaries, and many oil 
subsequent Iv. 

Prof. S. \V. P.urnham.of the Verkes Ol 
the distinguished double-Mar di--., \-en-r and ol- 

Berver, condemns maoy of the p>eudo orbits ( ( f al- 
leged binaries. Among those recently crit. 
are Lambda Cyirni and Xi- A<juarii. II 
several astronomical publications diagrams of tin- 
supposed orbits, and shows in the case of Lambda 

: that a straight line sati-fies the <.!,-. 
p">itions of the components better than '. 

napp's ellipse with it- !:{-J-year period, and 
that in the case of Xi* Ajuarii 'it mayha\- 
period between three hundred and fifty years and 
1,578*33 years. All this, he says, i- the result of a 
premature attempt to fit orbit- to such -tar- after 
t hay have been ob-crved through but a .-mall part 
of their orbits. These facts are -trikingly exhibited 
in his drawings and comments thereon. 

s peclroscopic Binaries. Prof. r\,-\, 
nounces the spectroscopic duplicity of .Mu 1 Seorpji 
from an examination of the Draper Memorial 
photograph.- by Prof. Mailey. Arc<|iiipa. The 
trum is of the fii-^t t \ pe. and also contains lines 
characteri-tic <.f the Orion stars. The spectl 
both Mu 1 and Mu 3 are clo-e 1 
the negative plate, and on -oiue plate- they p: 

J -imilar appearance. The line- in the 
tmm Of Mu* are alway- -in-le and -harply define.l, 
but thos' of Mu 1 sometime- -.TOW broad and 
and then dc.uble. The same chai.. n-.te'd 

by Mrs. Fleming on plates taken in ! .'and 

in ISM (July 20 and :il). which leaves no doubt that 
One Of tlie Component! i- a -ingle -tar: the other, 
Mu 1 . a sp- d<ublc. The i.erioil o( 

Majo!i- i- lift \-t\vo days, of P.eta A 
3 d gk 46", while that of Mu is only :M h 42" W in a 
circular orbit. Another-: : i<- double hav- 

ing the same period as Beta Auriga i- the star 
:irht ascension 14 h 407 ; declinu- 
uth 25 5' 18'. 

Prof. A. IVlopolsky has found that Alpha 1 (Jemi- 
norum. one of the conij.anion- .,f Ca-tor. i- B 
o-<-oj.ic binary. In January. ISJM;, he, I 
the inve-tigation <.f" this star by spectrum ph 
raphy,and lie found as the result of 80 photograph! 



.1. PROG 



IN 1091 









m between January and Airil that the 

i.-.-r [fa - --f r. ' MI, .. .. . ._ 

ics obtained, it was found thai there was a 

o ve|oeilir% ai.l 



/ . ..-..-.;. : - 

ho i*rl>i(al HHTiJtriii OF 

,:f I.-M-U I.Atebtt* 



ftXIsrofery and Orbit of sirln*.-ThU. the 

. 



' 




ami t 

U "*-, t T- - - 



, 

;!,. f ;i 



periodical 

that all line* on tlu> photographic plat.- will appear 

l-P-ach ni 

us the lines will appear hazy, 
f the stars 

displaced toward ' nnd tho* 

Tbots 

lines, tiring photographed at short intervals, pro- 
ascertain 

! til-! it;.; "f t': littOl I* i' f T !!, nsSSMUMI ' 

r*otoW - < '..;.r. .,1.1 1-; batsja* 

.. BjpJbked. 1- " .v-. ..f M.I >-. rj.n 't . ir x,-l i- 
ties in all pmbaliility Amount to several hundred 






inwper nyrtjim, it was fc ** 

hither by 

an unssen companion, and a period vas r^trralan 
for it of about fortv-*ii;! <*ire the 

|*r were walrl. 

lth A* too short from which to deduce even an 
MBMrfftMh rr.r. sj i tttl - ilti . 

MM years. The last vi. -mrnafrrn wa* 

obtained by Burnham in !->.;. the W-inch trie- 

scope at the Li 

" - r.! .... i f . B/M Intl r i .... 

a half it wa* t*yond the res* h of any teJescof- 
the laitrr ,*rt of 1866 Prat Aitkn, 

:coverad it. The arc pass*! 
r,.m,,mon during its inrt, 

> -nifle when discovert*! by < Urk t. 

J motion, from < 

period was computed by Bumhain. who m 
Al-Myean. Thea|iirrnt orbH b given in -Mcothly 

l7.as: 1 
length of minor axis, ft-:; to c 

a.ir M.-J.MH ; period, ',1 - S] BJ 

hat the binary 

distance 

n..| l:..retof.,n- IN-.-H u.|^t-l t.. I. . 



short periotl binary, but it j^ari from lr 

.im that I, n-v..!utK>o has beso OUSA- 



. 



IllBarlr*.- Th, .li^.rrry ,,f 
imiin.l MIII. mi- 1 the computation 
*n<l prru. 

omers a resistless charm. New once art- constant ly 
the lonf list '40 known 

y stars. In il> 

' 

!i yrar*: then came 
Kia r..n.ii-. wilh a fieri.. M-arm ami. 



ears. T went r Tears 






The star i* Itumhain * 



Ii.-r.-!i> .- w.i- a* aftAii.. -h 
<am, ami in 1887th 
Fsni 

eonjMH 
rm, 

11. Tbeshortnessof. 

OS a long way over the gap that fparates the 
telescopic from the -| ries. The 

was latrlv ma 
I>r. ] 

i leave no iloubt that hi* 
f thit 

^le of m 

contor. 007 : i- r;.-i. !;\. \..ir^ .t:. : . : all 



pletcd since Burnham's discovery ii 

it one of the most interesting binary systatt 

htOjfl !.v 

>temft.-That the heavens afford 
-t.ir -\-'- Hi- U -!! - ' sj .- |t fi '.* 
1 :. f . but Proctor's opinion that five of the seven stars 
comprising the bowl of the great dipper in r n* 
Major nn thti-. associated does not meet with gen- 
eral acceptance. In the first place, their proper 
motions are so small as to form a very slender 
thread on which to hang so strong a theory. 

'tvorahle to the idra . f a physical con- 
nection between the fire that they all present the 
same kiix: Kta. admittedly 

01 I- : iff" _ . .-.- 

\lpha h^* 

than half the velo. 
other six. 

iable Slarx-Tbediscovery of variable stan 
has been posh*! ith an 
known. Ac its fM-osetutioii 
inMniincnt* it |n-n* A f.\- :...: ^ r . : T..I 

Journal- the best a 







kering. in 
Ml, fires an 



be journal 
which give full details of MttBOJohen. It the 

with hem Onl 
n be notic. 
Uto i i . Hi , \ 

f the diseovery by Prot 
Bailey, at Arrquipa.of numeroos variable 
certain gtobulv clostetm. and their entire 

.ers. apparently Monging t.. the same claw. 

then he ban found many more, so that their 

total numtier now known, including a few found at 

ridge, is :: can 

the Omega <entatiri cluster 
Bailey hot detected 60. and in Messier 5 
General Catalogue 5904) 68 have been discovered. 

Mars an 
ID the cluster in Hercules not < 



ASTKo\"MK AL PROGRESS fN 1897. 



The number thu< far dtscorertd average* 89 to * 

r nf variable* scattered o\ 

.or the l-st rr|N>rt 
fl dfarowrvd nnd nblMMQ the 

... . . ; : s . < ; .. . A luilfl I v 

ar* nuvlljr mu them, bayoad the rwirh of Mr William 
he) and of all northern observatories. Isaac 
Robert* in photographing rlu.ion. nnd nebub 
found on life ncgalivc plaUw I? now nebula* . 

aUloglM. On. in riffht MCen-i-.n 

1*^ !*>; drdinaiion north 96* 87 &'. is remark 
, N f . , , li-noii* 

.... -, ,, . , , ., .,; li, 

nrarlv as largr and 
. nebula. 

. forming <t Mraight 
jular.as he says, that this 
so Ion* mi* " ni,-r. 

r. can not wilwcribe to his opinion, that it 

v .. || ;:,_- t ||C DOSl 

half century. If h.- t- right in his bold eondu-ion. 
it raises a new and curious question of mighty im- 
port. Astronomer* are familiar with n.-.\ rtan, but 
the advent of new nebula* is a novelty needing in- 



' 



latlonnof Men-no. Ncniis. and 1 ran us. 
Herr Leo Brenner, of the Hanoni Observatory, 
claims that he has determined the rotati n periods 
of all the* planets. He has forwarded JO drawings 
of Mercury, which show not onlv evidence of change 
in the planet's markings, but also polar M,,,U 
which on one occasion were as bright as th 
the poles of Mars, from which he argues that the 
observed markings prove that the slow rotation of 
the planet in eighty-eight days is an impossibility. 
The discussion of the rotation periodsof Mercury and 
Vena* has assumed vast proportions, with exhibi- 
tion of some as|*nty. In Monthly Notices" for 
January, 1897, Percira) Ixwcll. from his private 
observatory at Flagstaff, Ari/ona, publishes some 
interesting observations made by him on Mercury 
and Venus. He finds the markings on Mercury to 
be conspicuous, and easier, in comparison, to see 
than any of the markings on Mars except the seas. 
Thrv were visible at all times when the seeing was 
food. Those on Venus are long and narrow, and 
perfectly distinct . The disk is quite dear ,,f clouds 
and is brightened by a luminous atmosphere. There 
it no evidence of the existence of polar ice caps. 
Prom careful drawings, he concludes t hat t he jenod 
of rotation is undoubtedly equal to her revolution 
two hundred and twenty-live days. In a rcct-nt 
number of the - Publications of the Astronomical 
Society of the Pacific." IW. Holden says that he 
has observed Venus from 1873 to 1880, with tele- 
scopes of 6, 16. 26. and 36 inches apert un-. without 
seeing mark ing* of the kind depicted bv Mr. Lowell. 
and add* : - I have no hesitation in saying that such 
marking* as he has shown did not exist on \ 
before 18BO. nnd it is my opinion that they do not 
now exist on the planet, but are illusions of 
sort." Hrrr Brenner makes the rotation period of 
theplanet Uranus about eight and a quarter hours. 
rm. The long-disputed question of the value 
e compression of Mars has at length l.n 
settled beyond further controversy. The eye. i,, 
Bewaring disks, is influenced by errors of estima- 
tion in different directions with respect to th. 
ticalline. Since the use of small r 
on the eyepiece of the heliometer has bern a/1' 
in which the diameter of a planetary di-k can be 
made to appear in any direction with rasped to the 
vertical, it is possible t< 

normal eye estimations. Prof. W. Schur. of the 
Rand Om rratofjr, QOtttngi ;..-_. u. p* i 
bcliometcr objective of 162 millimetres in diac 



armed with a power <-f 171. from tlio menu of Ber- 
th* equatorial diameter 
.ml the jM.lar Mpiv^ioii = ^ 

the ^..utli jiolar -|>ol on 
for belief 

that ! -'liter \\:c* not \arie.l fo|- 

. Ired \ears. and that after entire 

.in form around 

HIM- jHiint. During the opposition <>f .Margin 
1M96 111- i i lie polar cap was watched 

with great intercut after, its disappearance in i s '.'i. 

rulli was the lir-l to delect the newly formed 
n .lime. l^!n. and from his microniel Heal 

measures the following oo-ordi tiedue.Mi: 

Areograpli : ,,lar li-iance. 
.Martian of six Immlreil 
which for the north- 
ern hemi-pher. Imted as follow 
one hundred and ninety-four: summer, one hun- 
dred and seveiily--ix: autumn. hundred and 

; \vo ; and \\inter. one hundred and lift 
< oiitirmalory of the existence - aid seas on 

m. -lit of < 'apt. I'. B. MolesWorth, of 

h a relli'cling b : '.'i in-h. - 

aperture, without any previoi^ knowledge of S-hia- 

pAralu's dnwingi. hM dnwn the canals and seas, 

which differ but little from tho-,- of Sehiajiarelli. 

hers. Other a-troiioim-rs be 
mentioned above have filed claims to their 
di-eo\-erie>.. notably Jb-rr I'.renner. who claim- to 
-een as nmm a- :;i i-anaN not 1 ; -,led. 

During the last opposition the canals were seen 
d'>ul' \n important point. 

if true, 'in connection with the doubling "f the 
canals, is the liability of some of the .i 
called lakes, to become double also, which rai-cs the 
<|iie^tioti whether the duplicity of the 
not after all an optical IllntiOQ OMind by SOUP 
feet iii the eye or the telescope. 

Asteroids. The following iftt*roids,or planet- 
oids, or minor planets, as they are variously called, 
the last report : 



No. 


NUM. 


Dhoormr. 


DMft 


418 

419 

430 
421 ... 

::: 


cv 
cw . . 

DA.. 


Wolf 

Wolf 
Wolf 

Wolf 

Will 

Cbari 


S.-|.t. 7. IS-.HI. 

^. 


. 


DC 








DD 


( 'hni 


!..- ::i 




DE 


Charl. is 


Dec 81 




DF 




Dec. 81 




DO... 








I'll 


Charloifl. . 






M 















The following have received names: 



m 


Hamherga. 


:us 


May. 


I4W 


,1,1 


MI 


Kixtviiiinii. 


BO 


Ornament*. 





Bertl 


lei 


in la. 


M 


nova. 






M 


Banaontaita. 


m 




m 


Una, 


847 


Pariana. 


418 


Edburga. 







Jllpitor. The rapid change- in .Iupit.-r'< north 
equatorial belt are attracting much attcnii 

at increase in width, which is now 
nearly equal to that of the southern. This is more 
remarkable as following a period of 



The cause of these changes in his atmo-pherc. the 
sudden appcarnnce of spots (white, black, and 
tinted), and of his immense belts ami their 

doubling, and projecting of marginal spurs 
from them, often fantastic, and numerous other 
phenomena must ever furnish fruitful question- 
for speculation. Many of these details were seen on 
Feb. 23. 1897, the faintest of which were seen only 
by glimpses and vanished before they could be 



1. PROGUBB IV 1*97. 



* in breadth, ll- |--r*IMr|K*> 

**l remark al 

it had a tr 

ublful If 

.o 11)11. h, ft- '!:.- linage Of 

fifth fwitdllti* WM meastr 

places agreeing with Mar' ell. 

ith 

lift* ilHrr- 
''rml ami poln 

:!..! .H51. 

The n|.|Min-iit diameter* generally 

; 



notion la 



Considerable areunu-r. The 
400*1* ai. 

uotiaa to only half a second of an . 









>, Jupiter f%"fr 



it has i^rii I.-L Kven in IK H 

aay - eooH u at any 

been ohBnrcl at aitMhrr rHum it ai. ..ulr be a*- 

h ..- r '.'.. I- s aj '- ... - :--:. 

.nit an.l in coo*irable icmth 

cpni drtectloo there to 

i .;. i- aj W - ' '-' :- : 

iHirrnM-hrlll.. II: , - ' ^ 

iiaknl rye onlr. Always to the iodiac and 




. ii. wji ' . : 

.11 Januarv. IHII . 

n f riff i"ii:il \< .ir \-> i ) -I. an !: ! v l-- ~ n .r .'! 
in the ncighttorlKMil of 

I another a.Miti. n t the long list 
comets. It wn- 

1 >eo. 8, 1806. It hail a star- 

I 

th.- ink- .1 \. . I 1 .- -! m< :.'-. v i MI one par- 
tr a close resemblance to those of t h.- 

nts of 
both are ph^ed aide by aide for comparison : 



I Hjeara, 




being generally about to* in 

IT K 

odfaral band V .r h eitrnding from it 

h the morning and ereolnf iiiaraJ lighu 

ran, aa haa aUo Prof. Srarle. -f llananl r^lew 

nriianl ha* mrnllT deetrftud m 

.. tiii'til Journal." So. 408. May, 

{raranrr* a* follow*: - Wbeii 

<n in autumn it is unaccoaspejiied by A 

codiaral baml. but later, when it* right mctfAm 

in (^ 0. it beoomea elli|>li<-al and the band apprara 

to the aiirxee of the evening and mum* 

ingrodUcal li|>ht. There appear* a 1 m. 

an oecillation cast and wet of al.ut 1 . ith a 

tend* - leaa longitude than 180*. It im- 

.mi on any hrpotheato the caoae of 

this light < r n ral 

* them not r*, after much i 

follow i i 




of 
that it is caused by refracted ai 

n the same manner as the red 

thrtM :trth's atiu.-p) 

Utween sunlight and dark 



a 



fractetl dowrn ui n the Moon and then feebly re* 
rendering her visible, all boajrh 
thr Krth- shadow. In tbu 



the Moon that to the reflector, but in the 
dost that to 
all 



-.*/ /.*f/7 / .This c- 

parabola, ai 

case of the OefMisrAeiii it t> 

can ever visit our system the ^N,H| time. It rle- the refl.t ti.r. that <>ur atin<-| 
menu arr 

tied in the order of perihelion pass,, 

.tion. 146 H S4-9'; 
distance Earth 



prrpiated with dust, to conceded by all 
kronomeri That the light is alw.rs oppoaite the 
- a significant point In favor of this hypothe- 
sis. The subject is att racttof incraasvd attenrion, 
and there to hope that the cause of this strange 



;l , (bond il tin LMi Otmrrnton h r. 



riMonJonaSa, 

- 1' 46" 29*. This to its terent h r. 
since ita dtocm \rr.-t in iv.i. It is the 

nt of nil the snort-period comets and often 
anafea deie^ion. thofn alwaji atrafM raj lfy 

Tt ti<dletto Attran M : ,, hi M a W9I 

..llU'h ill*rs|| tfa t|,,M !% 1. >, Imlohf 

hail previously suggested the probable 

it of I^xall. and re- 

quested astronomera to obtain aa long a seriea of 

elliptical elements with th* utmost accuracv. Those 



Uf it iToother po*f^nl n. equally 
tnapttoAbli S ptriMfi h fi ' ' 

Oqfi****. to the Bodiaoal light, visible aa a broad 
conical luminous beam to the west a? 
during the autumn ami winter months and to the 
.....'. . ,. . . .._..,... __ . ... | , , 

MII^BMI^IIII l*m.m nan lit ! Wjt^M lkt I K<. Iirt4<t { 

pecwvecope nas recenuy anown inai me iigni 

.n.;cf.- r. :'. -, ! '-. ::. : , tt . ' 

t rented, therefore, as a luminous ring 



eK.r1hin*te.lofUwSun. 
I n IHcat Ion of Tine. ThetotofMtkoalunifica- 

o has been adopted in nearlv 1 
try eept Framv. S ( in. an.l PortupU. En^and. 
Belgium^ IMlJ.i. and Luxemburg we western 
European time. Central time to adopted by Italy. 
Hand. Germany. iK-nmark. Xorwav, and 
Sweden. Knivia. Koumania. Bulgaria, and Euro- 






ASTKNMI< \I. PROGRESS IN' 1897. 



r*an Turkey use es*t -alia. 

Zealand, and Japan the 

11 hours fa*t of Greenwich. 
Canada and ih- u- f",r time tones, 

tire, six, srv.-n. and ,-u-ht hours slow of ( i 

A i a 4^ that i>. the next 



liror 



will t 




Mlecheny. Pa., for l>r. n 
Astronomical and Physical Obnerratory. 



waldfs 

Mafdebarg. Germa. -1 f-t long and re- 

T a room 96 feet square. The 
ruled with 
~ line* to the inch, between which there i- n<> 



grvas r than three mlllioothi f an inch. 
It rrTeai* in the solar pe<trmu ..\,-r 'J.uoo lines be- 
hwtny; to iron. In tin- infancy of >| 
the odium line (Fraunh ;deivd 

- doubles, 
call* - mammoth instrument shows 

.louble an apart are the pairs that 15 

Hoc* am revealed between (hem. Some ,.f them, 
and fierhap!* all. mav turn out to belong to our at- 
DlOfpbere. It a]-> donblei the famous helium line. 
- The sjH-etrum of the Sun has been photo- 
graphed by it to <W feet in length. uowded with 
. to end. Ii i> - 1 that, no 

matter what |art of the spectrum i> de-in-d to be 
pbotograf plate is always in 1 

The following method of photographing the 
spectrum and t hat of other heavenly bodies can not 
fail to ettle many di-put. 1 points and may origi- 
;t. many new ones as it -ettles. Suppose it is 
desired to ascertain whether any terrestrial -ul>- 
stance, say calcium, i- in the condition <>f au r a^ in the 
i'iie sunlight i- turne<l int.. t In- 
fill of the spectroscojM. narrowly closed for sharp- 
Deft of the lines to be photographed, and photo- 
gmph the center of the Sun <m tin- center only of 
the negative plate. An opaque bar i- now placed 
over this nart of the plate. The electric . in . ]j u j,t, 
in which has been placed in the < 
lower carlM.n pencil a small piece of calcium, is 
turned on the slit and the spectrum of calcium is 
photographed on each side of the opaque l>ar. When 
the plate is developed then- is a picture on which 
:rum with it- lin.-> i- shown, and 
if there In- any in the Sun's s|H-ctrum they can in a 
moment be identified by their coincidence. If this 
be the case we knw that calcium exists in the 
of vajK-r in the Mm'- atmosphere. 

\ - rken Obwrratory. The largest and mo-t 
powerful refm --ope in the world has 

;ly been successfully mounted in the Verkes 
Observatory, at William'- Hay, \\ ,-"..n-in. n.-ar the 
shore of Lake Geneva, 75 niiles north of Ch: 
The glass, 40 inches of clear aperture, has be. 
experts pronounced of MI |--rir x,ellence and has 
been received by the trustees. Much is expected 
of this gigantic telescope, which, from norne discov- 
eries already made and re|*.rUHl. will not disappoint 
the generous donor. CharlenT. Yerkos. of Ch 

lata will give the r .; hing 

of an idea what the making and mounting such a 
telescope In time, skill. lat*>r. 
means. The amount of the la", r. includin. 
observatory, was more than $1.(X)0,000. Th- 
disks of crown ami flint glai*. 41 f inche* in 1 
ter. each free from *tria\ bubMi^, ami inequality of 
density, cost in Pan-, in the rough. al-.Mt th- 
of two large, thin grindstones, $40,000. Four years 
were spent br the late Alvan G. Clark, at Cam- 
bridgeport. Mass., ii. . them t the right 

- and polishing them. The ], ar available 
aperture is 40 inches, and so perfect are the figures 



f th.- four surfao- that f li-rht fn-m a 

I'racted and dis- 

d by the i-rown disk and again opp.'-itcly n-- 
fra-ted ly the flint to a \ery -mall j>oint. The 

tedobj ...;:- an object 
II. wis $100,0(H' 

unds. The outer <T..\MI len- 
inches thick at the I " t in. -h at th 

and weighs 200 IK. uinl-. The heavy Ilint-u'la-- di-k 
iiiclie- thick at the edge and' 1$ inch at the 
(enter, and \\ > pound-. The t\\-> 

glasses in their eel! 
sultii the combined 1. The 

tlll.e is of -heet slei-l. Jil feet lo|| U 'ai|il "'J illclie- III 

diameter at the middle, tapering toward the 

and u ' , liich 

f i-ast iron, rise to a height . and 

A win<linu r -taircase ascend- to the 
driving-doek room ami iva.ln ,nd to the 

balcony -urn.unding the head. Th- polar a - 
of steel. l."i inches in di.i feet |on_. 

. The deelinaticn . 

I 1 . 1 inches in diameter. IP feet long, and 
weighs 1^ ton. The driving clod. ton. 

and is wound automat ically by an electric i: 
A double conical pendulmii controls the <ii 
clock, and is geared to the main driving ul 

feet in diameter, which, together \\itll the tllle, 

weigh 'JO ton-, driven inexact sidereal time. The 
in diameter, i- rai-ed ami de- 
|.r. ed 'J.'i fe.-t I -v ;m 



liy simply 

touching a imtton. so that a high observing cbau 
is not required. The center of motion "f the tele- 
scope ' from the 11. ...p. The dome i> the 

largest in the world, and weigh ; 

1'iihlirations.-- Harvard College 
has lately published two volunn - "f it- anna! 
concluding the /one observation-., which has ex- 
tended through VoU, \\. XVI, XXV, XXXV, and 
the one just is-ued. XXXVI. The other is dev.-. 
a description of the spectrum of bright -tars photo- 
graphed with the 11-inch hraper tell 1 di-- 

red by Mi A. < . Maiiry. Tw hundred and 
fifty pages of Vol. XXV are 'devoted to di-cii i..n 
of the proper motions of the -tars. d. dm -ible from 
the observation*. In a -cries of preliminary 
-he has di-cn ed the relation of the spectra of the 
Orion .-tar- to that of helium. 

Pri/es. The following o been award e<l 

rononiers -ince the la-t nport: The Laland 
i.ri/e of .110 francs was awarded to M. Pni-d. 

his selenographical work. The Valz prize was be- 
stowed on M. I'os-ert for the reduct ion of old . 
vatinn- pn-vioijsly inacce>-ible. The .Ian-sen 
was given to M". l>e-hindre- f.,r hi- -tu.lie- and 

i gat ions in spectroscopy. The Mr-. .Iack-on- 
(iwilt medal, of the |{ ( ,val Afltronoiniofl Socjrtyof 
Kngland. was awarded for the Jir-t time to hr. I 
Swift, of the Lowe Obs< i Mountain. 
California, for his nuinerou- d 

anil nebui i of a large bn.n/e me-lal 

and x The prixe- <,f the Paris A< ;i-l- 

r led a- fullows: The 
f <5.(HK franc- has U-cn divided 
-rion- and t" M. Manic, for t ! 

plication of t l.e g\ ro-cope \ .let,.]-iiiine the altitude 
of the star* at sea. M. Faye, the distinguished 
astronomer of France, has been awarded a gold 
modal l>y the Pari- Academy, in honor of his jubi- 

having b at in 1H47. The 
A-t n-nornical Soei.-ty of England be-towed 

-.'A medal on Dr. K. I ;. I'.arnard for ll.. 

the ffth satellite to .lupiter. and other 
ini|H>: ttomy. The (ierman 

a-tron.mer Prof. Dr Arthur Auwer-. ha- received 
from the (ierman Kmpep.r a gold medal for his 
services to science, especially to astronomy. 






.miie. has 
five equal 

*. All the fire parts are open to the world. 
. basis of 4 per nt. interest each pri* 

me*. It .d the 

tetsrsst o* one of them appUe* mv. Mr. 

II. v, 

-. The aw art! i to be 
.i-tn.m.mt ami 
physics which in the opi 

>tha. 

o Pacific f-T the- f. uii-i.i 

.r.|. d annually, a- a 
' astronotny, ami 

nl has offered a mr 

;..,.., fa^ . ,_ ., . .. ,,.., , ,. ,. f , ;itl 

fled problems. Of t base, five are in conno< -inm with 
ioal astro* i r.. r 

ns U given in 

l.nn.ir l li..|,,-r.i|.h\ . 
n. k.''- |rtsj MWIgeincnt* of tin lunar crater Mn 

has been issued as a *|K--iin.-n ; 
Idea of i 

r the 

M- taken a: 
i i|ta observatories. 

< H Oil Jll| 

that 

in a ^ :IT be 

"e in one Mil):. 

on* al noon, and another in't 

- lasting SI" 21*. an.l th. 
and aft. 

\\. until Int.- 10' 88' is 

<* meet, but <i 

;. where the morning; and aft. rn.-n <(dipSSS 
will last 4- - rrmarkalilc t! rtain 

i three fifth* t.f 

ng natur.. i totality. 

V I v | |; v | \x| \. ,,|, ( . ,,f th.- cr 

> contment of Australia 
:tnd colonies of in-at Untain. wit). 

/ h th* i \ 1 ut.-h and 

m portion man pro- 

t. . ! r.it. - f l'.:-r: n -v \ ' . :- |sjM Mi 1 ' ' ' :"::. 
S-l..rn..n l-'.jin-l-.. 'I;.- Kren.li , . :\ f N.w ni. - 
donia,and the y I. ^ ami smaller islands 

ralasiaare 

! -endencies. The fire colonies 
In Australia and New Zealand and Tasm 

representatiTe les> 

uic*. and making all it laws timl.-r a 
. Parliam. 

vnal 
it and the apix^llat* n f the 

-d coniief n. 1 ' 

resent ,j 1 : ct>Iony. who as the 

btJMJ of the colonial 



the adriee of the responsible minister*. *. 
from the party or combination i 

e LecWatire Assembly. Fiji u m 
n colon v. in which the i 
lrii wn chiefs in accordant* 

\i.-a and I'pultloa.-The ami in square 

'. British Australasian oolonJes. 
io the most recent estimates, and 



; .. 






S-Ulh AuUr 

AUfttr 








' - 



Th- 
oni.-% 111 



' ; .- '. -. . .. . 



tea 



| ,-i, v, .., - 













v 



K 






of which was 

I : .-. i !>"..;; 

t IK* cold _ 



fears the increase in the popnlation 
Vales was 288^80. orer 88 per cent. 

:he natural 

l-ulsit AalrTcom. 

i males and 592.710 females. The 
v. the capital, was estimated at 
The arrivals by sea 
7W1 . and 




Chinc*e immiffranl most par a poll Ux c 



The number of 

- 

areraer a' 
51..VUV pupils* $86 were Roman Catnolk 

-, ,,T cent, of the population of Victoria 
irne. the capital, which 

had: 1890, there are the towns 

:'J88\ Bendigo, or Sandhurst, 

with I.'.:HI. <M,-1. n k -. with Jl *,:-,. and numerous 

i||sx j .i HM number of n in m I8M 



number of arrivals br 
sea in I85 was 81.199; of departures, 88JSW 

re males and 23.718 fe- 
crrnntA orrr immiirrants. 
de|rtur Australia and 

nger colonies, ha > 

.;.^: BJ 1894 < lltta l88\ijMI i MM 

education is secular and com- 
itheafssofsixandthirtarn. There 
1.929 stale schools in 189.*. 
and 282.082 enrolled pupils, with 184..%7t* in average 
attn, 

The total cost ofjpublj 
manr e<lucation in 1H95 was CC2O.HSS. Tns schooU 

in-ly sup|>ortr<l l.y tho -lute. 
Of a total population of 893.718 in 



- 

are toun 

ii :.;-: 









.rthcrn di-tn. ! 



m district 9* 

r;i in N 



! the 

ri district 968.784. of th. 

iaii 

.:.<KW in lr 

t!*nd. amt 14.010 tit (Jermany. The 
,. r ..f iin- In 1H05 was 80,066, and ..f 

emigrants 94^88. The arrivals of (I. 

>ud departures 805; arrivals >f I '.] \ncsians 
ninnln-mi 1.312. ami departure* 77:1. Th- numl..-r 

^Sttto 18W WWlSl ; of l.,ri 
leati of i 

. ;> , . ;;. is,:-,; ;,., i, 

teacher- and an average attvodaUM ..f 4vJ7o pu- 

h then were 188 i 

n avrrajp attendance of 1<U H' pupils Tho 
,< Kate schools in 1805 was KITS 

.vie compulsory by statute. l,.,t the 
lawii 

The population of South Ai. nsisted of 

IM.lfll male* and 171. IX' females. In the north- 

ry there wms a population of 4.7-VJ. of 

Whom 3K' \ ielaide. the eapital. 

had .l.al.itants. The number "f mar- 

riage* in 1805 was 2.04*. of In ;. ..f 

deaths* 8JK1; excess of births, 6.616. The num- 
ber of immigrants in 1805 was 86,?(^. and of emi- 
grants 40.489. Klu-ati..n is free, secular, and com- 
pabory. I'uMie lands are set apart for the support 
of the schools, of lu.-h th. n- were r,:!l. \vidi 511 
pupils, ineludinir :i\2 pro\ i-ional schools, in 1895. 

The population of Western Australia inen 
from 20,708 in 1881 to 40,782 in 1*'.M. which was at 
the rate ..f 6 75 |*r cent, a year. In the next five 
rears the increase was 165 per oent < >f t h- popu- 
in lH06the males nuinlK-n-,1 !i:;.7<>1. and the 
females 88,346. These figures do not include the 
_-ine.s whose numbers can not be otimated, 
an they lire mostly in regions not vet explored. 
There were 5,670 of them in service with the whites 
in 1801. The population of Perth, the capital .-f 
Western Australia, was estimated at 19.533 in 1895. 
of the whit.- jNipnl..- .Hi. could not 

raid nor writ.- in 1*'.M. Kducation is compulsory 
and gratuitous. There wcr rnrnent schools 

in 1805, with 4,685 pupils in attendance, and 19 as- 
sisted schools, with 1.708 pupils. 

The population of Tasmania increased between 
1881 and 1801 at the rate of 3-84 per cent, per an- 
fhe latter date 107,901 of the population 
natir<*<.f y. while LM5. !>?."> had come 

fr..m the HritMi Islands and 7.:{'> fn.m Au-tralia. 
and there were 018 Germans and 943 Chi 
Since then about 8,000 more persons have !> -n 
born every year than have died. lut for a part of 
the time the emigration has exceeded the immigra- 
Kducation is compulsory, out still 25 per 
of the population in 1891 i-..ii Id nt r.ad and 

.-inentary x-hools in 

with 19.W>? pupils enrolled. and 17'J private schools, 
with 7.07:t papUs, The CJ'.vernmeni expended in 
that year 85.501 on education. 

The population <>f . :i! ,d on Apr; 

1808, was composed of 871.415 males and :;::i.'.u:, 
females. The increase over the prt>< . r was 

W per cent. The ditri<-t -f Au.-khind.'with an 
area of 25.746 square miles, had 153.504 inhai.it- 
ant*: Taranaki, &V808 square miles. 3 1.17 ". : Welling- 
ton. ll.OOiUqnare miles, 121354 : HawkVs Bav. 
square miles, 4.0- 

miles, 12.483; Kelson, 104560 square miles, &. 
iles.14,460: 






rbur>', 



14.040 square miles, 185,886; Otago, 25.487 square 
miles, 163.944. The population of the North iiland 
was340.631 : of the South i-land. 362.236: of 
Wand, 252 ; of Chatham Islands, 23 i adec 



: Ineluilin^ Maoris, the total population 
shown by the census of 1806 wsj . Phen wen 

:!.711 Chinese, of whom Of the 

iale-an.l IS/JJM> females. Their 

IliimUT include.- :i.."U 1 half-ea-le> li\ in U ' :i- lliellll.ers 

of th<- mi i IMIS- 

1 ! the white population it'.U. ;;;: iv-ided in 

the rural di>lricts. :{(I7.^'.U in Lonu, n ad- 

i-land*. and I'..:',*] \v . -hip-. 
Wellington, th<- capital, contained M.7:>s inlialut- 

Indiii- -ul.url- ; Auckland. .~>7.l'ill': 
I hulled:- The 

number of immigrants in 1895 was i.'i >;.' : .. f emi- 
grant : ill. lie 
schools in isJMi. with ::.:{s(J teaeh.T- and 
rolled pupil-, "f whom In; 

telid.r : KMktiofl I- .:id 111 the 

settled ill-' I,,,., U 

numbered ;:. with TJ7 teachers, and an a. 
attendani-e of 'J.OS.J seholar-. The : 'ioo|-. 

298 in nunilier. had 770 teacher- and 1 !.<>:.< pupils. 

Nuance-. ! i , ts of the several <,'. 
for 1 Sid and tl. their drill- for the li-eal 

ndini: .lune :'o, IS'.M;. ji. 

.-land, and Soiit h Au-l ralin 
81, 1805, M Au-tralia and 

mania; on M:. :and : and 

on Dee. :n. is'j.'i. in Fiji, arc sh..wn in the follow- 
ing tat>le: 



ooLotras, 



New South Wales 

Victoria 

Queensland . 

South Austral 

Western Australia 

Tasmania 

New Zealand 

Fiji 



6,481,141 



;.:.; :i.;ir 
j.:-. "...!..- 






8,988^7 

h.lH. .'..-, 



Of the revenue of New South Wales fl.S'J 

came from customs, 271,805 from excise, (!''. 

fn.m stamps, i-J7.''>"i s fr-.m the income tax. and 
iTj:s,109 from licenses, making l-J..")C.(5. n :: derive, i 
from taxation, while t"J. n lM!n; , aine from land. 

4^81 from services, ami I"! I'.'.; I", from mi- 
cellaneous sources. Under the head of erri 
included the revenue from railroad-. Iran, 
and the post office and telegraph-. The expenditure 
for railroads and tram \\a\-. i-xelu.-iveof expenditure 
fn.m loans, was 1,884, 700; for posts and telegraph-. 

.'J08; for inten-t on debt and extinction of 
loans. '7: for education. J7!U.Vi:{ : for im- 

migration, 547; for other public work- and 

The average rate of in 

on the deht. including the loan of 4.000,000 t 
in Octol.er. is'.Ci. was :{'71 {.er e.-nt. Of the total 
del.t s-2 per cent, has been expenled on rail: 
tramways, telegraphs, water supply. an<l -e\\. 
which produce a net return of .'!'l-"i per cent, on the 
capital outlay. Further loans were authori/ed for 
sued purposes to the amount of l'l<.7l |. 

Of the revenue of \ 

by taxation, including Cl><iu.l Jo fp.m cu 
duties etc.. l-:)08 f 075 from excise. from 

land ! in duties on estates of dec 

. I from a duly on Lank not. -. I' 1 :!!.- 
000 of stamp duties. 17,888 from Im-in- 

128 fn.m tonna-e dues t,-.. ( ,i,d J1 10.7W from 
the ineoiue tax. The revenue from railroad 
2.58:J.442; from posts and telegraphs, 500.;.'! : 
from Crown land-. ' !rnn other -oun-es, 

<)0. Of the total exfenditurc I'l^^Mi.r, 
to pay interest and cxpen-<-- of the del.t. '; : 138,70] 
forworkin- of railroad-. 6806,076 for Other 

pullie work-. 'L -ts and tel-:rrnph*; 

for Crown lands ete.. 170,789: public in-trn 
science, etc., 604,109; charitable institution-. 












KMMN 









,;.: 



. .*:.. 



h... . 
. 
.--.-- 



..land IJOQ,700 were 




m 






.tm 






i' I . 



' ,: 



*Mi f.,r 
iraiion of 

,::,; : 



'.7 i* 3.007. > .'|M. an : 

raya, 

i ml*, ami the lare*t part of UsttX|H*n<l 
works and railways, ami for u 

.vil mlmini<.lratioii. ju-li 

police, prisons, and defenses absorb aUiut a 

M U,n |] 
oonstrurtioii of railroads, telographs, a 

iie reilrua a net 

r annum. 

al revenue of Western Australia in 1805 
.id*, the post office, and leasts 

ilf. ami the rest, 081,885, was de- 

In Tasmania the receipt* from customs in 1805 

Ihs ..f the 
i one lift); 

railrosxls, posts, ami 
48 per cant, is for inter?* 
works, 8 per cent, for general .. 

it. for law and 

HI. The whole of it was raised for public 
1800 wa* estimated at 

'ram sales of land, am 



r hah tic* Mid sanitation, aiul 7 |- r cent, f 
ElM .ulk ..f the debt imy 
-t. The whole of it was raised 



. ..ii 
oplinary r 

' :-'7.188 from stamps, 
*0 from railroads, 
bnjOOfroa land taxsa,and BOI :> :r . -. : 
eom Inml tax rate for 1800 was I./, in 

the pound. In addition there is a graduate*! tat 
D estates worth 

over. The ret income tax was Osf. in the 

800 being exempt, and U in the pound on all 
r income*. Tl 

the debt. 



TO* Is, 453,15" 

830 for post* and telegraph*, mi* I 100,000 for OOO- 

rdinanr revenue far 

, , 

-. an.l the expenditure at 



X earned 



imated wrpiu 
ire out of the public works 



v 1- ..... 

s - u. .. , 






were 



,,~.',. . :> ' ." ;; 

aoea.lurrrn*.andMiy. Them 



and 7.140 



^yielding 007 

t.. thr %.. .urMinj: HKvn7.{ tf a:i..t, ..f -..., 
Ulons of brandy; and 






.., ' . .- .;:v:;"" ,-,, : ::: ' : 

:.:-,: . --, ; - 

of wool export. 

1-0.070,044. The value of the gold 



1 mrtal. fl.V^Hl 
-.rt of fallow ,n IK- 

1.1 in Talue: of *!. 4T773JO4; of hi<l ao.1 
'.'.: :--, '.;-! :- 

fr../.n .,!.. ttK.V.V.l; void . :, -::' 01 
al imports 10.420.107 came from the I 

11 the other AustralaMan 

colonies, i'Gll.trji from other British posssafious. 
f;-ji.-.'t;s f,., m i . : Butei ..- . '-: OU II 

fr- is. igB OOSAtriOAi <>f the total exports 



1, possessions, 083.605 to the United Stales. 

t"{.!.>.i7.{ t.. OihSf tOfSjfel I .:T,- I- 



an.l 



of home produce eitmtcd was 10,430,210. 
and of foreign eiporto 3, 496,57.x The foctguiaf 
figures relate to sra-borne couinxroe only. The 
overland imporU amounted to 1.71*3,308, and ri- 

I arm in Victoria was tWI.000 
acres in 1800. The production of wheat was ft.OOR.- 
000 buthtU. an arrrace of only 4 baifciii to ihe 
acre; of oat*. 84^.W bushels. Vines 

1 ' . . ,\ . , 



trrrs. Thrre wrre 431^47 horsn. 1. 
.mil.-. 13.180.043 sherp. ami 897^88 nifi IB the 

1800 was C9JOOJS44. Ther were tOj7 
working in the gold fields, of whom 1014 

The tariff' 



age 15 par cant, of the value of imports, The im~ 
1 wan 1307.1*1 '. in value and exporta 



81554 ; of apparel. IOOjH* : 
of all other articled lOO?j> 

India 

055.419 from .*!..- 

131527 from France. 18Q33 from ( hma. 0$.- 

:,-. bom Bokte, ttW .-...,-: MM 

l*oinea, 70.075 from Sweden and Norway, and 

untrue f ihe . 
008,121 went to the United Kingdom. 4,401,038 to 



;:. \LASLL 



Australasian colonies 150.980 to 

la, 103?3 to other Brit- 

, , ,,,, ,,, .. ^ 6810,008 to 
J-.38 1.894 to the I'nitod Si. 

k vn and (ho Philippine Island*, 
MMi fiM&Sc t., other rountrie*. 

About Imlf the arva of ^uoonsland is forest. < f 

J.458340 acres hare been 

ml : tores are in process -f alienation. 

:t,M,485 acres still ownnl > 



The receipts from land up to the end of 1895 were 
7,548,460, A large proportion >f t!. eased 

for pastoral purpose* under the law of iss4 allow- 
ing 90.000 acres or less to Deselected on a lease for 
thirty Tears. The an- -vides for the selec- 

.iral land up f .\imum of 

1,380 acre* on a lea* runnini: fiftv u the 

. C- <>f pur. hrt-ini: it UM-I- 

in 1805, aggregating 
~8 acres. The live -t->-k of the colony 

468,748 horses. 6322,401 cattle 
_jtep. The cultivated area was i.". 
acre*. The corn crop was 8 u-hels in 

There were 77^47 acre.* un 
The gold pr-niu. ! of 1805 was 681,682 ounces. Tin 
was prodiuvd of the value of IV.s.lM: copper. ' 
097 ; silver, 80,042 ; opals, 8 J 

its in 1805 were p>ld. of the value of 
2.278,10!' 681,824; wool, l-J.H'.H.-li::: -uirar. 

796.117: h.des and skins. C4r><i.5<n; : til 
Silver. .ill shells. f71.- 

856; preserved and salted m 180; tr../.-n 

meat, 588.409; me.. reen fruit, 

58,555. The trade is chielly with (Jn-at Britain 
ami the other Australian colonies. The inr 

tho f nited States were valued at i'130,885. 
In S.uth Australia th- 

cultivate! in 1803, of which 1.7:52.711 acres 
under wheat. The wheat crop of 1804 was 13.' 
062 bushels. The live stock consisted of 181 
horses. 828,602 cat tie. an' i pin i -..-.. 

There were 112,762 square mile- l.-a-ed in pastoral 
runs. There was 266.404 worth of copper pro- 
duced and exported in 1805. The export of wool in 
1895 was 1.4::- vhmt. i44">.tr,i : of flour, 

892.: : | 

were 241,886 in value; exports to the fnited 

In Western Australia agriculture and stock rais- 
ing have made great progress, as well a- minim:. 
Tho land under cultivation in 1805 wa- 'J 
ens, a minute fraction of the surface of the "!- 
which embraces 624,588,800 acres. The live 
rtmk comprised 58.506 horses, 200.<i'.'l cattle, and 
2^95382 sheep. The ,-hi.-f < rop is wheat, of which 
8 bushels are raised to the acre. There are silver, 
copper, lead, tin. and coal mines, as we 
-. The gold exp-rt mcn-a-ed fr.i:. 
^02 to 421,888 in 1803, 7H7.0!4 in 1804, 
879,748 in 1895, and 1,068308 in 1806. The ex- 
port of marls in 1895 was val,. 
shells, 27,298; sandal wood, 80368 ; timber. 
146; wool. ' 

In Tasmania the land s 

amon : 11.074 acres. The unalienated land, 

embracing 10^60.426 acres, not c,,, m ni._ 
acres of lakes and islands, is mostly heavily tim- 
bered and contains valuable minerals. The area 
under crops in 1896 was 2 res; under 

gam -. Bl.'.'T" ...-.,: - .. : .- -. .;.;i..o:;;, 

acres; plants! with fruit tre S 11.037 acres. The 
yield of wheat in I*M; w^ 1.11 
to tho acre : of oats, 906,984 bushel- 
of potatoes, 81.428 tons, 4*23 to the aero : ..f hay. 
O34' . -re. l^arge quant it 

fniit are ex|or -. were 510.^7 J.uheN f ,f 

apples gathered. The hop product was 543,650 



|H.iinds. Thel; 

;.. ami 70.14'J h..-s. 

h in gold, iron, tin, copper, silveri 

lead, and "coal. Tl, - . \\.t- 

v !7,ftlO; of i 

timlx II : of 

: of green and pi-.-.-rxi-d fruit. 

of acres, the total 

land. | hail IM-I-M alienated up to 

Apn, kbol two thirds of the >urlace .f the 

..tun- and gr.* 
Abou- ii umler ' 

'.<KX) acres are l.arn-n mountain, lake-, and 
wastelands. There wen -.\\n to 

l^'.'C,. and a total area uml< 

S800 acres. The pul.lic lan.N l.-ased for \ 

ral purpo.scs amounted res. The 

cr..|. of ISJMJ was 6,644,000 Inish. 
ing nearly 28 to the acre. Of. 1.11^1,- 

els were grown, orer w to the acre. Tin- live 

-ted of 237. Us horse,. I.IU;.!HI| caltl< 

60 >heep. ami The values Of 

the prinripal exports in 1- \\ ool, '- 

i::i : fro/en meat, 61,26 !. 61,168 

Imtter and cheese. :J7H.r>K; hi. I.-, skin-, and 

leath- 554; Kauri pun. : ; ,llow. 

-rain and lion- : timl.er. l'1-Jl.- 

prewrired meat, f(j;. 

New Xcnlaiid hemp, or phoriuium. f.'l.'i |n : |j\v 
anim .> ; hams and Tin- 

export of wool was 1 1 1 .*'.">. 1">1 p.-iind-: of i 
meat. l.ov).VJi:5 hundredweight ; of lui- 
hundredweight : nf cheese, 55,655 hundredweight : 
iri uuiii. H.338 tons. 

Of the total imports. I ame from the 

United Kinu'doiii. fl/JJl. !,." Iroin Australian colo- 
nies, ' from the rnited 8t 
from Pacific isla 8,185 from India an-: 
Ion, t:{s.r,U| tn.m China. LTJ.I7I fn.in Mauritius, 
and i'ls.V)7s from other countries, of t 
67,045,646 went to the rnit.-d Kin-do: 

. Australia, 316.63!) to the 
llj:...i:; to Pacific islands, and 26,543 to other 
oount 

N;n iirjitinn. Tl BN irew :?.PJl veseli 

itcre.l during 1 S J"> at the port- ol 
South Wales. 'J.900, of 2,60U;r,l tons, l.cin- l',riti-h 
and v :,. The total nmul.er 

tons, of which 2 
of2,6in.:,lo t,, MS were liriti-h and 2M. 

tons forci-n. llie shipping registered in the col- 
ony c.impri--d -17!> -ailin. .' tons, 
and J^." -t.-am. M-. having heen in- 
creased during the year l.y i:{ sniliiu: ve-s, 

The numl<>r of vess<-ls entered at \"i<-torian : 
durin .s 1,048, c.f tons of which 

408, of 889389 tons, 

1.06.Y'.- -iial: th.- nunilier cleared 

uhi.-h :is. ol 

P.ritish and l.:!l0. of 1. nil. :.'.-, tons, 
colonial. The shippin- rei:i-tered in the colony 

ressels, of 41^25 tons, and 

1 ":'. ML 

In (^uecnxland 54 vi-s-eN. ,,f Mil. 710 ton-. 
enter 195 ton-, cleared during the 

The shipping of the oolonj consisted "f i ; >7 

and !>2 steamers, of 
iriclndirif riv. 

There u . tons, m- 

and 1.110. <.f 1 <n\\\h 

alian |ort<. The -hippint:of this colon 

essels, of 17.71") tons, ;nd 4 JM 
us. In Western Austral 

vessels, of were entered and 4-'>'->. of 

:<i tons, cleared in the course of IKtf. The 






the register of the colony were 1 1 

rU. of 4.770 
ramaiita 711 vessels. of 

colonial in. r. 



*Ui>.| in 

I 

' 

i-ergoss. ii 
6fl7ioiis.wi.rer. 

.Kl.071 I. ! 



TV. of 6*6.789 IOWL 

..... ' 



The 



I road*. Posts, tad Telegraphs. - 

i::;.-Y.M!.| .:.,....; I- ,. ' r 

ing*. There were besides 84 mile* of private rail- 

r- .'!-. 

milnwwl '"Offing to the 

state. at A 

aori --f v ::>'.' '..-<,. 'i !,. !...:i ti In UM ! pi .r 

lv.-, ,r, nyBNl.AlM, nn.l (h. - ! ruling , ip M - 

of 8-01 ]. 

passengers and 5,433,857 tons of f r 

9S, 

1 n Queensland there were 2.-". . : r. -a< 1 

iili- nt tho end of 1805, all t 

The receif -uses 

8oii ul 1.H88 inilrs of railroa 

1895,' miles were in tin- northern trr- 

t.. t!,.- (fan nun nt 

wore 1.ir: 

railnwuU .iilir at thr n-1 <>f 1805, when 

iflllg BUT* 



> 



of railroad at the cloat 



/.falaml hail on April 1. 
1800, a total length of 3.1HU iniU-*, of wni 

in:.. - \v, r, OH '' N " ' ' ' ::..''' I 

-. The receipt^ 
men! railroad* for the rear n-iuu- Man h 'U. 1H96, 



i*tal -ar,lv 44.908.- 
!1.'\W.800 |ia<-k.t- and book par- 
1^8.779 panvN. nn.l 406J86 money order 

lu.lintf r> 

fitBa\758. In Qn*>i 

- - 

78.018 I. 

trrn 

:Uin |>- 1HV5 hanllci 

nnliimry letters, 878.615 rsgistereil letters 17.996.- 

'.868 paokrtA. The num- 

-uch the Tasmanian post 

office in 1895 was 5,498,376; of postal cards, 806** 



18; of iiewapapers.4JMM.19l: of Mefcata. UM.. 

t ' - ' ....... 

!:;- ... '.; . 

!.:., -- .::: . - 

:..;....... 

s&KBSasMr 1 



a w 



*k had 

rn.1 of 1M5. with 
faded at a total east 






las arnt dur- 
HJ88C. The 
J length of 

. ' '. v 



lr*,mill 

and II! 

-,-,,; ' 



<t* i'lflgjL 

part n :< tit were 895,065. South Australia had 8j880 

i.-irraph.with 1 

is an overland One connert.-.l with ih* BmUi, 
t ml inn cable crossing the continent from Port Kr 
win to Adelaide. 2,000 miles. The nmaiiiaieal 
a pr.. fit ' -raphs above runnii 

p. !,. - ;>!..! intl r. -' - hMp v 

tfli-graph liiu* in 1895 had a length of O77 

achled. There were 790.999 nifssages sent 

t revenue was 81.678. the 

expenses of telegraph senrice and post oflee 

-.578. TI. 

7*9 miles. 



phone wire. The number of dittrbes in 1896 
CM 19077. i . ' v * /..-:-. 

graphs on Mar 

t miles of wire. The number of ssessaces 
year was 8.UM > hfch 



Federation, 
held at HoUrt 

^penseas far as possible wit h the 
rther pariiamentarr action in rrlal 
.1 movement, and to appeal by po 
he roters of each colonr. 
..- ralitlitr to the firopossd electioaw. H was 
necessary first to obtain 
th- HhjfJM in 



' >K >nial parliammt was asked to pa 
The same difficulty thai had 
nnect ion with the draft 

' ' : - V 

dela; 

'still fail.-.l 



V- 



again felt in regard to 
f rnsbling bilk Aft. 

nsland had for local rm- 

sons still failed at the beginning of 1897 to pass 
II. The necessary legislation had 
has* i krri. i - ud i I thai ; .- i i h 



.ieparture in Weatern Ai 
lia fr ; Bipolar programme adopted at 

nies. Queensland excepted. were ready at the be- 
nt he bill* that had 

(sen csssil The lead in thr matter was accorded 
mmon consent >th Walrs. A proc- 

rlamation was iattted in that colony by which the 
enabling act waj.hrm.cht into force on Jan. 4, and 
after a consultation between too premiers of the 



;\LASIA. 



at first abstained, it was agreed that writs for the 

:..:-.-. -:. lit] I- 

. Ucoed oo Jan. -". that nominations should be rc- 
oritod until Felt. 11. il.nl Hi.- elections thoul.l be 
belli oo Mnu 4. ml that the convention should 
-,; .: . ;,. MTaal rn \ istralia al dm re- 
toed to join, but at the Ia>t moment decided i-- 
take |rt and to hold it- .i<-ni. it \->. 

tv-rd in cuch colony in |rndi- 
all* identical t-rm- t*k the matter henceforth out 
of thr hand* of the |wtriiam<-t i that 

Contention nh ihe ta-k .f framing 

the falrr-al ronniui ion should consist of in 
-* from each colony elected by i he -. 
for the Legislative Assembly. Whenthi 
colonies abould have elected their members to the. 

Convention, it devolved u,.n the go. 

those colonies to summon ih.- ..mention. 
framing n on-titu!ion I he convention Wit to ftd- 

forat lea*l thirl y.luit not more than si \i> 

criticised. Alter the 

.-ion l.y lli.- convention, it 

wa t ' ..'.. of Hi.- ah 

for acceptance or rejection. If three colonies ac- 
constitulion.it should In- pre-ented for 
rial enactment by the Hrilish Parliament. 
The convention nomomoil a groundwork for its la- 
bors in the compreheii-ive commonwealth bill 
framed by tin- Sydney .-,.n\ .-ntion of 1891 after six 
week" :iti..n'. In that convention l^u 

land took part, and the scheme of fe<lcrati<iii drawn 
up there was in great part the work of the Chief 

' that colony, Sir flannel Griffith. 
Zealand was also represented at Sydney, but even 
>ng bent tor uniting with the 

ilmn colonies separated from it by 1,800 mile! 
of we, The elections of new fed- 

eral convent inn were governed in Victoria and 
iles largely by the consideration of 
rtate rights. The commonwealth bill of 1891 pro- 
posed that the r-Yderal Parliament should con-i-t 

houses, of which the lower was to represent 
the jNipu:.. ilia, and the upper was to 

represent the states. illy guar- 

anteed by the provision that each state was to be 
represented by 8 sen a- senator to have one 

vote. Thus every state, small or mat, was to have 
equal power in the Senate, while for the lower 
house the representation was to be proportioned to 
population, each state having a representative for 
every 90,000 inhabitants. The smaller colonies in- 
sist strongly on equal state rights, which th< 
ganl as the onlv guarantee that they will not be 
swamped in the Federal Parliament by the greater 
representation in the lower house of the more popu- 

s. The great colonies of New South \\ 
and Victoria, on the other hand, demur to an 
arrangement that will enable Western Australia, 
South Australia., and Tasmania in combination to 
outvote them in the Senate. A federal council 
met at Hobart on Jan. .'? to con-ider joint ad ion 
by the colonies to celebrate the sixty years' i 

iK-t'ween <. 

Britain at. - <)iie-tion. 

federal quarantine stations, ami uniform bank 
laws. The Victoria delegates deprecated proceed- 
ing with business of importance in view of the 

meeting of the federal convention. The 
Queensland and Western Australia delegates 
Wrongly opposed inaction, predicting that P 

would prove abortive. 

Finally it was decided to proceed with the i.u.j. 
ness. The conference discu5ed Mr. Ohamberiain'i 
suggestion of a Zollven-in. but were unable to de- 
termine whether it involvrsl free trade within the 
empire or lower duties on British as comparer! with 
foreign goods. The Australian premiers here, and 



later : ;. -rally in favor of 

nlial du; : dl on i-ondition 

of a b IM of Australian products in the 

British market. The delegates to tne federal .m- 

ected in the live colon:- 
South Wale-. Victoria. South 
Australia, and Tasmania. In New South \\ 
and Victoria several delegates were elected on a 
platform < u'rttes 

held a meeting with a \ i--\\ of e..inin.u r to an agree- 
ment on debatable ijnesti..n-. luil tl ! to 

Me c..n\i-ntion .. ir individual 



The r.,|ive||lion lllet oil \dclaide. 

ntral capital brt \\een S\din-y and I'erlh. An 
amendment to allow women to vote f..r men i 

of the Hi.. '.-. lltatives Wa- I'ejeeled 

vote of 'Ji! to TJ. ( in t he <|ii. 
and federal finance widely diver-en! opinion- 
lie debate did Mot lead to a - 
\ agreement, the convention adjourn.-d till 
September, when it was hoped that Queensland 
would also be ivpre-eiited. The (jin-.-n-laiid min- 
i-try |.r..|M.-rd to Ihe Parliament t., aiitlmri/e tin- 
elect ion of delegates to the Beptember convention, 

but the bill was defeated. 

The second federal convention assembled at 
Sydney early in September. 

In the interval all the colonial parliament- had 
di-cii-sed amending bills to the commonwealth act, 
and the results of their deliberation- \\ere laid be- 
fore the Sydney convention to serve as a guide to 
the framing of the final federal constitution. In 
the spring convention it was proposed that Ihe 
Senate should control money bills, and this was 
carried by the votes of South Australian, Western 
Australian, and Ta-manian delegates against those 
of New South Wales and Victoria. It was decided 
that amendments to the federal const it ut ion. after 
passing both hou-e-. -hould be submitted to a 
referendum. Si: Turner proposed thai 

deadlocks in the Legislature should also be settled 
by the popular referendum, but this was negatived. 
The New South Wale- A embly pro|...-.-d rai 
amendments of a democrat i<- nature to the c<,n-ti- 
tution which the convention had framed on con- 
:\e lines iii clo-e i in it at ion of coiist.it ut ional 
precedents. The Senate, instead of being a 
manent body, re-elected at interval- in segment-. 
it was proposed to make dis-ol\able at any time by 
vernor at the advice of the ministers that 
i-. at the dictation of the Hou-e of Kepre-enta: 
Kfjtial representation in the Senate of each 
was pronounced unacceptable to New South Wales, 
and a plan of proportional repre-entat i<n on tin- 
basis of population was proposed, with popular 
election of the -eiiat-r- ill -e|arate election 

All money bills, including tho-e tha 1 
fees or i as taxation and appro; 

tion bills, mii-t originate in the Hou-e of |{epn- 
-entative-. In ca-e a difference should 
tween the two chamber-, the referendum would 
settle it. .Indirc- wen to !, removable by address 
from both house-. Constitutional amendment- 
would require only a majority vote of the people 
of the whole commonwealth, not -ate. 

The parliaments of the smaller colonies South 

Au-tralia. Tasmania, and We-tern An-tralia in- 

-i-ted on equal repre-etit at ion in the Senate of all 

the st.-r Victorian Assembly 

The Adelaide convention gave the 

Senate power to reject bills imposing taxation, but 

the que-tion "f the ritrht of amending such bills 

was compromi-ed. a small majority deciding that 

should only have power to suggest 

amendments to the Hou-e of LYp'v-cntative- by 
message. This compromise the parliaments of the 









' hat the 



\ . . . . . 



-<-nate a* wt-ii a in toe Fin oss nf ttspnisi nu 

UfW * !.- -..- .. . : : -'.. 

.'.i Ijoth boUM- 



decided to give 



all 



r.jUA 



' 



uim. large or small. 



eessarily be 

' - 



-ral 






eral tariff that *ould I 

treasurer* .>-tria at- 

' ftiMpmon 1 *^!* h I'.ii i.iineiit. T*he N'ictoriait 

>K but the fuu 
led I nil. \o(,,; 

Am in t; 
issued from tl. 

a!.. I U !i.. , nf i DUrpOS! : w : ku _ 

The v, -id" was urm-k 

clauses, and thr mmon wealth I'nrliam. 



nrliaim nt 



v kn. using rev, < -ana. 

-f ill.- 



n, y OOarentiOfl < IBM tOfSjtOSI 

SeptemU-r. Sir (ie, 
meat for a year in 



when 

D beffinnii 
poted n< I 



: 

to a 
ti .v 

\. . 



and it va 

ld hare aole control 




faith. r .li-.,-UHsi,.ii aii-1 t.. enable 
OuctMi t t.. K r,-| r. M .rthli. 

-eof <^ucenslanl. \v r> '- t<> n:-_-- a'ljourn- 
l>ill WJLS ir .M lh- 

pM without opposition, and aa noon as an amend- 
ment waa propoeed the minister wit) 

. 

to ooncludt .-land was 

f*>r th<- election of delmtee by 
popul thr -ainr mtiniirr AM in the 

; was flu (^ueeoaland As 

Mmbl to 81 

The other jiarih 



n<> f iirtber oppo- 



of the -- ft |ng 

rian di legates w< 

di-|.ed t.. *u\ j-.rt t!.. j r. ; 
* S.uth 
would place the Senate ultimately under 

as lei. llify state rights. Most < 

gates were in favor of a Bimultaoeoos dissolution of 

both houses sod were willing to adopt a dual r 

ng a majority of states and a ma- 
be dissolved, and if the disputed bill was passed o 
second tu ; appeal to the country and a 

second time r, j.-< t, l I.) the Senate, that the Senate 

proposed dual refer- 
f:ircicaltoSirJohn IH.wn- 

Australia, and a monstrous absurdity to Mr. Bold, 
nth Wales, Josiao Symons. of South 
dim proposed toe dissolution of toe Senate in 
ting a measure nassnl by the 
r house after an appeal to toe country, and 
was accepted by the narrow majority of A 



rotes. A mcndments proridiof for a refereodum in 

nt of the further rtjecUoa of the same bill 



allowing the 
ution and 
> house that had t 

. BB* fl. /. : 



Senate for a dual 



f : ' 






Of 





final U 



after a long and 

n^vj t.^l . 



Sy.lnry, would 

tt ion in the parUameoti if it proved acceptable to 
the people of the nrveml -I a 



neec no runner on 



>f their votes when sol 

Th,- ^-,.,,.1 HHioai "f UM r. lard C 

aer on Sept 3, and. in mponse to 
th<> r.-oti. Queensland Oorernroent that 

..1,1 he represent^ in the conten- 
tion Uf..rv the commonwealth lill wan Hnally 
Ijournwl on Sept. 24 until January. 18W, 
ssuon was t.. U- h.-M at Mrlboonsft. 

rtion*! representatioa in 



! mossted b) Mr 
his provides thai in r 

e rimuluoeouslr dissolved, and a further 
amendment proposed by Mr. C arrutbenk of 

Wales, provides 'that in the event of the 

double dissolntioo | uffleient the matter 

put* shall Of d a three fourths' ma- 

oto houses sitting togstosr. Financial 

questions werr dealt >th I 

bourne convention. Though the view prevailed 

>e colonial parliaments that the datfriMfcw 

of surplus revenue should 1 he future 

Federal Parliament, it was de- 

rthe question to . 

for special coosideration and report. 






; \1. VSIA. 



N, w Sonth WalML The Parliament consist* 

Ugi^latix 

f..r l,f,. ami a Legialatfo Asseml mem. 

:-; >rtt. diatricu '. three rear* bj 

manhood suffrage. The numl 

tor* in Ju .Jovrnor: 

count IUM.|.!.-n. appointed in ! 

at the Uv 

.ier. Tremmrvr. and Minister f.. r 
.f Houstoun Reid; Chief Secretary, Jaroea 
.oy-General. John Henry 

Wat -lo-'I'h 11 

mil r Public Works, James Henry 

f Public Instruction and of 
UU.r and Industry. Jacob Garrard ; I' 
General. Joseph Cook; Secretary for Mine- and 
:th: Minister of .!.. 

lent of ; 
c,,uneil ami Representative of the (J. 

.relative Council. Andre* 
When nil the Australia! 
land ; art in tin jubilee a 

trace was agreed tr, in accordance with which no 
ncrkms legislative proposals of a controversial na- 
ture were put forward by the acting premiers, and 
no "irn the mini-' made 

I iv the <: Mr. Hrunker. who filled the 

place of tl.e Premi. : - MM h Wales eiicoun- 

dinVultics in D with the collection 

of land and income taxes, though on the whole the 
revenue returns were satisfactory, showing a total 
revenue of 9.309.000 and an increase of 57,000 
- uing. on the whole, the free- 

trade INI]; rninent. The session of 

Parliament was opened in April. One of the laws 
passed abolishes the payment of school fees. 

\ letorla. The legislative Council has 48 mem- 
ber*, elected under a projerty qualification, and the 
Legislative Assembly 5 members, elected by univer- 
sal adult male suffrage. There were 138,393 elect- 
op* for the fon 180 for the latter on 
the roll in 18UO. The Governor is Lord P,ra~. \, 
appointed in 1805. The Cabinet was composed as 
follows at the beginning of ' niei and 
Treasurer, George Turner: Chief Secretary and 
f Public Instruction. A. .1. Peacock; 
.il. Isaac Isaacs; Solicitor-General, 
ithbert; Commissioner of Trade and Cu-- 
President of the Board of Land and Works, and 
f Crown Lands and Survey. U. W. 
Best; Postmaster-General, J. (i. Duffy : Minister of 
m. W. M.Cuil.K-h: Minister '.f Mines and 
il. Fo-t.-r: Minister of Agriculture 
and Commissioner of Public Work-. .1. W. Taver- 
f Railways and Minister of Health, 
H. I{. Williams: Ministers without jK.rt folio-. A. 
McLean. l>a . ..: ; & Wiiiiam^m. 

The recovery from former depressed conditions 
was more marked in 189? than in any j r. \ i-.u- 
jrear. The clearing-house return- wl-re much 
larger. The banks paid up a large share of the 

Australian banking 

crisis. The coin deposits exceeded any -mi. 
rtouslr recorded. amounting to H.900,000 in Janu- 
ary Later there were hearr shipment* of gold, 
especially after imports of wheat set in from the 
I States. The production of gnld ha> 
ated 111 all the Australian 

.'i during 1890 was 84.000 ounces 
abore that of IWtt. There were new alluvial mines 
disoorered near the New South Wales border, and 
auriferous rock in several new districts. The out- 
put for 180? promised to exceed am \ ield 
venty years, The revenue of Victoria for 
1897 amounted to 6,600.000. an it. E 1 7".- 
000. The increase in railways was 200.000. and 
in customs 25,000. The question of meat exports 



has occupied the attention of the public authorities 

as well a-s the j.r.'.i . \vral colonies. The 

\ iet..ria. in n conference with Mr. 

he Mini- 1 ultmv. airrecl that 

-.'li'ulil .-ii| - . ronir.'l all in.-. 

in order ! in-ure their perfect enndition. A 

bill was passed )<ro\idine; for (iovernmenl :: 

tion. T Imtter. meat, rali- 

M! fruit cxjM.rted from the colony. 

ult of an agreement with the oilier 

Australian pivcrnnients, which promised similar 

-e| produce from all llie 

Dies. A trial -liipnn-nt of N'ictorian tobacco was 
iderwl bjrthc (Jovernmenl i-\pi-rt to I.e ernial 
to ih. I, leaf. The Parliament opened in 

the middle of .June, and closed at the end of A 

t" cnaMe the delegate- to attend tile second federal 

convention. The principal business liesiiles the 
budget estimates was the ;' inn of t he fed- 

eral bill i; -ary in all the coloni,-, |, v ihe 

dissolution of the Adelaide convent ion. < Mie of t lie 
new labor laws of Victoria forbid-, working 1 

in the nmrning or after Ihe in the evening. 
The new factories act authori/e> joint board> of 
employers and employed to fix a minimum 
..h trade. The Labor party has pressed 
State bank, reform of the Council, taxation ,,f un- 
improved land, and a referendum. My hi- n--w 
-ented to Parliament in September. 
Turner appealed to the i lerate poli- 
ticians, breaking away from th with 
\\ hom he ha- been in alliance. 

(Queensland. ! ' !._:.. < 'oiincil coi. 
of :>! members, appointed for life, and the Legisla- 
tive Assembly ,,f ;-,> members. 

adult male suffrage. Th- 'civd 

(lectors at the end of 1SS.". The (tovenior Of 

-land i- Lord Lamingtoii. apjiointed in isji."). 
The Cabinet in the beginning oi 1 s '.'? \\a- com- 
posed as follow-; IVeini- ''.-1,1,. ,,t of the 

.live Council. Chief Secretary, and 
Sir Hugh Muir Nel-on: Minist- 
Foxton : Postmaster-Genera] and for 

Agriculture. A. .1. Thynne ; Seer. 1 Min.> 

and for Railways. Robert Philp : I for 

Public Instructi.'.n and for Public Works I). II. 
I>alrymple; Home Sn-rrtary. II.T"/r: Aitoriiey- 
(o-ne'ral. T. .1. Mvriie: Mini-ter- without portfolios, 
W. 11. Wilson, Sir Thomas Mdlwraith, and A. II. 

Barlow. 

Queensland alone of the Australian colonies suf- 
fered a decline in its revenue in 1M7. the total re- 
:.;i::.-ju(i. or l'28,400 less than in 
1896. The industrial condition-, h" 
altogether unfavorable, though the pastoralists sus- 
: los-es due to the tick plague and agriculture 
suffered from drought. The sugar indu-tn 
cording to the report of the Land Conuni ion. was 
holding its own notwithstanding adverse coiidi- 
and counted an export lor tin- >ear of up- 
\var-l of 70,'KK) ton-. The coffee and tobacco indu-- 
Arll.and there was a hopeful tend- 
ency in the mining ii. !! a< in agriculture. 
The output of gold was estimated for tl, 

.Native nasiofl b. -an "in the 
half of .June. < \iing to the f the 

Premier in Kngland nothing of importaii'' 

ctecL A moderate and i."inical policy in 

:he main railroad lines wa- prop 

The Premier eonfern-d with the other colonial pie- 

:n London with a view to providing against 

Asiatic immigration and concerning the adminis- 

(ruinea and the Solomon (.-lands. 

nmittee appointed to itudy the qneation of a 

:e unanimously affirmed the practicabil- 

:.--ed colonists : 

been sent by the Government to England, the Con- 






America to lecture on the ad> 

.- imi%!n.|. Sir Hugh 

:...'-'.. 



t A 1 1 1 - .'i ! : . ml : 



. 

locilooo- 
y proper- 



irult'.i: 

f Mr. KIM* 



in 







itions of the Austra- 



..f ih. 

me any Martini;; j.r. - 
Hail- 

. i. - 

nml tnuli- unl communi 

rt trade a* w, 11. Tin- 

tlh- rutl-' 

' railway 1,000 miles long between South and 

AU-M.IM. i. \\ h! i; w.-uld complete th.- railwaj 
Brisbane 

i-\ roinn. A uli the other 

> -. Mr. llliliT. (li< i the 

ilia was prepared to umlirtako the construction 
i*rt 

v the two 

ss alone, remains to be achieved by tin- futurv 
led An-lr-nlia. The proposed 1 : will 

:n m mutations between Australian 
he ..iit.T full days, will 

DoaV 

-.! i.n. The rcvemi - uth 

H06--V7 showed an 

<d a u>t 
in 




-rHey in the north- 

irlr 
which 



astonishing figure of *34*73! for WtT, which was 

.'. . 

valu 'ttJBOi.aahweeaeoleMS 

asop0)|ml with the prerious rear. The field for 

rotts land eitonds from l>undas in the 
Msjth 
irmi 

Arid, have alrmd? The urii 

boom was succeeded by a depiesssoo, frum 
} E? M y i >*?*?^ UaWrn bv th* increase 
oae and in land ssttlesaents. 

r. and in various other waft aided the gold. 

at Krrrmantl. 

chinery have been abolished. Many of the mince 
are now equipped with an npenshre plant. The 

water. The colony has very liberal land laws, 
>>g to every set' 




. 

tber.aothAttbry marbeoWiMd 
uiniliMotof Uborooodi- 



to persons who 

lnmt twu men to 
other area, for the 
i one man must be 
John Forrest, when 
lid 



rliUII 



bolder and secure a 
trgi 

prcM-nt condition* a.- to !- 
hold a rUim of 24 acres, or a 
first twelve months, a' 

every 6 acres. Si 
.-land, promised that tl 

had been expended, and on < 

be was unwilling to com pi v wi 
not onlv wants to obtain 
to build up a fanning a 

Australia. The Government 
anee and encouragement to the 
antl t prepared to introduce a new land hill for 
i ur|e. The mines of Western Australia, 
since the collapse of the share market, are being 
work- tfitimate and businesslike meaner. 

Trained mining engine en have gone into the fields 



pie revenues but also 
that will 






\..-ir..lia.-The Legislativ. 

-i\ \.ar- L\ bol I- r> ' i . . r'.ui H 

nembeo, elected in ^i* r - 

.jualt fixation also, about 

ith. 

Treasurer, an.l 

Ihirt : Commmtioner of Ijii 

-inner f'-r Kailwn\ an-i 

II. Ti : Miniver for 

-tralia reached the 



to succeed ignorant and venal charlatans* The 

..:-:-- - ..-.... 




10s. 



the rental of 1 per acre. Wages vary from 
0s. t.. 14 a week. The malt has been that 



e are made to bring to light the properties, 
prrhape ae rich as any yet discovered, that now be 
hidden in the sand j desert of 



are deterred from making aew iarcetnMwts in WesU 
ern Australian mines by the danger that they incur 



of baring their property jumped and forfeited 
they haw spent large sums of m 



money in 



i \i.\-i \. 



claims and in development work and machim rv. 
ause. perha|* through an over-i-M. tin y 
. tnpliiv the full complement f nu -u 
u. lease that the law rv.,uirw. 

rvMilt of n Western Australia 

u.i- t ho rvtum u Korn-M t.. n thinl lease 

.Mil. n mnndntc t<> nintiiiiic the work of 

development that he has conducted with success 

responsible government t.. the 

colony in 1880 , |...,,M!.V 

tolooy ha* grown from lew than 50.000 t i HUMMI. 

ml the reranoe, then under 500.(MN i. ha- ,,,. Teased 

no year ending Match :\l. 

ilia. Trade has increased in 

... and tlir gold 
a larger ratio. ih< total yield sin 

U.tKKMKK). The rail- 

< bare beVi. ; in -i\ \cnrs from a total 

length of 400 n I Han 1.4(M) mile.-, ami 

tdsfraphs from 8.500 miles to 8,(HN miles, n,, 

the puhlir services 
ha* fully doul.Icd sim-elWM. The legislatix- 

f the colony has itself IM-.-H enlarged io 
the expanding needs of the population, the 
mimUrof members in both houses bavini: h.-.-u 
i<ed. and an elective upper house substituted 
initiated Legislative < 'oiim-il. The franchise 
ha* also been remodeled ami expanded in meet the 
wants of an inflowing adult population. Now the 
right to vote and tol a- a member of Par- 

liament is possessed by every man of full ap- who 
has live*! twelve mon'ths iii the colony ami -ix 
his district. The property qualifications 
attaching to inemlM-rship in the upper house have 
lo leen abolished, so that no colony in Australia 
has so extended a franchise save Sooth Australia. 
where women are allowed to vote. The bold policy 
iistinguished the adminis"- 

trati 9 hn Forrest has had the approval of 

the colonists. Just t>. !"! the last general election 
be applied for authority to borrow to the extent of 
6.000,000, and the proposal was passed without a 
division in In.th houses. During the last year he 
has been able to *>,.,-. -A i 1 .000,000 out of the revenue 
upon public works, and he holds out the prospect 
of having for some time to comeasuflicient surplus 
revenue to construct all necessary public buildings 
and local public works throughout the colony. II. 
stated bafoff the election that he has no further 
'ion of increasing the loan liability of the 
v. U-lievin^ that the amount already author- 
ized will suffice for several year-, mile-- th 
an unexpected influx of population. There was a 
board created for the protection of the aborigine! 
under the act conferring responsible government. 
The Government of Western Au-tralia proposed i,, 
transfer this duty to one of the departments. lit 
objections were raised in Finland, where the sys- 
f indenturing natives was condemned as a 
. species of slavery, and stories of inhuman treat- 
ment were rireuUted. The Colonial Office in Lon- 
don finally sanctioned the creation of a special 
eminent depart T he interests of 

the natives and to superintend the distribution of 
funds provided for their relief. 
Tasmania, The Parliament of Tasmania eon- 
of an elective Legislative Council, for which 



the larger property holders and professiona 
vote, with 18 members elected for six years, and a 
legislative Assembly of 37 members, voted for by 
all owners or occupier* of real property or possess 
ors of an income of 60 and serving* three years. 
Governor is Viscount Gormanston, appointed 
in August, 1898. The Cabinet in the beginning of 
1897 was composed following members: 

Premier, > lary, 



\s. N - P. >. F\J, : Attorney- 

General. A. I. Clark: Mini i 

T. Pillinger : minister \\ithout portfulin. 

Th as K. 

In 'I the n-vrinn- ivlnrn- 

ablethat th.- i.. \.-nim.-nt felt jn-tili. .1 in inakm- 
a reduction of income and oil, Attmtioii 

I with ^ati-factory results to 

mineral development in tin- ooionj 

tern. 
New Zealand. The legislative ] 

l.\ the aci ii-i-l- 

ativr Coiin-il and a 

. 
ducrd in l^S? to 71. inclu.lin- i M . 

' Irrli'd for th) 

adult man or \\<>man having a vote \sh<> h. 
sidi-d a \<-ar in the colony ami llm-i- months in the 
ral district or possesses freehold proprrt\ 

worth i .'". Memben of fchc LegisUtive c,,nm-ii 

who were appointed prior t.. hold 

their seats for life; oilier- are appoint.. 

years. Tl <1 \\ lute 

in 1S'.:{. of whom ! re men and K!M<i] 

women. In the Maori community 1 ! 

ered. Of the whole population .j:A |MT cent, 
were qualified voters. Tin- (iovernor at the 1 
ninu' : tiled 

in .1 une, 1892. He was succeeded hythe Karl .f 
Kanfiirly. The mini-try at the lie-inni! 
was eompo-ed a< follow- : Premier. < 'oli>nial 'I 
urer. Post mast- . ;,ii<l Kleeirie Teli-^raph 

Commissioner, Commissioner of Trade and Cu-tom-. 

and Minister of Lal.or. \i. .1. - 

lonial Secretary ami Commissioner of Stamp Ihi- 

l. Carroll Minister of .Justice, Industries and 
Commerce, and l>efeii-e. T. Thompson : Mini-i. 
Lands. Minister of Agriculture, and Commi iom-r 
of Fore-i-. . I. Maeken/.ie: Minister of PuUie Works 
and Minister of Marine. \V. Hall-. lone- ; Minister of 
Railways and Mines, A. .1. Cadman : Minister of 
Education am! Immigration ami Mini-ter in Charge 
(.f Hospital- and Charital.le Ai-l. \V. C. Wall. 

A Xealand continues to advance in \\ealth and 
prosperity. The revenue for 1897 was 7- 
more than in the preci-diu: year. This e,,loi; 
in the past few years en the 'most 

original and advanced laws in the world in regard 
to land, liilior, ami taxation, legislation tha 1 

'lenoiinecd as democrat ie ami -emi^oejalisl ic. 
lut which ha- IM-.-H. on the whole, successful in 
operation and met with the popular approval of 
the colony. I'.y the new land law- humlp 
worthy industrious men have heen made into hon- 

urdy farmers for om- who through im-x- 

iice <'r indolence has met with failure. Im- 
men-e e-tati - have leen liroken up. and every man 
in the colony ha-s lieen afforded an opportunity of 
obtaining a piece of hind <>n which to huild him- 
self a home. The lal'or 1< iri-latioii has been less 
entirely successful, and s,, m ,. ,,f it .1 l, v 

many "(.f the well-to-do eoloui-ts as vexation-. 
Against their opinion may he placed the fact of 

ised prostM-rity in e'v.-ry l.ram-li of trade. 

Prices are goal, the interest rate has fallen \ \ r 

5 ner cent., and the waste lands ,,f the colony are 

/ rapidly taken up. With the introduction of 

nan one vote and the extension of the fran- 
to women, the power of corporate wealth in 
New Zealand s. em- to have been irrevocably de- 
stroyed. The Cnited Statesconsul at Auckland, in 
reporting on these condition*, says that the more 
reasonable <,f the labor associations are 

now disposed to let well alone for the pr 
and < that the leveling pn.ce--. which 

began about seven years ago, has reached a point 
where prudence, good taste, and a due regard for 






riUA-iii 







:ht fairly anggett a rr*- 

' . -- f :_ --. 

Uory Ubor arbitr 
t ha* been vigorously re*i*ted in 



i 



iaiuK & ihrir native Uv and enefotae. Euro. 
man administer S Fijian pn* 



fat i.. II UW 

a lnl of 
iii equal nun. 



Tbe population on 1W. SI. 1W4. eoMiated of 
diam. Was Pblynr* 



* horn and 4jfc dl 




I In- ll(tl>lll 

. 1 : . .-. : 



ii. i tti... 



.... 



i . '. 






n 1 l rvinu' 

.1 l.\ tin- 



. i , 1 1 \ . iji 





\\\ Irui-liitiull 

nter- 

inatead <>f Irnxiui; it in -i.-ul-t. 

rown 

though it were 
re a leaee ha0 ex- 



Ma, subject to toe condition* impoaml wiiig oo- 

^ Mrh Mme hare 

.lin.-.l f n 

occu|iam\v. and in f 
- in unknown nml 
\!th..ucl> ' 
ha* I- 

tlinn (UN) f., i. .-ltd 

haatiernv . tin- nun- 

ii- hit In 

wa* opened on Sept. ft 

|l^-'i l:r.\- ] r , - - . . , 

nuum. etM: niment f\n- in- 






.v ,, M..I!-I in tl>. 
t-nand r I 
t* awMriol l>> an . \ 
and law* arv \>\ .in ap- 

l m.tnlirv In 1'J ->f the 16 pfOV- 

r the supervision of Kunj^^n of- 

ii.-- 






f 



n,.-r. ,r. i 

li.' I 

oocoanni j-.i 
ma 11 i.lant. 

n*>: f -Uatilled apiriu. 



led by European *et- 

I Hftfl Ma^ffMBl ff IMff l-wfl 9** 
j^^* * e T |*C4<IIC^1 ! 



- . :: .-.-, 



gallon*, valued at 



iwlencie* of the Australian colonies are the 

Und*. The northern part oTthb archipelago be- 
longs to (- The southern bland*, which 
* n placed under British 

f tlir 

nc. lie be- 






hip 



' South latitude ar 

!amUar 

\ttl. Malaita. rgia, 

age. The number of foreign 
">tl\ trndi-r>. ncattered n 
:Terent UlamU and o nit 
pr, 

There baOoi 



tie chief export it copra, 
and beooe leas raltuhle than 



:n iiniM>rtance are 



-. . _ - , . 

. -: - ' - .. i .::... 

tna to be nudr 



tVtV 

Tobacco b the 
axe* ami 
an- alu traded 
of the m^oanut 
of the tradrrx 



m <>n a 

P-nr! 
also exported. 

pe*. 
.iid b 

with th.- native*. I'lanlati 
palm have been Mi oat by 
TM aago palm grow* in ra*t numbrrs and n . 

,: A ki!..'. 

M SUM \ HI M. vi;\ 

trnl Kiir.-i"-. "in|--M'il. ui,.i. r the fnndaaMinlal lav 

\ivtriaand the 
.mean, two inarparable ni 
Hall u abetl ii in bereditan 

hoitfe of Ilafebnrr Ixirraine or. in the 
the male line, in the fe- 
mal. |.-rr ' 

h tnonart hie*, vit, foreign n-Un nv roili- 
tanr ami naval affaire, common finance. coammerrtal 
ami n%iln <u! affair* cnncerniiif both I 
rtulonu tariff, the coinairr. ami the 
of Bomia and H r/. _ 

f the le^i* .- of the two halve* of the 

meet altematclv in Vienna and 

Huda Pteth. Thew commiUee*, railed the DeltfDt- 

tiona. are compojvd of 20 of ju membem elected 

rear br the Austrian Bome of Lord* and the 

amne number from the Hungarian Table of Mag- 



AU8TRIA-HUNGABY, 



nate*. and 40 from each of the lover hou* 
House Of Deputies and the Hun. 
Table of Rt*prc*eniativea. ' 'i UyitJoni meet 

and rote sriiarmtclr. except bcn there is 
menu in which eeje the matter is decided i-> hint 
Uliot. The common ministers are r*.p 
t hr iHtlnfilinnt and may be impeached for any dere- 

.'. M f .,!> 

< Emperor of Austria and 
Fmn Josef I. born h " 

claimed Emperor of n Dec, . 1848. 

....... r.r.iinand I aW .. : In - psequeno of 

a popular upruun?. Jle was crowned King of Hun- 

thai monarch? were'reetoml. The heir i.n- 
ror*e nephew, the Archduke I 
Ferdinand, son of the late Archduke Karl I. 
and oai Anmmciata, daughter of 

I 

The minister* f,,r the whole monarchy at the 
Ministers of Foreign Af- 
fair* and of t he Imperial House, Count Agenor Maria 
Adam (i- 'I:ni- 

.unii Filler von Krieghammer; 
Mini>; IVnjamin dc Kallay. 

The Common Budget According to the Aus- 
ylfifk or agreement in f.>n expenses 

ration of common affairs, after d- 
.g from the amount required the ( : 
the common customs and departmental receipts 
and 2 per cent of the remainder, which is charged 
to Hungary, are borne by the two halves of the 
monarchy in the proportion of 70 JK.T cent, for 
tria and &0 per cent, for Hungary. The budget lr 
1897 wae estimated at 160,584,751 florins, of which 
2,618371 florins are receipts of the Ministry of 
J florins those of other ministries, 50,57 
florins the surplus from customs, 2. 14 VM7 florins 
Hungary's 2 i ' -rin- Au.-tria's 

Quota, and 81,537.47!) florins the quota of Hungary. 
The appropriations for the Ministry of Foreign 
Affairs are 4,019,500 florins for ordinary and 7 
florins for extraordinary expenses; of the Mini-t ry 
.tr..l25.:J8v'.:)rj tetni for ordinary and 14,797,- 



and 



florin- for extrordinary expenses of the army. 
10.481,060 florins for ordinary and 3,600,200 



florins for extraordinary expenses of the navy : ..f 
Ministry of Finance, 2,093,500 florins; of the 
Bor .,1. 133392 florins. 

The revenue collecied in B<.-niaaml Herzegovina 

:6 was estimated at 14.413.590 florin-, and the 

expenditure at 14,368^1H> florins, exclusive of the 

extraonlinary expen<<es of the army of occupation, 

estimated at 3,533,000 florins. 

Public Debt The general debt, contracted he- 
fore 1878, amounts to 2,766.1 83.0W florins. The 
interest and sinking fund in 1896 amounted t.. rjr.- 
877.468 florins, of which Austria Paid 
and Hungary 80,311. 07:, florins. '1 ,,,,11- 

' . _ . ;:. mtint al UM end of ivi to 
192346,145 florins. Austria's sfiecMal debt was 1. !.;'.. - 
9981000 florins in 1895, costing 70,696.31*1 florins a 
year. The special debt of Hungary has grown from 
1,793,484,000 florins in 1890 to 2.144,780,000 florins 

Arra and Population. The area of Au-tria- 
I! ii ngary m $40^43 eouare miles. The population 
at the census of Dec. 81, 1890. wa41 J :i 
tria, with an area of 115J908 square miles, had a 
population of BS^99,41S, composed of 11,6- 
malesand d. The number of mar- 

riages in 1894 was 194.233 : of hirthn. 928.739: of 
deaths, 682^08: exoees of birth-. 24.V.MJ. The 
populati na. the capital, in 1890 was 

L4>48; of Prague, 184,109; of Trieste, 158,844. 
There were 19.146 elementary schools in 1894, with 
68.038 teachers and 3,312,530* pupils, out of a total 



IH, pulation of school age of 8,807,:J7<>. These schools 

: JT the < iiimunes. Tin- Mil>je.-t- ..f 
in>tr . ...:_. \\ i-iiing. language, 

urithnit ti- and elementary geometry, geography. 

brai natural history an"l 

phyeic.dn 

doin- f compulsory attend* 

i- from six to fourteen. There are 81 training 
. ll( p - f..r beaohen, 

The area of Ilnngjr .an mile-. 

|Nipuhitionin 1890 was 17, 
!;i male- and \7l.V>o-J females. The nuinl.. r of 



MM in l^'.iJ v ; ,,f hirtl 

..f deal hs,:)(W.r>5H; excess of Lirths. l!^.(l|!i. |J,ida- 



Pc-th. the capital, had 01 pula- 

t imt of i r(KJ. :w4. In Hungary education i> i-ompui- 
wry between the ages of M\ and tweh 
were 16,536 prima; | In 1898, iril : 

Bra and J.-VUUSi pupils out of a total of 

nool age. F.-I- ieadier> fc] 
normal schools. 

The numlNT of emigrants from Anstria-IIin 
in ISIM was 25,566, against r..V.H in IN'.'. 
1892. and 7s..VJl in 1MM. The d.->tinati..: 
in 1S'J4WM North America. In 1N.5 the nnml.er 
of Au-trians emigrating was 18,256. and of linn- 
garim S !HJ there were 84,19* ; 

o.s'is Hungarian emigrants. 

Hie Army. The military .system e.stal.li.-h.-d l.y 
the Austrian and Hungarian la\\>ol" Ifij 
the military forces into the army and it- I 
troops. i,r : .Mimon to the whole mon.i 

ami the Landwehr. with its Kr>at/ res- 
linal institution in eaeh half of the empire. Mm 
who do not belong to either the army or t he Land- 
wehr ami those who have serve. 1 the'ir time in the 
Landwehr are enrolled in the Landsturm f. 

. The period of service in th> :ny is 

three years, beginning at the age of t\vetit\ 
then :s in the reserve. Those not called 

into active service >p,-nd the u'.H.le ten yeai> in the 
Krsitz reserve. Men transferred from the army 
serve two years with the Landwehr: oti 
years. There are 15 army corps, usually <-on>i>ting 
of 2 divisions of 2 brigades of infantry. 1 l.ri-;. 
cavalry, and 1 brigade of artillery." The annual 
contingent of recruits for the regu Tar army i> KI::.- 
100 men, 60,389 being furnished l,\ Au-tria and 
1-J.711 hy IIuiiL'ary. The annual cont ingeiit for the 
Austrian Landw.hr i- 1 (.."( M. and for the Hunga- 
rian Honvcd 1'J. ."ino. The peace strength o! 
Austro-Hungarian army in is;o wa- 'j.",.i7i; ofl 
and :;:;i.7i7 men; total; 859^88, with 47.14'. b 
There were 3,738 staff olli. .r>. with :5>i:: H,, 

n in the >anil.. 

officers and 7,680 men in the military s< 
other establishment-. 10.MI7 infantry oflicer- and 
:-J infantry men. 1>74 ollicer- aiid 4."..".oi men 
in the cavalry.' 1 .:!<; oflicer> and -Js.l-VJ men in the 
field artillery." I TJ oflicer> and 7.7o<) men in ih- 

tress artillery, .",;: otiie. , n in the 

pioneer-, railroad, and te], -raph .. ami 

iVici-rs and l.s'.ii men in the artillery train of 
the regular army. The Austrian Landwehr coii- 
si-te.; n in the infan- 

try and IJMi ofliciT> and !>!!) m. n in tin- civalry; 
th'e Hungarian Hoim-d of 'J.i:{'J infantry oflicers 
and 'J1/J:!-J men. and :5!M oflic- .'M men in 

the cavalry. The war -t n-ngt h of the arm\ is >taied 
to be 45,238 officers an<: nen, with 

886 horses, not count in- tin- Landsturm, estin 
at more than 4,000,000 men. There are 1,048 field 
guns in peace and 1,864 on the war footi 

The* Nary. The Austro-Hungarian navy i- 
small, but is kept up to the modern requirements 
for the defense of the port- and commerce, of the 
empire. There are 8 battle ships, 8 port-defense 



v-m'N<; 



17 



including 4 monitor* for the Dumb* ft 

fclarahip* I,,.,I,.L,.I ... 1894J in lift* ; ... '. - 
an armament OOMMltaff of 4 9'4-ineli 



paper good*. 11*44000 florin* 

The import* into Hungary ia 1896 
54IMSO florina, the ei 

iMtfi tftj^B^i&A ^MM 


. 

' 



ferttttMM 



1 1 . 



t f 









noted. A new _ 

. 



l8aaUT 



S4 






florins. The total % alu of 

*. ,V>4 

in repreaant eatUe, pin, and horam; 

.1 barter ; 6M18JOOO fluur ; 

wine in casks; ll.4**,000 cask sta%: 

' " :' " '"" '; 
.. -...;.. 



iMirt f..r : 

in !*.*, 



Tba TaJue of fold and sflrar coin and bullion tev 
Nted into Au*ria-llungan dur 

JM i! - n! . :. :- i . ; . ,- . : lariaj 

I* JJBJlrtj. In I fail JLJ1M. W7 JM| AJUt flonna acul I*. 

cin in ii^t w<-iv ( m>i,*xv norus% aoQ in 
- :.,;, ;.....--. 

mnry w dirided 

nong forein coon trie* in 1895 at fallow*, valnat 
ping given in Austrian florins: 



H a 

ii uni niton 
ation. ii : 

itrai, 

MI btctoUtn K, 
tre* of maize, 








MCTJ 



'ho iiii|M>rtA. There are ft,' 

ports of tiinU-r ami fonwt prod 

.in,,, uni t.i 94000000 flonna 



n.l.v- 



N .1 \ itration. Th. number of 
t) ]- i:- .1 increaaed from MT1. of 

-1*5; the niunber cleared increased from M.- 

ian Teasels formed 85 per cent, of the total 
number and 89 par cent, of the tonnage. At the 
r irste 8.085 vejaeb 

d. aggregating 1.700,055 tons, and 8.IOS. 
:V9jB75tont, were eleared in 1895; at the port 
i*. were antered and 
; - f ;.-.,, > 

iry on Jan. 1. 1896. was II Jill of 2*4. 1 W 

. . ,. . _ . . . . . v ,,,.,, 

i..tl niimbar. S44, of 90tjHtt tons, were seagoing 
marchant ships ; 1.746. of S8UM9 tons* coasting va*. 
trlii ; and 9^ of 2^9 tons. Teasttb engaged in 



nnlratloas,-The railroads owned by the 
a total length of 4960 miles in Austria in 

id.* whirl, th, 



> companies, while the railroad 
hft.1 4^i mil- 

,'5 and companies 1.496 
tnan r-w.i* rarried 101888,000 . 

^- ukand the working eipensta 
On the Hungarian lin to 

the freight r traflte f was IS4.460LOOO 
ere 101591.000 florins, and 



. \ . 
>:!. 






ustrian postal traffic in 1895 was 609 t l66 t - 



Tin A 



140 letter* and postal cards. 90.071.800 samples and 
N and 8M00.600 newspapers; re- 

.. .-; ;,: :' :,-. tipensea, i.-r.M:-^ -- 



esipla.45, 

to*! the Hungarian port 
Istfrri and IMI 



portal card*, not 
franked IrttJr*. SU.aW.000 



part of the imperial expenses than heretofore, but 
the Hungarian represent at i\ < objected strenuously 
i.. the principle put forth bv their Austrian col- 
forwarded leagues that the numb.-r of the population in the 

:he dual monarchy should hen. 
furnish t!. Ulaiion, They ur-cd on 






Muni'lt-N He., and K.- 

,- , ' \ .--., .-. , la] . gtfa of 
..., ' . s,-, .. s, ;> ,. : :,. 



..., 
The 



i|?fJ*S w "! 

here were 12.47:< miles of 
.. hm* will kjttO miles of wire, 
r of dispatches in 18M was O.lM 

i . |i . - . ,..'-!..; \..*\ 

miles of line and 4^83 miles ^' <. and 

r of luutsiins that were sent in that year 



*Be*aia and Henefrovina.-'!'!,. Turkish i.n.v- 

ilmtita ami Herzegovina, in accor 
* provision of the B< ) , !."' IHVM ad- 

!H- A list f' : liirllt 

im 1*7*. Bosnian Bureau i* subject to the 
I!M- Imperial Minister ..f Fit 

. rnmeiit . ". divided 

the depar: ntcrnal n:' 

and justice, is assisted by an a. I v consist- 

_.-.- r th. '.:. k Ohuroh and 12 
representatives of the people. Bosnia and I! 
govina have an area of 23.362 soiiare miles. The 
sanin N > i<amr M oocupi^l ly Au-tr-liuii- 

ganan troop*, but is alinini-tcn .1 l.y 'I'urki<h <>ili- 
ciaU. Tin- i-ipulatioii of tin- -cii|,ic.l j.rnvim-.- in 
18B5 was 1,568,092, oompriMi. inal>s an.l 

73MCB female*. There were 67: j it, (,,-,, k ortho- 
: ;. >; . . /: , :;..V.Mi Kx :m ^-li.-al, 
an.l 351 other Christian inhabitants. r,iv;.:-J Mo- 
hammcvlans, 8^13 Jews, and 12 <>f other iv!mi..ns. 
t the Albanians of the southern p.ut and 
scattered nrpaies the people are of th* S. -r\ ian race. 
Tobacco is the most valuable product. Wheat 
corn, and other trains, potatoes, flax, and hemp 
are cultivated. Dried prunes are exported i 
lv. Cattle breeding is an Importanl todasteT. 
there were $33.322 hones, 1.4 tie, 1,447,- 

<; _ - ::.-.'.;'..;-jn ibeep, and ;,.'.,> 12 hoffi in 
1805. Nearly half the country i with for- 

est. In-n. <"|']r. manganese, antimony, chroini- 
urn. rjin.k-ilv.-r. leaii. and xin<- an- mined, 'm- 
paborr military service has tx-< n introduced, and 
0.185 mei. r-.llHl in the l<K-al fon-t- in 

18H5. The Austrian army of occupation numbers 



Renewal of the Vn-tn. Hunirurlnn ( umpro- 
Mlse. The ne^ottati n> for the n-newiil of the 
Austro-Hunganan Autgleich, the settlement of the 
amount to be contributed by each half of the mon- 
archy to the cor -nses, were not concluded 

by the Awtrinn and Hungarian deputations, which 
separate 1 with mutual expressions of regret that 

'iad failwl to c-me to an agreement. I! 
in virtu.- of the ^.n-titutional law. the micstion was 

ii'-h -ul.mitt-il 

their decMon to the parliaments in Vienna and 
Bu.la-Pc*th. Count Baden i nnl Bar-.n BanfTy de- 
sjldtd to aotttifjat the exfiiring troHty for mie 
morr further iii-ir*.- : u.ier'the 

present armn^rocnt Austria nays 8-6 j--r 
anl 1 It NTfcnt. Ij. 

develop 

the Austrian depatatka that the Bulgarian o,uota 
ought to be ratted to 48*16 per cent, and tl 

Ha reduced to 56-84 prrrcnt. Hungary, which 
in the last decade has enjored a comparal 
greater degree of growth and prrwpcrity than A n-'- 
tria. though Mill possessing far lew wealth and in- 
dustrial development, was willing to bear a heavier 



vi.-w of the great 
t <>f Huriganr it wan urp- 



the part of Hungary thai the oti.'ia should ! 
basect on the revenue deriv.-d from ta\ati..n in 



f.alf of the monarchy, -ince the ^(-.at ma- 
jority of the population of Hungary is agricul- 
tural and comparati The depUtatiOD 'f 

the Au-lr..' i-ath in Ma> n .lu.ed th, 

tril>utin d-manled fnun II ''>'< \ ] 

. I. ut the Hungarian deputation would imt 
, hi-her i|iila than :!:!'2 |- r cent. The 
lations were l.r'ken "IT. and llie HIIIIL- 

inn-lit \\ouid not renew theiDf being unwill- 
ing to commit itself to ;iny | n ihe 

.1' -. Ql 6 Ol :n. a-^uraiice that 1 In- A'i-M'iali (i'lVern- 
ment could secure the sanction of the Kc i. h-rat h 
for any definitr Au-trian 

culturiil intd-.-t- wanted protection a^aii.st llun- 
:i Hour, while th LTn-winir imin-l rial interests 
of HiiiiLr.-iry would willini:l\ 06 tl;.- customs union 

la|.s,. in order to establish protective dut 

Austrian manufacture-. Hence tl. 
infill' >rk in loth halves ,,) the monarchy 

teiidin- to retard a set t leineiil . \. p :., , i 
l.c-un in Scpteml.er for the provisional extension 
of the e\i-t in^ r .1 iixt/li i i-li. The two premiers agreed 
to an extension for twelve months, and I- 
thori/e th:- rueiil \\r, introducrd in lioth 

parliaments. The temporary extension inchnles 
the customs and commercial treaty and the under- 
standini; between the two governnienls and the 
Auslro-llunt;arian 1'ank. 

Intern;i1ional I'olilirs. The visit of C..unt 
(Joiuchowski. Austrc-Hungarian Ministerof i-'. 

Affairs, in I'.erlin in .Fanuary. l^'.'T. -h"Wcd \\ith siif- 
licient clearness that the ntppnektmtlU bciwi-en 
Austria and Ifussia created no coldne- 
Au-tria and (ierinanyand did not aff-ct their de- 
fensive alliance. In 'the (Jrecian jm-.iion Ai. 
which was the first ooerdve measures, 

acted throuu'hoiit in evident harmony with 
many, and both in a spirit of compliance toward 
or agreement with Ku-sia that contrasted with the 
wavering attitude of Ku ia'- ally, the French KY- 
public. The (Jerman Kaiser, in-tead of m. 
the Emperor Fran/ .Josef at a frontier waterinir 
j.lace. this year visited Vienna, where he WM re- 
I with royal honors on April 21. The Aus- 
trian Kmperor visited the C/ar at St. Petersburg, 
and there an understanding is supposed to have 
been reached n-L'ardini: matter- that miirh' 
eventuallv to a rupture ! Mria-Ihn 

and Ku--ia. and causes of difT' pi ].,n to 

have been, for a time at lea-t. siuoot 

The liVjchsrath in ls!r. sanctioned a -o-called in- 
ve-tment loan, free of taxes and bear" 
cent, inter. MKHXH) florins for the pa>- 

ment of debts incurred lv the variou< ministc 

the costs incurred in the transfer to th- 
of the telephone system, to increase the rolling 
of tin- state railroads, and to set aside a -urn for new 
In February t he (loveniment issued 
nting the amount of tin- 

new loan, which was taken at the net price of !2 
per cent, by a syndicate composed of the firm of 



Rothschild, two Vienna banks, and the 

'ink. with the understanding that all 
profits accruing to the syndicate from Hib-crip- 
tions ov,.r and above the price of li:{i per cent. 
shall ! Chared equally with the (Jovernment. This 
is the fir- \u-tria that bear- n low a 

cent, interest, the previous average 
annual rate, being 4 per cent. 



AUBTHIA -Iir.ViAlcY. 



Antttrla. The Austrian Keichiraih is com- 

pOSMi "f . Of House Of !>*<: 

:*, 9 cardinals, 8 arelrirfsbons, 7 bi*ii>i*. 



m I* 



' 






a<i 



J ^*J*B eM^ft 

!he i^U'^ih and C^aacilo/I^^H 

:::..!. - . - ^. 

: . .. 

I :..--: .- .'... .... . V . 

' v : :. 






esses certain }--n-.iml <|ualihYations, has 

-I rural commune*, 
I <-laMof 

"HI inliAoiiaiitN an. I thse electors 
ural IK-J.I, 

ruth by 9t 
!>y87.Jlo- 

i 

Dai- 

iii.ilau'. ! 

posajsjasa larp< ili-k'rti of aaioaoaiv, T.-.. Land 
. elected I'milarly t 

K.-i.-!.-r:iM.. for nix rear*, mitainini; in I.- wi r \ is- 

1805, consisted in tin- i- -nm: M- 

l members: Presidint ..f th, (oum-il ami 

imir 

tithiirn; M 

ifiil- 

! "f t 'oiii- 

'lanz 

nal Defense, Field- 

r for 

lovi was 009,708,990 florin*, of wnirn W*1.0o8.oo 
ami ll.fW>.17 Hi. rin* \tror- 
v receipt.* !..IMC an- the * 

ith nml I'.-Mii.-il <>f M 
-tr\ of ill. Inirrior. 1.175JR8 
xtraordi- 

,1 i:n.7Q0 flor 

1'inanca* 404J808JB07 

florin-* of rxtr 
: alrtMi.i*. ldH.9A0.7W 



-: :. ~ -.'.- iv-; . ' -" ' 

r. ami vJ.Vi."," xtraonlinary 

t. i.48ljB84 florins of ordinarv, 
D florins of <>\trannlitm 
* 10.85> nary, and 150.000 

xtrnon linary receipt*. 
1 aipenditnr? fi>r 1897 wa* SJtisaatod at 
iiit'h 6.V..77\44<J florin* are 
nr. and :i8.:Ki.7:J7 florins for extraonli- 







!' ' ' 

-. ... 

n.-rm for the 



HI..I 

. 



M i; :-..-. 

for | irnsions and subvention*, and fMOO for deb. 
rarlan Agitation. The most mnarkable 

manifestation 
akin to iMifial 
in iiarUof 

peasants was Father 
priest, whose views partake of the social philo^onhy 
.trl Marx, and whose sermons are a singular 
mixture of the style of the Hebrew prophet* 
modern socialistic phraseology. While a parish 
pries* he began to inveigh against the tyranny of 
la, Milord* and the injustice oTOuiatuaeat oOdahx 

rt-|*atll 
pHnat 




Hence he Reigned his living and Joined 
.rvMi.. lnia, thereby 

f the 
piscopacy. though he remained in (ialirta 

a*npn,-*t u,th,..,t'a - -haru- -. M- 
- be oo 



ever he could grt an opportu 

v of grrat people, editing at the amaw tin 
macaxine* ulromtrd his priafliplm 



inaipi/iii.^. in 

iaaG 



him on tan- 

a\fttch as his having read BMWS 
in a publie house and his hating rifassd to comply 
with M order for the dissolution of a politU 

1 5 ; - i - . \ '. ' . \ . i r i : 

ho was eicomm 

iiat it was contrary 

to the canon*, and was therefore null and Toid. and 
that the bishops bad perverted the i 

m t) the country that is loasJdind 

thrmainrtronghoki 

ntira 

leOtlOM II- :.:' ... 

*ay ma*-. nging the Aus- 

trian Uw ranoM had a i.usjnphile tinge. 

ami *N. an lmixture of * 

burden was the vindication of 



iasti< |*anantry. which had been robbed 

and was denial iu rights by the 
he was rrpratedl v prow- 

cuted an<l imprisoned for offenses against tne preai 
law*. Fat) 



7" 



AUSTKIA-WN'. \i;V. 



i arrest ol and kept in custody some weeks at the 
_,AIKW of ihe Austrian Government. The Hun- 
imrian nuth.-ntu-* finally refused the application 
for hi* extradition, and on Jan. 11. 1K07. set him at 
hUrtv. The GaliciaB agrarian movement. to 
which Father Stojaloffiiki pave fnwh r 
development, is OM Of long Handing . latin- fn-m 
ihr annexation of westrr ;-trm ami 

. ... .. ' , r f,s ,M - - ' I:--' f J< nf 

i the 

. ; ' ' ' ' ' . I he Ullage 

commune. When this system came to mi end it 

Vat MOOStdsd bv that ,,f private II the 

apportionment of which the peasants deemed that 
therm* deprived < >. although IMT 

.- forests and pasture lands remained in the 
possession of the communes, i - "'- t Ins 

grievance was a sore |int with th> i>eas- 

mitnr. Polish novelists hare made tin- hatn-d of 
the peasant* toward the landl<>nls who ha\.- 
deprived them -f th.-ir forests the motives of 
i nee*, and popular songs have contrilr- 

ailing 

notion in the nmil districts that the Kmpcror 
* bis beloved peasants to get th,-ir forests l.a.-k 
again- During the revolutionary movement among 
the Polish nobility an.) student's in 1848 the Aus- 
trian Government armed the peasantry for the 
preservation of public order. but with disastrous 
result*, for nobles and their families were massa- 
bv hundreds, their houses were burned and 
pillaged, and a reign of terror hung over the coiin- 
PxMicdek came with imperial troops 
and put down the peasants by military force. The 
agricultural distress and the spread of socialistic 
. "d th-- old grievance; but, 
the principal seat of the peasant movc- 
at that time was in eastern Galicia, where 
ii are Poles and Roman Cath- 
olics, while the peasants are Kuthenians of Gr> < k 
Caih- si Orthodox faith, the present agi- 

tation has larters in the western part of 

the province, where Imth landlords and pea-air 
Poles and Roman Catholics. The approach of the 
electoral campaign of 1897 witnessed an increase in 
the agitation among the peasants. In one instance 
a meeting summoned bv members of the clergy to 
express confidence in the Polish representatives in 
the Keichsrath voted down a resolution to that 
by a large majority. In their electoral mam- 
Mine followers of r'athcr Stojaloffski appealed 
to tli r peasants (upon whom had been 

shifted the heaviest burden of the taxes, whose 
debts were driving them from their native soil into 
the wide world, and whose rights were betrayed in 
Vienna to the landlords) to drive out the recreant 
representatives and send faithful men to the Keichs- 
rath who would have the law altered so as to re- 
store and defend their rights. Prince Sangi, 
the SUtt halter of Galicia, at the opening of the 
provincial Diet condemned without reserve all who 
took part in the movement among the peasantry 
and v V.S-H. This gave occasion to inter- 

pellation* in tin- K<>ich*rath, where I'oli-h members 
inquired whether Iho Government intended inter- 
in the electoral campaign, ami renVc 
grated regard ing the means by which is 
the election of a compart irrou'p of poles, 
three quarters of whom represent the 

-t- ,,f the nobility and the clergy. 

Ruthenian nationality entered the field of 
racial pnlitic* in !*!?. and put forth H programme 
that i.* | tartly national, demanding the divi- 
Oalicia into two administrative districts <w IJu- 
thenian and the other I'-.li-h and partly agrarian. 
appealing h as well as to the 'Ruthenian 

peasantry, the main demand proposing the sale of 



theg' i their division into small 

ant holding. The Kuthenian>. though oiitnum- 
under tl: lion law 

elec-ted for the first time s4-parate naii^nal repiv- 

: i and in the K'i< -lisrat h. 

1.1-in-iMl I l < -tioii. The admission ol ili- new 
category of electors, \\hn-h practically cslalilished 

';ge, was attciiiii-ii \\ith nei 
ments in political j.artiev. The rivalry lu-t \\ren the 

Anti-Semites and the Social I>c crai-. lioih lnl- 

ding for the voles of the n.\\ly cnfrain-hi-ns 

Die. The old German LiU-rai p:nt\. 

!H e directed the fortlMH'sof t IK tll.pll' 

practically sulnnergrd l>y the i 

the remnant joined the general hue and . 

the development of ( . \vhlch tin- part) had 

IIK.-I to foster. A new (icrinan National i 
composed largely of the Ir-.s in-lni-ied Grrmaii 

popn, .llichised li\ the llc\\ electoral law. 

expressed the racial jeal< .;:i_-"in-in 

t<> the triumph nationalism 

(ierman revival reacted in turn on the C/cch- and 

th<* pole-, and estal'li-hcd a closer i-'iid Ix-tween 

nationalities wliich have had more groui. 

;i than of political fusion so Ion- as the 

IS coquetted with Pansla v isin. and appealed to 
the protection of the K'us-ian- to save their nationali- 
ty and language from extinction. Having found 

: ful allies within the empi 

dropped their Panslavisin as if it were a ma-k. ami 
in effusive gatherings with the Poles echoed the 
hereditary antipathy of t 

The Social Democrats of Vienna arraigned severe- 
ly the Anti-Semitic majority in the municipal coun- 
cil, reproaching it with working in a direction di- 
rectly opposed to the intercuts of the people by 
withdrawing subventions from the pulilic, hlirary 
and societies for the winter refuges for the poor and 
attaching snoh conditions to the subvention to the 
volunteer ambulance society, which included some 
Jews in its membership, that the soci-ty properly 
refused jt. ami, on the other hand, by granting a 
large subvention to a suburban church building 
association, thus betraying its I'ltra-Clerical tenden- 
cies and its subservience to the Clericals, who had 
contributed large funds for the Anti-Semite 
toral campaign. Dr. Adlcr, the Social Dcm< 
leader, accused the vire-b . r of desiring to 

1 oO.OOO.OOO florin* n the city gas works for 
political purposes, and said that the Christian > 
i<tic municipal council had shown itself an enemy 
to the working rla--es sooner than was exp- 
The Anti-Semitic and Christian Socialist leader- in 
advisinu' their followers to purchase nothing from 
the .lews, in whose hand* \n<^\ of the trad.- and 
tal were concentrated, did not aid the prosperity of 
the capital, which lagged in ,1 dep resting way, while 
rieral feeling WJLS that the administration was 

.illy unsatisfactory, and di-gust was expressed 
at the violent altercat i">n< in this municipal council 
and its partisan deci-ioti- .-md oppression of tl 
nority. The (iovernmei/ me attempt to 

hold ifl check the Christian-Socialist and Anti- 
Semitic elements, yet. with no effective support 
fn.m the Liberal party, which had almost c, ;I M d to 

M such ami PTI a fundamental 

transformation, it had nothing to fall back upon 
but a disOTganiied and disunited minority in ; ny 
attempt to curb the impo-jug Clerical majority that 
stimulated and protected popn!.. .md social 

jealousies that formed no part of its own p.'irty 
cial Democracy of Austria regarded 
the troublous ,, n ,| confused political situati 
rapidly leading to their advent to power. Their 
numbed tended constantly to increase, and the ex- 
emplary discipline of t he party was well maintained. 
They half expected to win the elections for the 



\ lll'S'. 



71 



Beich*rn th in the capital, an.l aftrrward altributsd 

ival* the 



ite*. In 



....... -. 



^M.i.f. f: ..; .. 

orion to the industrial 
un labor by inereaiiig 

n the competition that 



>tria ha rvrr known. 

man j-.pu tar part? carried oa a spirited 

mm HI pel Mamii BlffM '. 

hoped to rain about 90 seat* Their 
|*rty on the tingle bai of t 

M! a uiii..n - 

ing out social reform* gradual: 

The matii- 

ustrian episcopate, signed by 5 rar.ii- 
DmBopt, HI..I -M bttopft. idrteed UM 

- an-l interests of ' 

.iKit!!it the 



that tli. 

and Demo 

vision. >o that t 



should le represented 
M heard fr<>m t ho only 

ith may U- t.-ld without 
n aiul requirements of 
_ g . i be made 

nee where hitherto laws opposed to 
rkmir claasee hare been creat.-.l. Tht 
ng struggle was foretold to be a ha r 

Id be hostile to the Socia 
would hare to fight, moreover 
elements of reaction under various names and 
guise* all in league again*! the Social l>.-m 
wearing each its mask of friend*hi| 

it wa- ii. 

the capitalist*, and the priesthood. 

a and in 

all th .nd mnnu! - with fair 

SO coats, especially in wnne of the w. - dis- 

ii the north. ami in Bohemia. In th 

.! MI. h antagonism 

<cOermans an* i UK Catena as to 

i nationalities were 
rinent. and prenented a more 
roolrm than in uny previous eh 

^'mites in Vimna showed no 

be elected for the first time 

MJ* were night: 

1 *t her 

StojalonM.; '. ' - adouarten at I .-.-. 

!*! i"h j '''ii-vjui f N t r - ,<' . , ' ' r 

vote* and tvpn^ntation that the i. 

i:,,ffrr. the 
a c..ahti..n in mn 

ral contest 

ncAinst lu-rmai:-. > < s.'. I'- m [at* . : A ' 













. . , 



l brine 

building 



feature in the 

tm>f;ih - ' td 

. 

ihrrw the weigi. ur of the 

Ihel 

up a 

01 sscUdM of CoassiT. 

i . 
art Clan, the feudal |rty of lioh*mia.and the 

.tnd Haiti- 
Mvria rallir.| to the snmmons t 

TWessetloneAtnt 



f ):, - 

Thr 



'>e Social I>r 



------ 



by many 
have been 



ami 

irtiaa 
by the 




Coav 



for their |rt 
of the Vatkt* 



apprehend re of 
n ; rffflf pMMda -" ifl | pH 

f-h. arted rapport. Of th* Ger- 
sat in the fart RekasraUi on* 



and the patronage of the papal nuncio, and court 
a* alltr* the 1- 

-.t.d ith thnr own lot, and thos 
great number of I Hrainontane voUa, while the 
episcopacy and higher clergy, mbtnutful of the 
inti-rfi -n-nrr . f thr Vatican and 
a-nuii- !. 'l.-ir , n 

.In: j.alf- 

raU who 

third were displaced, mainlr nr German 
ists. The partr, which had 114 rt-pmrntaliYcs ra 
tin- former |iarlia 

haos was composed of 77 Progmsavt 

elistm,68 ,: - -.- . 
l|QMQm\a9 

Italian I.iU-raN. and 50 



iarliamcnts. diamppeared M a stparai* 

k r merged in the Pntgnmisls, while 

ins increased from 19 to 43. 



of other 




} .:>:^. 'li, !'. Ul !- M r- .-: : , ^ . . , . 

aJ*. but sent some 
Socialists and Kntbenian* i 
-crat from Cracow. In the 

irterial majority was not 

r attempted to negotiate with the l*ro- 

iresstt ri .;.-..'. " - . . . -. 

consisting of the Pole* the moderate 

Cntl, 

man Liberals as would Join. I !e was anxious to db. 

the rapport of the 
as the German Nationalist*, and to 

p,-ndmt of the rractionari flmrmK Failmff m 
hi plan*. 1 asMciates offered their 

Austrian Social Democratic party 
in laecapttaL 
ther conterted all 

hope that the future was their* 
politke as before, for instance, 
thmcralcongrts* 

ana on Jane . to aid tie street raAroad 
r capital, although they 

. far a.* it IL* notdue to Ike independ- 
ent initial ire of the Mrikerw tiemstlrn. a* the 

In thb Mrike. allhouj* 

of rsanngir tmn*it in Vienna 
blteWnioo waf on the side of 



the 



part 
the 



t he employee* who were encouraged by wau mem- 

;.r. ' i:. - - 

the company of the 



i-Sem- nicipal council, which 



AUSTIIIA HTXGAKY. 



penalties they incurred by their failure to maintain 
tt* service. Th company rvfu^tl to mince the 
working day from i< 

rvanu more than 85 cents a .1 
.nt them more than four 

m Th SeTtJectoral Uw added a fifth ettai.- i,. the 
four already represent.-! 

with HO rvprvx-niiiincH. the 
of Conimercr ami Induct M ). -Jl. i he 
district* with II". nn.l Hi.- MM., 
with 199. In the fifth <<"<! only : T:( 




filled by 



p every 600 mh. 

dirwt election the Chr: ulists 

' votes and the >c.cial D 

witti :I.".INN. the (i. rman Nationalists after 
with'M.m*'- 5 Czechs with 1 -' 

In the 11. ~ i-'d I*' 1 '" 

polled the highest numU-r. ami after them Young 
Czech*. Poles, KM tli : fhri-tian 

On April M the municipal council of Yienna. 

vote of 98 to 89, elected Dr. l.m-er for the 
fifth time burgomaster of the city. When elected 
on May 80. 1895, by a bare majority, he dcdii, 
accept office. He* was elected again ..n <M. .. 
once more on Nov. 18 of the same year, and for the 

i time on April 18,1806. but each time the 

ministry refused to ask the Bmperor to confirm the 

Anti-S-mitic agitator. When Dr. 

iach was chosen burgomaster Dr. Liiegcr ac- 
cepted the office of vice-burp uua-ter. After the 
success of the party at the noils Dr. Strohbach re- 
signed in order that his chief mi^ht be elected 
once more, and this time Dr. I. :;._'-? made none of 
the threats against the Jews, the Hungarians, ami 
the Cabinet that had formerly rendered him ob- 
noxious. The Emperor sanctioned his appoint- 
ment, and he was sworn into office on April :20. 

Rare War In Bohemia, In the session of the 
Bohemian Diet in February Graf von Coudenhove, 

.r. ur^ed (ierman- and f/echs alik 
to disturb the peace by mutual mistrust, promi-nu' 
that nothing in the nature of educational or na- 
tional legislation would be undertaken without 
previously consulting th' : the 

two nations. A representative of the feudal land- 
lords promised that they would assist in promoting 
a final settlement as soon as they found a harmoni- 
ous feeling .growing between the two races. Heir 
Lippert declared that the Germans would readily 
support any efforts for the establishment of friend- 
ly NiHioits; previously. -l.e i.o*jti.,n of 
tnc German -sneak in i: population would have to be 
clearly defined. Dr. t he name 
1 that so long as equal rights 
WWB not given to both languages over the whole 

l<im they could make no concessions. Tl 
sistance of the Germans to the d f the 

Czech* removed the last differences between the 
Old Czech party and the aggressive and uncom- 
promising Youiiff Czechs, whose organization had 
already swallowed up the bulk of tho <,)d party of 
modermtiofi and compromise, the remaining leaders 
of which now accepted the defiant programme of 
the stalwart champions of the restored liohrmian 
nation. The combined f the general 

election put forth a firm demand for the ..flic 
Czech language in the c..urts and ad: 
trative offices ravia, and Austrian 

Silesia on exactly the same footing as German. 
They also urged that the Km|cror. when he cele- 
brated the fiftieth anniversary of his ascent of the 



throne, should e.me to Prn.irue and solemn: 

:md the dignity 

of Kn 

In ' -alii the united C/tcli- f..niied 

a more powerful and numerous ^roup than the 
YOIII: ha<l in the la-t. ami the Kudeni 

mini-lry wa.-* more dependent <ui C/.eeh suppnri 

than It eVW had Iwell. Hence the 1..1IL' e\|,rrled 

and halfway proini-ed decree ..f lin-ual e.|iiality 
c.-uld no Longer be n-fu-d. An admiiii-ti 
ordinance was issued^ directing ill.. ...uM 

:iplo\cd on an eipialiiy with (ierman I 
il and judicial lan^uap- throughout the i 

loin of Bohemia and the ' 

The Y..UIII: < idfl their support of the 

ni ministry comiitioiial on the Hill co-onli- 
I the two languages, Czech aiul (ierman. 
in tin- judicial and otlicial admiui-irat , 
hernia, fount Hadeiii th- 

aooording to which, after a peril d ..f M-\CH 

rnnient ollicial in I'-ln inia mii-t be ac- 
miainted with both lan^uap-s. ami jm. 

dispense justice in either lomrue at th< 

the parties concerned. The (ierman Deputi. 

l.'.hemia declared this to be a gross infringement 

on the inteiv-ts ( ,f the (i.r: P.ohe- 

mians, and the (ierman landowners, upon whom 

fount I'adeni had reckoned. refii-<l i 

fnun the otl-r (n-rman I'aeti.,! 

ministerial decree \\a- i--ue.l providing for the OOO* 

current u-<- of both languages. 

The f/echs have \\..rK.il anl striven hanl for na- 
tional iveo-jnitioii during the thirty years thai 
elapsed since Count I'.eu-t UM promised, 

Iowa, t" u r i\- Moheinia her \irtual iudepen 
and l-'ran/ .Io-ef planned to ! 

Bohemia and rei-n over a triple in-'ead of a dual 
monarchy. Count A mini y piv.-erved the dual 
monarchy, and f..r a |..n.i:liine the f/edi amliitioii 
\va^ thwarted. During these years of deferred hope 
the f/echs have earned the racial and lingual su- 
premacy that they have j. radically ach: 
cially and industrially they ha\e ijsen t,, the lev. 1 
of their (ierman competitors, and in political ear- 
nestness and discipline they have excelled them. 
Kveii in intellectual life they are the equals of 
their former teachers and political ina-ter-. They 
ha\e not only built up a jK>werful political jiarty 
and shown the capabilities of their formerly 
lected and tle-|.i-ed tongue for oratory am! 
nalistic warfare; th.-y have cr.;iie.| a lit. : 

..iid even a mii-ical school of their own, and 
in the fields of s-ien -hip. ami philo-oph} 

the Germans can scarcely still maintain that the 
. i- not a Cult- a literary Ian- 

theless the Ian linance of the 

trian ministry permitting this language t-> be u-ed 
in courts of 'law and public ofl 

ich a pilch of uncontrollable fury ami 
violence as the Youn^' f/edi- m their wild ] 

rm and - 1 ' had ili-jilayed. The lan- 

guage war between the two population* was^al- 

rfl eliollirll o\er t lie (|Ue-tion of .lljcat foil. 

me di-tri-t- (J.Tinan-. in otln-i ould 

: ; :eir children taught in their o\ui lan- 

who had received their 

whole education in (ierman would not have their 
children n it- nidiim-nt-. In 1'; 

(ierman inscript ions have been erased from monu- 
ments ami that la- seldom heard. In 
many village* it i- interdicted in the public schools 
under the law that require- the lai:^uaL r - of in- 1 ruc- 
tion to \te the one prevailing in the di-trict. al- 
tlmujrh there are several Czech village- which have 

hat the children permitted to ! 
i'-tion in (b-rman as well as in f/ech. In 
other villages Bohemian is bani-hed from the cur- 






AUBTRIA-IIUXGAUY 






new language 

U-1 III Ibc-ir 

/erhs ami thr lailrr be- 

o retort in kin*l. In Saax the 



as prohibited by 

'-- 



holc*aJr, t'*~rh trlianl* 

MM tviet.<i f: . :: -. . 
atlrisli of that nationalit . 

Catena tnaifT the !' 

> in mtauranl* or U r hall*. 
thru.. In some places 

nun* VfJi i- .:'...: ' . 

tittcbeon. In many <i -nnan -i 
- were given i 

ally mal- 

asrs were 
roc* and coin) 
heller win-re th.-ir fellow* an- in the maj> 

n some of the elum-he*. In the n. 



authorit 
suall h 



here 

llow 



tactics, and they wer< 

:n their part\ leaders had refused 
to Consort until the new cntrpiry of ilnno. 
voters were iuM.il to the elector 

bsto protesting in the the I 1 ., i,, 

especially the brutalities practised by famr 

^ain-t the Itohemiaii minority in the 
slosMl res, and Ul 

of Bohemians true to their tie-. 

< nt aiul insolent a* 

The language question was car the 

Reichsrath by the German -t-. who 

.1 all business by tactics of oii-.tr.. 
Jbonier MI. h as had never befort* Un tnol m 
Austria. On May 23. when the president, u.-m oni 

ulentwas 

in th- i o\ertunied desks, l! 

hooks in ti rtr^' 

mil final. ami broke 

lip the Hiltuii; an.l ill- r 

tiiitterial table ami menacing 

rii-* .-f " I ' 

a large renrefiriita- 

early Jui 
f the |inrliaiif 
.tinl f 

ince respecting the official i.- /erh 

fusing their o. nt in- 

/echs at a con- 

M about the same time, 

iiianif.-:. ultimate 

Irvlaivil them* 

stiver ill times to come to an unlrrtiinl- 

11 the I -a-.- f complHe 

lationaittiea* they di*I not 

oontideV it a favorable moment then to lgin ncsio- 

i* ami. n -ere not them- 

poeBd to take the initiative. A mass meet IT 
.m* anno held at RjgoronJul 

for the purpose of protesting against the action of 




. atrrt theetiMCUd in flu i. a great 

|B --- d f 5 ^r 



. 

.. 



were m 



dir*tfard of tbr 
HereraJ 

lUtarianeuil. 



it h tirawn sworda, srvn 



' I .- . , 




i 

itl u|H*n toe people to remain vtfladfaat to 

man nationality, and never lo give p the 

*.* won and the language Kili 



etCing at 
thai 



: liamentanr T 
i the (iennan Sat 



rn. In a Urrman 

made 
hare 

the Prime 
to a run. 
fereoce with the Cooser% 
ami t h. of the constitutional |trty and with law 



h for the purpose of 
measures by tu<h he proposed to bring about an 
understanding bet ween the German and Carrh na- 
tionalities. The German representatives 
r into any negotiations until the k 
houkl be withdrawn. 



fusal II|M>II the alleged incompetence of the minis- 
try to issue such an ordinance. 

Autumn Se-ion. i :> sjmj 



Reichsrath electeti under the reformed nffrage 
was bron L 'l:t to an al-rnpt Ue on June 2. The 
tiona and obstructive tactics of the 
Mists, aided by the Socialist* 
-I any business being done. The Prime Min- 
ister. stating that such proceedings were contrary 
ostitntion. prejudicial t 
.! of the Mate, and calculated! 




lie fumlamental 
.ti.-n. and that it * 
put n ieh a condition of affair*, declared 

E 

been adopted 

li.-i..au.l .1 t.-ktl.: 

ic a .1.. k their activity in the 

, -.--. .- :. . . i ,...:-.- 

tional immunity' a* I a mere proro- 

gation wtml.1 I 

rath came t.^rlher apin itadcfti mr 

f the |nir forming the Slat < 

laS M '> n.l :-..-: .--' ..'-' 

i support 
n the Besrnerath reassrmbied. on 

I with a hostile 

st rat ton by the Sohuenefer group, which chrrred 

.e German people when ehiin wore called for 

the Emperor Krant Joseph. A seriea of motions 

was offered aiming at t) 

'' ''"'"" l 

conduct of the Government officials at 
gm. The German Badical* and the 
erer grtup wantdl him impMchol for prc 
the mam meeting at Kgvr.and called fcr tbeim- 
' -*^-JuntGlettch. 34 muter of Justice, 




, HUNGARY, 



, .'.. 



Dr. Bilinski. Minister of Finance, and Baron Glanx 

I Commerce for eiceeding their 

powers in the issuance of the decree aut homing the 

flfHfrUl use of the Ossoh language in Bohemia and 

v . . ..-,'. ,. .- ,..,> Dr. Wolf, lh -'- 

1 with the Clr-h Kp.it y Ib 
challenge f t llndcm by m-ultmg ei.r 

rharartrrixing as blackguardism the aUtfW intro- 

' . . . .: .:..- .;.-_ . - : M 

ushers. Although dueling i- n of the 

Austrian criminal law. the Emperor approved the 
of the Premier, and refused to ai-cent his 

In the duel, which was fought the 
next morning. Count Hadcm was wounded by a 
bullet, which plowed its way along the 
Ih of hid arm. The OppOSttkNI in the 
TOted not tO elect the 4<l member- pn>- 
bv the statutes frm the t'nterhaus to t he 
Austrian IMegati . until they had settle,! their 
difficultly with the (lovcrnment. There were five 
motions for the Premier's impeachment U-forc the 
-rath. The (iennan and Anti-Semitic inem- 
.-.d that the ti.'vernment intended to pro- 
rogue Parliament as soon as the Delegation- \\.-v 
chosen, at, the remaining n by 

despotic mini-tenal edicts. The stormy and di-oi- 
derly of the t'nterhaus coniinued. < >n 

Oct. 10 the sitting was suspended after a band of 
deputies had surrounded the chair and assaulted 
their presiding otlicer. The outrages of the (Jer- 
man obstructionists finally forced Thomas Kat li- 
the president of the'l'nterhaus, to resign on 
Oct. 26. The budget for 1898, based on the new 
system of taxation, made the total n venue 719,900,- 
000 florins, which was 29,760,000 more than in the 
preceding year. The expenditure was computed to 
reach about 715.000,000 florins. The new ground 
tax was expected to bring in 28,700,000 florins, as 
compared with :tt. 700.000 florins in l*s7: the tar 
on buildings, 31,100,000 instead of 38,300,000 florins. 
Prom the new personal income tax a revenue of 
15,600.000 florins was looked for, from the tax on 
rsiiles 8.100,0110 florins, from the tax on sal 
810,000 florins. In the supplementary budget 
reckoned as permanent investment the sum of 
000.000 florins was set down, to be raised by a 
8f-per-cent, loan, and expended in discharging 
debts incurred for extraordinary pi. i for 

domestic improvement- in general, chiefly in con- 
structing new railroads and equipping the 'old ones. 
The adoption of the budget and the renewal of the 
A ust ro- Hungarian Aiupleicft were the only indis- 
pensable acts required of the Reich srath. The 
Government resorted to all-night sittings in the 
hope of rendering t 1 BOH j-hy-i'-ally inca- 

pable of keeping up the obstruction. In the noc- 
turnal sittings the scenes of turbulence and di-or- 
der grew worse, and the debates degenerated into 
an exchange of insulting epithet- and per-onal 
abuse. Heir Lecker, on the Government side. 
stretched out one speech for twelve continuous 
hours. The Government, which is euiftowcred to 
suspend the Const it tit ion temporarily by one of the 
article* of that instrument, could carry on most of 
the public busineas without the help of' t he Kcichs- 
rath. but Count Badeni was reluctant to resort to 

Hungary. The Hungarian - consists 

of the Table of Magnates, in win. -h I'.* archdukes, 
181 hereditary peers paying 3.000 florin- in direct 
taxes. 41 dignitaries of .n and (ireek 

Churches, 11 representatives of the Protestant con- 
fessions, 84 life ; state dignitaries, and 8 
delegates of Croat ia-Sla von ia have seats, and the 
Hou.se of Representatives, consisting of 41-'{ mem- 
bers from Hungarian towns and rural districts and 



40 delegates of Croat ia-Sla vonia, elected for live 
years by all male citi/cns j \\.-nly years of age who 
pay a certain small house, land', or income i 
: - - educational or pr, .fe>- imial |iiali!icat ions. 
Fhere wer< leoton iii !>!''). bring 1 in 

habitant.*. ^lavoiiia ha- a provincial 

-late on local at: 

The Ihingarian Cabinet at t he be-mnini: of \^\>:. 
first c<,nMituted on .Ian. 1 Mtained the f.,1- 

louing membt - nt of the Coiim-il. I 

Mr. I.adi- 

lausde Lukacs: Min 

at the Kin-'s Court. 1 

>aniiiel .l..-ika : Mini-ter ,,f the Ini' icrius 

de I'erc/el ; Minister of Kducatioii and Worship. 
l>r. .luliii- de \\'la-sics; Mini-ter of Justice. |)r. 



iiider Krdely : Minister of Indu-t ry and ' 
nierce. Han. n Kriie-t de Daniel; Mini-t', 
culture. D. Ignalii. 

a and Slavonia. Kim-rich de' ,loxjpo\ jeli. 

riniiiires The budu'ct BStil Miake 

the total ordinary revenue lf'">. I'.'l .**! florin-. 
the transit<.ry revenue 1 0,1 84,4 'J i florins; total from 
all sources, 475,.'{-J;.: Hi.") florin*. <l the ordm;r 
cei|.ts 307,582,::' are from the Mini-try of 

l-'inance, , fl..rins fn.m the Mini-try of 

Commerce. l',.i;t;s. :,;.-, florins from the Ministry of 
i:'>4. 71? florins from the Mini-try 
of the Interior, sm florins from the mini.-!! 
lattm, 798,060 florins from the Mini-try <f Justice, 
::t;.is() florins from the Mini-try of Defense, 1,11,- 
668 florins from the Mini-try of Kdu<-ati<.n and 
Wor-hip. and .|.:M:.HHI florins'from -(ate debts. 

The total ordinary expenditure was estimated at 
1 H. -':.". 1 s ! florins, transitory expenditure at * 

'rins the total of Investment* at in.n.M .;:,] 

florin-, and extraordinary common expenditure at 
6,897,886 florins, making the total expendilun 
238,07<i florin-. <>f the ordinary expenditures 
}.;:,( i.(HM) florin- are for the civil li-t. TM.fiOO florins 
for the Imperial Chance] M the 

Reichstag, 27,Wl.so:! florins for the contribution 
to common expenditures, 26,4 16 florins for pen-ions 
charged to the common account. v 1'Tins 

f<.r Hungarian p<-n-ion-. j florins for the 

national debt. i:{.r71.<isi florin- for debt- of guar- 
anteed railroads that have been acquired |,y the 
Government. 4!!>.0?s florins for guaranteed railroad 
inter. <;i florins for the admini-t rat ion of 

Croatia, 148,548 florins for the ollice of th- 
countant ( J en eral, 240,987 florins for the- adminis- 
tration of courts of ju-tice. -140.KJO florins f..r the 
dency of the Council. 70.HOS fl,rins for the 
mini-try 'ml /<tfus, 43,078 florin- for the Mr 
for Croat ia-Slavonia. 10.44 7.~><>1 florin- f..rthe Min- 
istry of the Interior. 7").l!7.'. i ::i florin- for the Min- 
i-try <.f Finance. ;i:',.r 14.1 W florin- for the Mini-try 
of Coinmep . . 17.''.<i;,M'.' florin^ for the Mini-try of 
ittun, r.M4i.r,"J florin- for the Mini-try of 
Public Instruction and Worship. 1 .VX.' 1 ,. H'-J florins 
for the Mini-try of Ju-tice. and lo.i:;i.;-js florins 
for the Ministrv c.f Honved. 

The session of Parliament. A conflict arose 
between the mini-try and the Opposition, Mid was 
prolonged formany \\eeK-by mean- of ob-tructive 
tactics similar to those practiced in the Au-trian 
Keich-rath. The matter .- .,- a claii-e in a 

bill amending criminal procedure and trial by jury. 
The bill provided that in future newspaper libel 
cases should be tried before a judge alone without 
a jury. This the Oppo-jtjon held to be an infringe- 
ment on the liberty of the prass. The (Jovernment 
refused to modify the bill, but temporarily with- 
drew it on encountering determined obstruction, 
and in its place brought in a bill for the extension 
for one year of the sugar bounty system. Ti. 
position", however, would not allow any progress to 



HUNGARY. 






made with this or any other 



i. <,::.. :.' 

tkdmi 






At lawl, on July '>. ' went consented i- a 

!.e remainder of the 
Mwiun on UM- difii<M.i..n ..f tli 
nngemeut of the A u*tro- Hungarian 
question an*! thr voting i.f 

^ of the Au-irmii . lui. - and ' 

impendence. lUnm lianfly r 

must be rr- 

gard,d M :-. . .' !,-, ,' ,;,| -, \ ., 

uillirn-liil ' the charter Of 

i< UM t. 
' parliamentary 

timent ceases in Austria ur if t h.- federal sys- 
fe ie established then UM ptiMl nJ vi i < - 

that fart l abrogated at - remaining tfe 

U -iw.-.-n t!i- IWO ' .:< .' ;. - Vfl] i- UM I PHI .. :. 

ijirlan SorUIUw. Tbetbet.r dism 

have not Ufii nf. In! I.. 
have I MM- n for many year* among the . 

:>tna nn. I ' 
atcd the rural population of those or any other 

'! Hungarian |N-a 

prone t.th,. i.lui^^,,f agrarUn diaoontenl that hare 

uwd to hol<)ii> 

^rievancTJi. II. n. IM.- U-n. ultui.i 
Oongrcaa r iH-uMnnin^ 

-'?. was a norel and 

ir aspect v 

.iKtl the existence of 

nn :u*r:iri.iii nOT( RM nt Ofa rlOW OlHtmi tat am !U 
a (taf 

the peaaant morement in Galicia in many respects, 
.irtin- tpontaneouslj frmn the bosom of tii*- 

any popnlar agitator*, Of ^'r.-i.-.l l-\ in. n . f '..._: ; - 
enmcut an<l nltur.-. -M.!I it- 

was no lack, however. >f f * >r< ihle and rl< 
pleaders of ihnr rim--, f.-r vrry Hungarian is a 
born orator, and the villagers arc practical in |- -lit - 
ts, At the ooogreas ner- 
era! a 

irh*tag. and ther attnu-tcd the at 

-r- of thv cmigrtsa 
1 1 horities should conOana 

to place obstacles in the way of the organixatioo of 
;t party. I form a 

secret society and i ta general str; 

demands were rejected. These were an in- 
crease of vaffM. a reduction of the hoars of Ini-.r. 
aii'lth.-.'i 1 in. The move* 

! and had 

midst of one of the most fertile |mr I Inn- 

garian plain, a dint- I.,- land 

f i peasants. It- ii- 
peeiallyd 

ving 
-m and the n ^. 

among the genuine Magyar 

. former!. 



untd thr to dtMws thr hardoaai of their lot tad Un 

Masttati . ".:.. 

la the low- 



ap sprea of 



the people here In 

*. and while they find t>lei 
:n the summer and autumn on the farms and 
in the regular 
little to .}, ami find plenty of time ami opportunity 



-...- .. . ... . - . . 

ill othe^nmrU of the country thr> 



nd lahorvn have, though it a* 

in what form aJU u 

n^ in ;;-. ! 



betai 




. 
... 



_of Ins 

i* in country where the 
NO ihutt a Uase that 
work gofeon day and night. 




thr aathoHUea than 



bedmJtwithby 



ia to large iadaatftt 



bed 




proeeeded to the offlces of the 

i . .'. 

H, P.: b '! 




fin d. killing 9 

persons. The infuriated miners' 
dannes and officials to take 

.nlil they were resetted by a detach- 
ment of soldiers. To frustrate the threatened har- 

v -y" M... I,. .,::::,:. ...':, 

to UM* force w lifii infi'>arv t<> t>r-*-rA' tn ! A . 
but send a sufficient force of laborers to 
place of the strikers wherever the strike 
break out. Karly in June anctaltrt riots a 
in the t>ra*ant communes of Nadudvar and Alpar. 
the gendarmes fired on the disturber*, killing 
one man in each place and wounding a considerable 
nun. i nnection with these disturbances 21 

persons were arrested aa socialist agitators. Near 

-.dof lh. : 

season, an extensive strike occurred in the AlfBsd 
district, and the movement 

itie and the 
vention of th.- j- lie*, prior to any 

are, with the object of 

dating thr strikers. TbeGoT 



the 



proeeeded to carry out their threat of 
leaf UM employer, accorded UM term* 

nt rained Imported laborers, on the other hand. 
uovejd inefficient and expensive, and were almost 
useless to the employers, who complained that the 

,', I ,:.-, . 

and that it was imposaible to get their crops in 
properlv . rtenced hands, even aa tnoee 

lat moment declined to carry out their engage- 

v. . >: :,- ml W n 

rml in SeptemU r in rmatia- 
and 

.- lo Hunganan oaVaiK 
ip a fort i ftVd position. Twelve dbtrfcts were 
and t n^e were s* 



placnl und. r martial law. 

disturbancr. which here originate,) in a 



atian* that the Hungarian authori- 
ties intended to deprive them of their ancient privi- 
leges and -.nvert them s < atholicism. 



When the signs of disorder appeared in April the 
Governor, Count Khuen Hedervary, revived the old 



BAP! 



law of sssofiisti 1> political societies 

mar U dissolved and their funds confiscated 
even nonpolitieal societies suppressed unless they 
are spedallv authorised by the Government hi 
.< H^rnrian movement had at that time 
thrvairiiing that waolssale arrests were 



made among the peasantry and military p. 

, ... ,-, - , - , ; . 



to 



\Vhile iii 
greal 



*-!. in Slaronia.an.1 particularly 
i& to great pro- 

_ of li.-in o\\ 11 eiior- 
__ 

MO cultivators, tlMM are worse off than 
the tenant farmer*, owing t.. the heavy mortgages 
- to these causes a rom- 
>4ie agrarian movi-mcni Miuilar to that ... 
md a fertile soil in eastern BUvooia, 
Hivrrnmriit party has a large majority in the 
Agram I Met. luii it is opposed niinority 

whose aim is neparntiou fnm Hungary ami tin- 

1 kinu''l"in of < 

. Sia\ :. .t. halmatia, U-.-nia. 
nixl iloraegovina. I-'HIMM-. and l>tria. 

Hours, | r-i-l.ition. i (jia-stioti of ; 

lat ing the stock andprodooeezo&uige lia- < n^a^ed 

.-trillion of tin- Hungarian (iovi-riininit. which 
r.->4-ntativcs to invrstjpitc the con- 
ns prvvailin:; in tin* principal bourse centers of 
opf. Thi-n a conunis>ion was COOStitated under 
the auspice- of llaron Daiiirl. the .Minister of ('.m- 
linancial. mercantile, and 
iHural itiMitiitions. tin- Reichstag, and the 

legal profession "ere represented. The I. ..U! 

Buda- Perth i- an institution through which 1m- 
in produtv, as well as in stocks and shares, i- t ran- 
m-t.tl. It*>inp the only estal>li-hinent of the kind in 
Hungary, it plays an important nart in the ..M- 
mercial and tinancial affairs of the country. The 
hoarse cominiltee, which has imini-t ra- 



I. .1 from am. tug tin* members, 
.tie afterward ratified by the 
Mini Mineree. The decisions of the com- 

mittee are final after they ha\. berii reviewed by 
officials appointed by the Government for the pur- 
but the pOWerS Of these otVlcials are limited to 
ting the action of the committee to its p r ,.. 
scriln-d sphere, within which its p,.\\rr is practi- 
cally uncontrollrd. The subjects to \\hich the 
iimeiit iin|uirv was directed \\eiv the position 
of the bourse in relation to the state, the composi- 
tion of the bourse committee, Che conditions 

lating the terms of membership, and the < 
plinary authority of the bourse authorities. The 
majority of the commission approved the intrnni- 
tion of the state for the regulation of the I 
an 1 its nii-thods of business. In t he discussion of 
nd question the n-pn-sentat : .irian 

interests proposed that the committee should in 
future be composed partly of candidates elected by 
the members of the bourse and partly of caml 

:iltural associations having Invct 

connection with the bourse. This latter element 

they desired to add becail-e the produc- 
ers a preponderating inllnener ,,n a-rii-nlture 
in general and iijion the material welfare of the 
farmer and landowner in particular. Their opin- 
ion was oppoxrd by the financial experts on tin- 
plea that all corporations, agricultural and others, 
that were in direct touch with the bom 
titled to a voice in t he elect ion of thr- commit tee. 
but the adoption of the proposals ,,f the agrarians 
would subject the decisions of the commit: 
outside control, which in the end would prove det- 
rimental to all concerned. With regard to the 
third question the representative of the bourse 
committee advised the application of legal mea-- 
ures limiting the number of member- who -hoiild 
be entitle. 1 -id the exclusion of undesirable 



B 



BAI'I |s|x | ,Hcan Ba; rbook 

for lH97gires the followin. for the Ilaptist. 

n thr I'nitiNl States: Number of associa- 
tions, 1.567; of churches, 40,658 ; of minister 

of members. :{.H24,038; of persons bai>ti /.! 
during thr year. 172.434; of ministers ordained 
during the year, 504: of Sunday schools, i. 
with 164,431* officers and teachers and I.V. 
pnpiN; value of church property reported, $84,- 
080JQ99; am-unt of salaries and 'church expenses 
n-|.rted. $8,106.769: of contributions for mi-- 
$1.^.VVJ1 T edu.-ati.m. x ,(,- 

rflUnrinis Drifts. $2.214.682. Six hundn-d and 
two churches were organized during tin- year, and 

.ur<-h IMH Id i ntrs dedicated. Thirty-three chari- 
table institution* return piop-rty rained at $1 

On- hun-lred and sixt^-i, ifl are < ..n- 

docted as representatire of the Baptist .-!,,. 
and prim-ipl^. For Baptists in the world, includ- 
ing America, Europe. Asia, Africa, and Austr 
are enumerated 47.363 churches, 81^25 ministers, 
and 4^73.264 members. 

Home Mlftftlon Society. Tho wvontv-fifth an- 
nual meeting of the American Baptist Home Mis- 
sion Society was held in I'ittsburir. I'M.. Mav l!t and 
-". T:.- I;- r, II. Kir;;-- I 1 . rt< r ; : - ; rl. The total 

N for tho year had been $422.42*. of which 
$^> 7.329 were from the contribution* of dm 
Sunday schools, and individuals. The extxniditures 
had been $450.608. viz., $202.30* for missionaries' 
salaries, $84.469 for teachers' salaries, and $ 



for expenses of administration. The ^rross debt of 
the society on April 1. iv7. wa- s-ji i.;:i}. toward 

the payment of whi--: -ad 1 n specifically 

subscribed, leaving a net indebtedue-s of sl^l.- 
761. In the missionary depart ment 1.0(54 mission- 
aries and teachers had been employed, of who' 
missionaries and 'Jl teachers had labored amount he 

jn p< pulatioii : 47 missionaries and -JUJj, . 
amonirthe colored people; 17 missionaries and 'Jl 
rs amoi.K the Indians ; 17 mi- and "> 

teachers aillonj: the M , 
the Mormons; and 4-VJ mi i'.narirs amon-/ . \nieri- 

.onaries hail supplied 1 .77") cln. 

ami stations, and reported 4,!>H' members received 

by bapti-' iiurch members. I-'.? churches 

:/ed. 1.ir>7 Sunday schools, with a total at- 

10 of brne\olr||' 

tributioiis from the mission churches. Tt,,- society 
aided in the support of 31 established schools for 
tin* colored people, the Mexicans, and the Indians, 
11 day schools for the Chinese, and 1 day school in 

Utah, and l in New Mexico. The work among the 

Indians was confined almost ex<-lu-ively to Indian 

and Oklahoma Territories. The work among the 

foreign [Hipulation- .ally a-siimin^r new 

;! of the churches called fon i-n had 

during the .,me American, dropping their 

foreign tongue and using the Knglish lan-un-e in 

all their M-rvices. Much of the work done among 

people was "foreign" now only in name. 

Probably the majority of German, Swedish, and 



BAITI8TBL 



_ ' ' 



I South I ar-'lnm 
Hi 



X education in had 

mfe M r. .?.-.: ^\ .. 

Itai'lu* .Mti't 

li'-'-.'"' M. .1 ..i. i; ..', .. ; 

IT* fffrfl.flflff to thfa IM. 
^l.lumur th.< in.. 

Hli.iillit la 

hat the happy anil anoouej 

!..- appoint- 
ixmnillea of coir 

!;!'! \' \.ir-A :-!.: 



meeting of the American Ilapti-t 1 

U-nr lurinu' the year 1 1 
honwand it* arrmimhit...! M4*-k lv i 

re than MtUfaetory, i!.- <-f the 

- 

tl,,- ,,th. r r.., iptl I f HM I ul i-f in. .!.'-| art..,. : }.:i i 

111,005; 

'.: in the miwionn- -nt. *1 

nt ha-1 U n (liiiiii)- 
bhed fr..iii $11. :U? t<> f 1 

ati' I t hi- Home Mitrion Society. i-r not to 

embarnue their efforta. no uneVial ir i been 

r.- ainoiiii! 
the benerolent traaiury of the *> 

,-h th.-.-u inii.-l- hail I--.-M $11 . 

U-M,!,> Whi< !, *-.v V , . . : .-:.. : '- . 

qucrta in the form of conditional gifU. One hun- 

v-two new pu 
famed. It had been neceamn 

Min- list ..f th.- loefc 

n-i.t nfarioiuu . i and mm m bad been .-! 

mlasionarr department, who |iad rWled M.- 
.miliea* and aold and given away mm I 

u.,.,1.- tbowaadi - f tr.w*. ^ .i *h .:.-.. -: 
nmowbapUir.! -...-,, ---.-. 

-.-: - - ::.. hrldand 

with trmnt. f,.r thrir lil>mn.. The 
Inter 'in^-l ran* van rvprr*rntr| t<> ' 

ration. The 

had raited in thirteen rears $$4d45&. or nmrlr 

hole Mm 

.tl on homo ami fnnrfn fleUa. The 
work of the Ilil t whi.-h thr - 

!o^l M the *m oexor of 

he American and Foreign Bible So- 



I .Ioa.-Th* eigtej^hird M 
retail 

Ir.. I;, HUH KM Mai 

a <Mktl ' > --.4 

7. madr a Mmf drU of M7JL TH* 

-.-.-. . ' . 






Hhnda, The aitdaliofi anUdntfed in thr ; 

.- , ..-.-- . ; 

the debt hall be iimar> 

M* no allernaiirr but ...i MIC. 



..-,' 

~-n. < unaihngllM 

, i-t .- r -:.',' ; ,,.,.... --., . : , 

all sourr* 



adopted a* the basfe of i 
f . .r any tingle year. - To effect ihb wlO in 
.! abandotiBK 

U|- I. M,||,, 

mbaionary fan .one reduction in the force 

at can not fail to i.n.vr a serious embarreje- 

t"iii.v>. field, and. for a lime at 

least, rurtail progress. From several of our Kuro- 

ill involve the ithholding of 

pri-M-nt appropriations and a 

the work in France, with 

owilile withdrawal alto^ther fn m > 

hi< h retrenchment ha* al- 
ready been carried, and now disproportion* 

have bern 
.- "f tin- | at fire rearm, b taken into eo- 

ren that a: 

ii leM ilraMir will fail to ertire the relief de- 
man i 
recommendeil to the Kxe. < mittrr mch re- 



' -nil-lit ami realju*ti 

h the least in mwrion 

that -in- f the experienn 

- we should deem it exceeding unfortunate if 

. ..iiui.tr year snould make it nrre*. 

nary t-. mmr a t . .:. i t " The Kxrcutitr 

-.- adrbetl to exercise the utsttost econo> 

more consrientious and considerale 
A committee wa appoinlel to r. i 

h re- 

Pni i ^ration. 

Progress In missPmanr wovk was noted in thr 
M mbwion. pmcrefe in self-eppnrt in that 

: - i.ai : r, \: .- ,- .. - - . 

"bole number of missionsriea of the union was 

Af>gUj -^ ua^t^laa^ ft. tfkfl . --4* aiaVasisjuasVeasi flftA 

1 'I fl*inr pfTVJCOe?raV I V I1K1 9 %V| CTOIWVuV ^** 

it h 9tjM4 membera : of baptisms in IBM. & 



i mrtnmti Ittl.l^ ! J.ilnt 

lenoan nioie oeewueNM 



flna annual public' merttoir 

hat in order to 
umlrrtakmc* of the mmmb- 
rmertiMi 
nocmc or 
work of the BantM churrhe) it had 







HA Pi 



operation throughout the country, namely, the 

its, the associations and the local 

he*. The recommendations that had been 

made to these bodit- . d. Mullet in- con- 

cerning - ; -'"'' '" 1 

-uents containing Tarions papers in regard to 

phaar* of the work. The one distinctive work of 

Ue year. M dewriU-d in the addict of the 1 

the initiatory steps in openta 



Slate board* had boon formed. The mim- 
work now wan 

to each association : in every State a commission 

. chureh: in ex cry church the 

adoption of some thoughtful plan of gmng. the 

holding of * monthly service in recognition of the 

M'S represent d m the denomi- 

.n\ life, an I the ap|Miintment of a church coiu- 

miavtcn. which by the use of literature and jK-ixmal 

in every mcmlH-r c. 

entiou-. habitual fidelity in the discharge of the 
obligations of < icwardship: the use of a 

M of annual report by church, associa- 
tion, and State thus to unify and promote intelli- 
ut of the work, lu-port was made 
of tli e(.o|ieration with the offer made by 

Mr. John I>. li'ockcfcllrr. to secure payment of the 
debts of the Missionary Union and the II. -me Mis- 
sionary Society, that the whole amount so far ob- 



Uoman's Home Mission Society. The twen- 
tieth annual meeting of the Woman's Mapti-t Home 
Mission S-ciety was held in Pittsburg. Pa.. May 
17. Mr-. -< presided. The total amount 

of money in the treasury during the year hail 
$66.156. The disbursement*, including $5,000 pi:id 
deficit and reinvested, had been $60,478, and 
$878 were on hand at the close of the year, 'f he 
deficit thus appeared to be about $3,700, but as 
$8,000 of this sum was an emergency fund, the r. -al 
deficit was $1.700. The training school had gradu- 
ated 21 students, of whom 15 wen- American-. '' 
, 1 Dane, and 2 Herman-. The number of 
missionaries employed during the year had !" n 
-.tme as during the previous year. 1:50. Tin- 
work was ng 11 classes of people in 
; >;ar. -. m :{'. States and Territories, and 

at 85 stations. Free conCannoas wex held during 

the in 'he literature of the society, meth- 

ods and services for collecting money, the training 
of girls to take interest in foreign and homo mi- 
sions, and the same among children. 

Woman . Missionary Societies. The 

twentr-^ixth annual meeting of t'he Maptist \Vom- 

Koreign Missi- wa- held in 

Washingt- Apri'l 20 to -J'J. The general 

had l>een $80,488, and theex- 

iptl for the Home for 

rhildr.-n of Miwionaries and of Ha-, jt m ,. House 

hal in both cases been in excess of the expendi- 

idred and twen'y missionaries had 

shared the gifts of the society, tti of whom w. 



tirely stin(inrted by it. 11.126 putiils wep enrolled 
> school*, 167 Bible women had been engaged 
in their -j-n-ml work, and 7i:{ baptisms were rc- 
portad v letafled repon ..-.. n ,.f ii,.- 
school and other work in Bormah. among Kura- 
fans, the Karen*. ar**. i 

and in India. The deficit in the general cum nt 
accounts of the s^-iety having | M -eii reduced to 
$8J500. a plan wa.* prepared and adopted for 

ns or further reducing it. without changing 
hedule for the coming year. 

The t went y-sixthanniiH f the Wo man's 

Baptist Foreign Mierionar >f the West was 

held in Cincinnati, Ohio, April 21 and 22. The en- 



tire general receipts for the year had been $56,810, 

and ' r the Home f,,p Missioi 

Children $1.H06. The invested fund- amounted to 
$11.25(i. The work of the society in the f. 

u field liurmah. A am. T. 'lugiilaiul. China, 
and .lajwin wa- .ted by -10 mi>Hona: 

assistant. :; under appointment. 11 -,-i...,,ix. -j.n: 
pupii . -IT l-apti-ms during tli. 

le \\omeii. I Milde schools; and. in the medi- 
cal department. (' hospitals. :! di-|.en-;uiex, ;, help- 
n patient-. un<l M.iW, out patients. The 
whole amount appro; es was 

i In- appropriation- to the foreign Held 
and the home cxpendit uivs had all lieen cut down, 
and the States had lieen asked to ji\ their appor- 

tioiin. -uch li.mir. s a- could i.e reaohed. 

l-'oiir candidates for appointment n- mi !.;. 

had lieen accepted, three of whom : ly in 

the field. A Correspondence scho,,; 

for mi ion fields, opened in jss:!. had s.'i students 

enrolled (i during the past year M of whom had 

l>een graduated from one or more of i; 

and of thc-e "24 had gone to the foreign field and 1 

as a mi-s ionar\ among the ChincM- in California. 

The Home lor Missionaries' Children at Morgan 

Park. 111., was full, and in need of a building. 

Historical Society. The An,. laptfft 

Hi-torical Society having lost all its collections in 
the burning of the American Baptist Publical ion 
House in I-Yliruan. is'.M}. the annual meeting. May 
'JO. was devoted most largely ! Qfl of syni- 

jiathy and the presentation of its aims and i 

file president. the Kev. I>r. Lemuel Moss, defined the 
ObjCCt of the soeietV as being to collect and Jir- 

all books, manu-cripts, ami documents relatii 
Mapti-t hi-tory. e\er\ thing written b\ I'.apti-t- 
favor of Maptists, or in opposition to Mapt ists. and 
pichi' ud mementoes. It wits to have 

room- in the new fireproof building of the Publica- 
tion Ntciety in Philadelphia, and needed $25,000. 
Addresses were made by representatives of tli' 
cral I'.apti-t social ies holding their anniversary meet- 
ings at Pittslmrg expressive of the Interest which 
their respective bodies had in the work of thissociety. 
A committee appointed in the previous year to en- 
courage the study of Maptist hi-tory reported that 
it had secured the promise of historical papers to 
be published during the en-iiini: year, to be written 
bv I>r. U.S. Murraire. l>r. Nonniin l'-\. hr. I'.. I'.. 
Hulbert.and Dr. A. II. Newman. The publication 
would be continued quarterly. Partial promises 
had been received from other Mapli-: 
Subscribers were invited to support the enterprise 
by the contribution of $1 a year, in return for 
which they would receive the publications of the 
society. 

southern Uajitisl ruinenlion. T! . S-'itheni 

Mai-list Convention met in its liftv-ee,,nd -. 

at Wilmington. N. ( '.. May 7. Mr. .Jonathan Haral- 

son was unanimoti-ly elected president, 'flic Home 

d that the year had been one 

f the severest financial stress it had ever passed 
through. It had begun with an indebtedness of 
$8.000 and an obligation to pay $5.7<i toward the 
purchase of a \l\\^- of Worship in New Orleans. 
maki indebtedness of $13.?'"). Tin total 

amount of $180,596 had > Ml indcbt- 

\cept X4..")()0 due on 

the New Orleans Ibu-.- of \Vorship.and th> 
ha<l closed with a balance of $'J - ,'M in the treasury. 
'fhree hundred and seventy-two mis-ionaries had 
'"J^ churches and stations. 

who returned 4.7W baptisms during the year. 1M! 
chur !uted. 57 houses of worship built 

and 12!) improved, with an expenditure of $.Y: 
and 313 Sunda\ r-ani/ed. conner-teil with 

which were 10,725 teachers and pupils. Nineteen 



BAPTISTS. 



7:* 



rial boards had co-operair.l with 






arm for thai ptir- 



in irt or the viola 

Sunday-school Board during the six years of 
reported concerning UM diari- its niatanee had atorded hrip to 

e plan of cooperation of this ate. U> m tattoo schools, payments u the 

.''!> aii< I the American Foreign Pffaiw and to Honday -school missioas in 



with 14 in 

. 1 . . n 



llanUUa|itist Seminary. The 
Dcation at the progress made 
ttd aansrially at their enter* 

MI la t i<M i in. 

Castors 
a hail 



u ngainit i 

..i* i, , 






important 



4 the pit- <i:i.&l 

. 

ir . ni t<> tho mim 

par cent, thus chargeable toofflc 

r.-r Beaidea 

.'itf fi 

In-fore tl 






-\rr. tin- 



^ionary n 

co-operat< board by 

.tnd *upplir. ! 'hi- in in- 

drawn no salary during ih.-yar. others 
missionaries did not accept full salaries. 
Report was m 

at a con- -tat ions. 

H ami thi-ir wives were engaged in Bra- 
here 951 persons bail been baptized, and the 

. members: t! 
.i/il hnd f 

Rev. ('. / Taylor, durint; .: 
'rancisco rivrr. Ima 1 i 

H of people. Tin- Smih 
1 tiaptiat Association had engaged a home 
i had resolved to send a mis*i 

' 
: ,c> and i 

iiflm-mU'i>, timi llSnantavnaaar* 
was 
missionaries from 

w PIT laboring m ' iiinn. where were 

had 

29 day sohoosB. 
nl: ami increasing : 
;iu' in tin- roiintry. The mission in Ja|n 

^ inanbers, H of whom had been Iwptixrii 
IP yrar. anl 10 Chritian. im-hiding a native 

. At Fuki 

and th-ir wives were laU>r \friea. 

wher. 

Kbanatar rimn-h in 1^. 

had become self-support r hoola 

in the n*port* receive help from the 

Only a small proportion of the funds of 

t>oard goes to the schools, and a part of 



differ** States. iHirchaar and iiiaiiimai 

, : . >-., . 

latlnn, bat. havii 

i*l*mr^*t nt tl I I 

- 

-. Unabliahn 

rirs," The t'otored IU|4M National 

/ , 

. - -... - - -: 

' ,-, ' - .-..' 

baa atftiM- cataiiliahAl 



at Nashrilk, Tenn. 

Thr V,.,,,,,. |V..plr'. In,,,,, Aun.iary t- the i a. 

iwti i n.- y . 

^ptfyt^ with tB9 Young 
n.a. ThennionC 

Loniaiana. 

.Mil.-ral.le discussion had been going on during 
he churches rcpresmled in the 



.. 



W. i 

ficml SeniBarr. In a hav 
- 



aj 



., i:.,| tlati i.. i id eJ n f f 
retigation that M iiiajafafam waa not prac- 
. lair a period as 1*4 1." 



Bapiiil 

1 



ption wa taken to this declaration by many 

Bretons. A similar stale- 
meiit had been published in an article in the - In- 
j -n.l. -lit " news{ia|>er. and in another article in that 
journal Ir. \\ h.t-itt. it was alleged, had eipreaaai 
approval of a Baptiat woman who had married a 
man not 

raise* 1 1>> 

IK*}, without rraching a 
rusteea of the seminary 

had dona 
, denianding notice at their hand. 



ot a Baptist, gome, under certain conditions, 
hu* 

had been diet uatad in the con- 



declaration, after averring ti>. 

it we can not andertai. 

.. -. .- ' :.. -. .. . 

all Baptists are agreed, but concerning which 
Na\ eunaaiantinai atadants are not agreed. Wa 



serious, 



- f 
. . . ..^ :: 

important relation to the pro| 

while demanding; of thnea in charge of its de|rt 
menls of instruction the utmost patirncr in re- 

foater lather than repress the spirit of earnest and 
tigatkm." The resohrtioa farther 
nfldeaoa between the BaoCista 
he aiiaifiaiiatof their 

tion. Thaw resolutions were communicated to tat 
ntion. and with them a letter from Dr. V 

Articles in 

-Indoprmlmt." rerretting any utterance* at 
tionable to hb brethren, but reaffirming hi* 






'*-.> - 



and the action 

of tho 



: -.t,- 






BAP1 



National -Colon*) Baptist ConTention 

Nti.nal -vnii imi met in Bo*- 

. - - : I- r. T!.- II |fd '. I '' -'> 

. T. ;- :--! thai UK H tl ll fi.lMI 

>nd llUuit *l..'.00 had 

boto apirprin- .< licurvs do 

. lud the work of tii. 

which U carried on inde|-ndmtly. It wa* shown 
that dun ntf the past seventeen rears the negro 
IUi4UU of AmeriSTbave raiml $a.54 
oao missions. The report of the lion 
-c 



after which op|K,rtunity i- -iven f,,r voluntary ad- 
dresses. The -ulijecis di-. -u ,<! at the ' 



-chonb ami pablioatiooa, 

wi.il.- little had beoaooM in tin- way "f church 
ion. The coovoniion further considered the 

btMfl '." f< im Pco- 

i :i magazine. 

\uunir Peoples I'nlon. i 

[.list Yonni: People's 

1 nite.l State- aii-1 Canada) was 

held nt Chattanooga. Tenn.. .Inly !' to 1*. Mr. 

.1. 1 1. Chapman i Tin- annual report of the 

owed that the union wa- ori;ani/.ed in 

nil >f - .-except Utah, Nevada, Wyoming, 

-:H-ipj'i. ami the Territory of 

!io\v.-d an impr 

financial condition. r had 

been $00.834. and the de'icit had l..-.-n reduced 
-.' to 11,788, Tin- number of cxamina- 
MI the Christian culture OOOTSi I, I 
showed an increase r the previou- 

rancement for union with tin- B.ipti-t Youni: 

People's Dnion Auxiliary to the Snulhurn BaptiM 

i ina.le through committees in March. 

had been formally ratified, and was in HTcct 

during the re-ent neeting, In p lace of the divi- 

sion of the Win:; People's Baptist 1'nion of Amer- 

-incuts. known respectively as 

. ' . -Id. Blue, and (in, -n. 

- determined that the a^irre^ation of socict ics 



within the Dominion of Canada .-hould ! 

nated the Baptist Young People's 1'nion of Can- 

ada; that within the territory tributary to the 

1 M vent ion a's the Union South : 

that within the remaining States east of the Mi i- 

nver as the I'nion North ; and that within the 

A-M of t| M . Mi.-i^ii ri- 



\Vest. l"he principal features ,,f the con- 
n consisted of the addresses which were ile- 
lire red, among the subjects of which wen: "The 
nception l'.r-.n, not Proxy." l.y the 
Dr. Carter II-lm .lones; "Divine (Jwnershiji 
Hum Uhip," by the Hev. Dr. D. D. 

Laurin: "Klucation the Structural Idea." ly the 
Denomination our Con- 

; \. Dr. -f. \v. \. Stewart : - The 
Ideal Hone and it- Permanent Influence." |, v the 

\V. \V. Week-'. "The St .- W;ird-lli| of SeJ 

R0T. Dr. B. A.fire.-ne: "The Si. -war-Nhii. of 

Cult-ire." ,y the |{.-v. Dr. c. S. (Janlner : and " The 

." the annual adlress of the 

presi|. ii'. c.iuf.-nMicea of worker-, department 

rallies, and other special meetings were held. The 



The Baptist CoBfree*. The fifte.-ntii naskM) 

of the Baptist Congress was held in Chicago. III.. 

The Rer. A. A. K.-ndrick. D. D.. (f 

.reasis a volun- 

tary nKftuiK ministers and laymen, 

without authority or formal representative Char- 
acter. the pur|wfte of which is defined to I 

te a healthful sentiment ai 
through free and coarteons discussion of .-urn tit 
questions DT suitable jH-r-u-n-." The pn.^ra 
of th d in- 

clude a list of - vrhi' h pa ad by 

persons assigned to that function, which are h 
case followed by remarks from appointed speakers, 



I Hi;- of the Apo>tles 

jiial Authority \\iih those of Chri-t '." " h 
Bapti-m a Prere<|ui-iie to the L-nl'- Supp. 

.M Denominational Belief- impose Limita- 

i: . . i ...;.-; (i ,i- Govern 
meiitandthe Oppressed of Oti The 

P-\cl. and "The Pou 

-- 111 the Life of t he Bell' 



in (.,,,,1 ll.hain an<l Ireland. -The 

- a - the liiiinl 

the Bapti-t churches in Great Britain and h 

(including aliout :',(HI el, 
which i -I -nade fron 

turns) -j.'.i-Ji churches, 860,1 U members, i.;'"-'. paa- 
tor,4.*:ix lo.-al ' 


Mm lay sel ..... N. and in. 1 1:; bajMtismsdaringtht 

Of these. l.",(H> clmrche- n 

in Ki i -.ichurchc- \\ith HH.T'.M nn-ml" 

Wale-. 10S churche- with 

land, "js rlmrclies with 'J.ls; meinlMi- in Ireland. 

1 churches with :?:{? nieml.ers in the Channel I- 

laml-. and 1 church with ','1 nieinlier- in the I 

Man. The li^im - in each department are in ad- 

vance of lho-e ,,f the preceding Near, the 

prominent increase beinj; that of membership 

i.l |.". The anioiini i during t In- 

upon new liuildin^s was 

than duriiii: the pnvidii- year : wh 

upon chapel improvement-, and l'i;:;.:;j(l for the re- 

moval of delit on chapel property. A con-ideralilv 

increa-e i> .-hown in the last item. The lar^e num- 

IMT of local preachers is mentioned a- an int 

ini; feature in the slat i-t ics. \\iih the except ion 

of a few who are fully CIILML'' d a- n.i--i-.nai . 

the-e local jtreachei-- arc men \\ ho -up- 



j.ort themsclve- and their families liy secular 
pat ions and aid their pa-tors Ity preach in.i; n Sun- 
and at other times at out station-, receiving 
no' pay for th-e services. While many of Un- 
churches have no local | 
of them have from 1 to -jo each. Two ivpo- 

-.'" : one, 80: one, 44; and the Metro- 
politaa Tabernacle in London return- i:;" 

on Baptist authors and hi-tory from 1-VJ7 to I^'MI. 



the liev. Dr. .lo-i-ph Anu'u-. is pnl>li-hed in the 
M,|<. It ^ives the name- of lietween ^(M) and 



500 Enirli-h l'.apli-t authors, with -oine particulars 

DOO 



many <.f them. and the numlier of DOOkf lul- 
li-hed l>y each, with date-; of pulilicat im. Aliraham 
Booth and Andrew Full. .ited in it with 

ik- each: .John (iill. D. D.. with -H : and .lohn 
Brine..!. Kyland. D. D.. Dan Taylor, and W. Win-to,, 
with :>0 ea.'h. 

The Bapti-t Tnionofir n ami Ireland 

met in its annual meeting April 96. Then.: 
of the President, th- 

MM to t!.. ti-t IK. me mi- 

which was celeliraied in connection with the 

:. The report of the council -I 

an ii :.ti-t churche^ c'.nnected with 

the union. r.lJ." mcml.crs 24'J teacher-. anl 
pupils in Sunday school-, and lS,!f0 in < 
diture on new linildiiiLT^ and improvements, while 
lillildiliL' d.1.1- had l.ecn reduced or removed to 
the extent of ' a-MJU-t D t he 

prerl rd of Introduction had 

made 70 recommendation- of mini-ier- to chi.- 
without patton, A Mihi-'-Tia! Iieco^nitjon Com- 
mitt- n formed, in accordance witli pro- 

: at the pn-viou- annual meeting. 
The r the .0 vral Kxpen-e fund had 

the Church Kxten-ion fund, which 
now amounted to C!.-r.i1. l"J.nno. An increased 
activity in church extension was remarked in some 



BAF1 



BEUillM. 



larger centers. The receipt* uity 

liad 650 r 

1 WlVri Wrrv Ml~ 
<<-rriith trifiuital \aluaJ 
i.*r value a* i 

.-me -mission work. Eighty -tight mission 

n were besides 85 mission *ti,,i,%, ith 
rvaching places and 58 mission pastors. The 

tUit% lurinif I IIP \t-a- 

.: . .,';: ,; l . " , . . 

l.-l.ruti--: were 

1796, wht-n t n Htartnl 

louth on an evangelistic tour through 

.% all. un.l.-r th.- f tin- llu 

h.-al Truth inftrtuTal .. 

\lira- 

.'. niHi-MiiM ! tin- fonna- 

, .-in. ni ami Sup|M>ri llage 

. It h.-Ll it* HiM |ui! 

me Missionarr 80- 

cictr. The income of the *i.-tv in 1885 was 
8,000 in !M; 

rose- to 5,001. had 

n. -\- r ION r. .L !.. .1 I",.'""'. 

'uihlinK fuii'l Mood 
hurchet had been a 
!. 000 each. 

The Bible Tranalai 

800.1 ar.allof which had been 

a I MI hint he Legacy fund amou 

year's sales of the Tract and IW 

hail a- more than the *alet 

orevious year, which had been much larger 

than thosi out year*; th.- Miheoriptiont 

M led to about 1800. A balance of 130 was 

t< Missionary - 

any one > 

bad bwn 
l in response to an apj- 

[MM that wpn> suffering fnm fain- 
I'd- .-..ntnl'iit L.II-. to th.- p-iu-rnl fund showed 
hiM'tif th 

with nn H.i.iit. Thankajr 

iorr than 
hail, how 

liturv* ha 
vpar'-* rNviit% of the Hanrhi ^^> Mission 



p iti Imlia 

to ami wvcral hundred iMHaes in whu-h thr 
k aatd. 

r autumnal ^ion ,.f th.- utu.-n wa hrM at 

Oteata of the uni..n a^a!i.*t M.v 

> aehool-board r wholr r 

Mntional formulariea from 
public elcmcntarr 

VOL. xxxvu. 6 A 



* i 



rrf wu 



Inittinf i^JJ 

: favoring 



- 

' " ' 

p**** ^^* 







i- 
H H If 



lib. tirv to 

. 




innnMn 

i 

Chautauqua moremtnt, 

achr* and on 
he Ba 

I I M. 1 1 M a constitutional monarchy in West- 
ern Europe, founded in 1890, when it stead ~ 
.Hand*. ya* 

iolable by thr 

yj a ^ud Ruftia. The constitutional amendment of 



tors, who were formerly elects i . part 

rpctly. and |*rt by the pn>Tiaial 

council*. There are half a* many Senator* aa there 

use of Bepreirnu 

Banaton :: .. ti? m nqiS m m 
incon an from real eatale. or pay 

1^00 fniii tax a year. The prortocial 

. OOM ::- MI j>r. \::. . - |HN JM - '' M '' 

habitants rlcct 2 Senator* ; if above that pofmlMioa. 
up t.. UMMHMNI 3; and prorincea of more 

than 1.000.000 inhabitants elect 4 Senator* The 
term of a Senator is eight rear*, one half rHir- 
ra. The flou*e of Rmt 



Ing . n pi '. n n m 

tives are elected in districts having not f. 

40.000 inhal.itai f year* by the i 

lualified voters. Every two years one half 
of the chamber it renewed. Even 

N -fire year* of age, resident in the commas* 
for a year, and not disqualified by crime or nanptr* 
Urn. has one vote ; owner* of real estate worth 1000 
francs or having Belgian funds or Mving*-baak dV 
tip TOO franc* a rear, also married men 
or widotrrr* with children, who air thirty-fir* years 
of age and pay at lpat 5 franca of honse tax. are 

*nd one or two sup- 

pltmtntary v..tc can be cast by university entlu- 

rofessionsl men. and official* or n-ooViaU. 

:.M to more than three vote. 

The Cabinet, flrt oonsUUted on Oct. . 1884, 
watcompo*rl at th<* beginning of 1897 as follows : 
PraaUentoftha Condi and Minister 

.', BSJMI \a-i.-r ,:; :.!- i \ H I8M V 

.xerrau. *M. ir 

Itrtrmn: 

irtwds. Port*, and TeJacrnpnt and 
of War wf ttUrm. J. 11. P. ran dan 
^Interior and Minister 

M*t '2\ IV,. M:- . - ' v. 



'I 

v 



,U'M. 



Area and Population. The area of lU-ium is 

.J aquarv mile* un Dec. 81, 

189S, vat estimated at 6.410,788. composed of 

;,--.; . ....:.; :;:.::;?. :: .a.,-. The number 
of marriaM in 1M95 was 40.71.': of l.,rti, 

of deaths, 1*5,148; cxcww of i..r 
The population of liniflMls. with Mjl.url.s. a i the 
.. sJW i M I1&86I Antwerp had vs-.-.- 



.. 

,; .-..; . . ., , v r,7.:l4 inhabiUnU, 
There are 48U puMie prmia: 

A nh i-rj.iM pu- 

; adult *-h.M.K will ipils. 

Bvvrv commune i- re.iuirvd ! maintain at least 
one primary school. The provincial ami national 
government* rout MI).\. I.H..M*. The tot 

i in 1884 was 80,822,888 francs. 
About -J7 |r (t " ! - (>f t! "' i'"!" 11 """" Vrr h'ftecn 
JMUI of aft oould not read nor writ out 

of 68.1i:i young men called out in iv.ui f..r military 
than a rudimentary edu- 
cation. :U.141 ..:,!. i M..T.-IV r.-a-l and write.' 
could only read, 7,129 could neither read nor write, 
and of 648 no returns were gi\ 

Finance*. Tin- revised l.u.l-.-t for 1807 makes 
the ordinary revenue 880.'.* .'::.! 7^ Iran.-, of this 
aum 25,276,000 francs are derived frm taxes on 
property. 19,846.000 fran.-s from personal taxes, 
<, 270.000 francs fr-m trade licenses, 400,000 I 
from mines, 86,116,632 francs from cuM.mis duties. 
58,420.297 frai .-seise. 20,475,000 fran. > 

from succession duties, 19,850,000 francs from 
istratton taxes, 6,500,000 francs from >tam]>s. Y 
000 francs from various indirect taxes, 1,579,000 
franc? from canal tolls, 154,000,000 francs from 
ails, 6,730,000 francs from tele-: MI -h-. 12.649,- 
500 francs from the post office, 1.43.J.OOO francs from 
pilotage dues, 8,178,500 francs from domains and 
forests, 9,358,900 francs from funds and securities. 
the national bank, etc., and -|.M;M.:;J! francs from 
tal ordinary expenditure was 
.atad at 886,295,842 francs, of which 118,- 
659.819 francs are for interest and sinking fund of 
the debt, 4,865.200 francs for the civil list and 
dotation*. 21,594,240 francs for the Ministry of 
Justice. 2.806,014 francs for the Mini-try of For- 
eign Affairs, 2> .tncs for the Ministry of 

the Interior and I'uMie InMnirti.ui. 88,171,149 
franc* f--r the Mini-try of Agriculture and Public 
Works, 116,438,585 francs for the Ministry of Rail- 
roads, Pouts, and Telegraphs, 1 francs for 

y ..f War. 19,069,415 francs for the Min- 
istry of Finance, 1.926.000 francs for the gendar- 
merie, and 8,095,060 francs for the Ministry of In- 
dustry and Labor. 

The ordinary revenue for 1894 was 862,600,000 
franca, and the extraordinary revenue 42,589,000 
francs ; total, 405,185,000 francs. The ordinary ex- 
penditure in that vear was 853.340,000 francs,' and 
the special expenditure 49,219,000 francs, making a 
total of 408.550,000 francs. The revenue , 
provincial administrations in 1894 amounted to 
15,225,500 francs, and their expenses to 11.'". 
franca, The revenue of the communes frm ordi- 
nary sources amounts to about 118,000,000 fr.> 
year, besides which 60.000,000 francs or m<.r 
expended for extraordinary purposes. 

The public debt was raised almost entirely for 
railroads and other tttafnl aod reproductive public 
works. The capital amount in 1895 was 2,24f> 
647 francs, of which 2^06,407,015 francs pay 3 per 
cent, interest, 219,659.682 francs 2* per cent., and 
20.000,000 francs arc redeemable treasury I MM. 

The Amy. The Belgian defenses consist of the 
central arsenal of Antwerp, with the fortifn-d towns 
of Dendermondand Diest.the f .rtit '-I-.n-. 

Tournai. and Yores, guarding the French frontier. 
and those at Liege, Buy, and Xamur, with those of 



henie of ISST for the further fortification of 
the line ..f the uMe-lio.lied I 1 ,. 

on reaching tl, nineteen is lial.le t< 'con- 

scription, out Mio>titutioii ix permitted. The an- 
nual recruit is al.-ut i:;.:;oo men. The period of 
service is eight years, though not more than 
three years of act ua uh the colors a 

guireO. The ti ' the army on the ; 

M : 18,165 men. 

Of the total. 1.SI-J3 ollicel> Ulxi 

the infantr\. :17'.' otlu-cr- :uen in th 

airy, 467 officers and v,'l" men in the artili- 
officers and l."::J men in theen-i: 
and 'J..VJ-J men in the u'endannerie. ami "> ss ..Ilicers 
and 'J.-'!07 men attached to the general -talT. admin- 
i-tra 1 ho,, I. and other e>taMi>h- 

ineiit>. The artillery is armed \\iih 'Jim funs, in 
u.ir lime with V 00 hoi>es f,,|. the 

army and \.t\:U\ for the gendarmerie. Th, 
traogthof the army i> :!.:(>:> .,llicer> and 1'. 
men. with 1 J.nitO hoi>es. In addition there is the 
Civic (iuard or^ani/.cd. in the L.UH-. numl > 
al.out .|:i,(MM) in. 

( oiiuiicrcc and In.liistr>. M.,>1 of the land of 
un is di\idcd into Mnall parcel^, which aie 
highly cultivated by farmers or ly t : 

rtion of cultivators owning their land is in- 

:ni:. <>f the total area of tfie kingdom, 67 DOf 
cent, is under cultivation and 17 per cent, is : 
The agricultural class f,,|-|iis aloir nt. of 

the total population. \Vln-at. and the 

snu'ar licet are the principal crops. 'I 

1 to the amount of ."i.HUJ.OOO kilo^ramn 
1895. The raw sugar produced in ls.i5 amounted 

-.'.178,000 kilogrammes; refined ragar,65,< 
000 kilogrammes. The distilleries produce.! 
:UO ht-ct.. litres of j. roof spirit. There \\.-re i: 
|>crsons employed in the coal mines in is!>r>. The 
number of women working underground decreased 
from 2,172 in 1893 to 1,6'JM in isr>. Th. produc- 
tion of coal in 189.~> 1.000 tons. \ali, 
193,357,000 francs. The iron mines pr. 
637 tons of ore, and 1,942,900 tons of iron ore 
imported, mostly from Luxemburg. The produc- 
tion of pig iron was829,2:il tons, \alued at 4". 
000 francs; of manufactured iron. -1 l."i.S!M 
valued at .V>.7;MMXX) francs; of steel in- 
ton-, valued at 31,018,000 francs; of steel rail>. etc., 
367,918 tons, valued at 42,419,000 francs. Th. /,, 
product was 38,496,000 francs in value; lead, 4. 
000 francs; silver, 3,430,000 francs. 

The value of imports in the general commei 
1895 was 2,904,948,026 francs, of which 1,897,298,169 
francs constituted the ocean trade and l.:.n;.i;:, i.v',7 

I the railroad and river trallic. The general 
exports amounted to 2,424.."ir,<i..r.'. fran.--. of which 
1.1 M.I. ".7.409 franco represent goods shipped from 
the ports and 1,450,7<>:>."S4 francs the amount sent 
by land and river. Tin- total value of the imports 

me-tic consumption was 1,680,400,000 franc- : 
of the domestic expo- i- K),(KX) francs ; of the 

transit trade. 1.219,400,000 franc-. The special im- 
ports of cereals were 268,292,000 francs in value ; 

. xtile materials, 155,543,000 francs; drug 
115,105,000 francs; resins and guniv 
457.000 fran.-s; timber, 66,411.000 francs; *< 
cotton, and silk fl ;.M.V.I.(MHI f: 

59.462,000 francs: mineral substances, 59,456 
francs; In T.OOO francs; coffee. r,:,.l TJo'io 

fram-s ; metal-. 50,357,000 francs ; animal products, 

-,|>(K) frai.'-s; live animal- '0 francs; 

meat, 32.833,000 "i franc-: 

coal and coke. :!0.'.>fi::.000 francs: linen and w 
yarns. 00 franc-; fertilisers, 20,61. 

francs: machinerv. 1 francs; butter. IV 

868,000 francs; flour, 18,785.000 franc-; tohac,,,, 
12,090,000 francs. 'I ..d exports of linen, 






v; 



nn.i oih-r inw were valued at 105.- 



frai 






- 
.,, 



racial pride of the Flemings, followed by their in- 

htk-ml ft*.. 

nu-r. n.tur.iu aj*jsjtsd UM aWraHoi a| n.*-r 



... 






u- 



ry. The wav * prepared by a Ion*; 
agitation Mm^wtlfil by 

motto the cr - In \ Uuuidrren Vlaamsrh** and 



lart;rly 
l lit. 



pjattO th.- ,n 

. . I . 

- knovls 
ha* all the rights 




i i . i 




r. .-,: 



kastrs. > 

I 




*',..;.. !!i 

! ;;, ::: 



1 i .,-... Uiijniatfr t} " !'"'..>. hi. 

ij to the front 'than 

speech th* radle. 

They would follow the example of the burg 

letter 

in Frm.-h. It waa<iuetiti ith th. n. 
justice and of indmdual liberty, t- r it i* the im- 
memorial right of every comumuiit to have it* law* 
* ilianosssd in its own language and of 
be heard in the tribunal* of his 



ringlHM t hero were 7.S49 rm- 

^N. -f t;.-.M: i"t.v ...!. r-.i ,,t tii,- ports oi r,, i 

red. 3.H67. of 9^0 ( 0l toiuk arriv, .1 f r ..>n 
M 

881 tons, vv 

in |rtv ma- 

-15 r>m|ri>'l .' 
-tommera, of H6.296 ton*. 
nmnnlratloBft. The railrtw< 
ha.1 a l..(al Irtish t thi-N-KM.; 

lea were managed br the 

ad 795 milet by com pan tea. There 

were 78.W7.1W ptjeanffers tnmsported in 18M on 



' ry without recourse to a 

bers that they controlled the Fie* 
thought that they could 
il language, on 

heart*, and which they supported by 
drawn from the most varied mice*, in 



' 
tbe-guieeof 



i-h race, the abstract principles of justice, and UM 

that they 

the movement, for all were care- 
ful to a*jart that the difference of language by no 

p.- SJH . .I:- 1 /-/, i .i : :* ' ... : 

that Finning* mid Walloons were all cxiualh 
gian patriot*. Thr Walloons protesUd that UM 
i a grave danger for Dikjim 





;ngs of the state lines wer 

*50 franc*, and the expenses 00,48481) franca. The 
total .-.-t of the Government railroad* wa* 1 

irst railroad began running, nil theoloseof 
.Vn.187.080 franc*. ,,,,.| ,| 

1800 carried 100.09 1 ..TO 

^1 ,-tl 

n.-,|.nj.Tv Th, rsoaipti vtn I*\7UJBM Cm i; 

exiM-M,,.,. III.:.S,;..H^I traa i 

!H05 had a total length of 

''sssges sent in 1805 wa^ : . receipU, 

4.no-j.r,ua fran.-H; rtj-Mi*, -. i.^;:.':i bm * 

I In' M- :-h Qujaitlsn. The princiipal qnst> 

-ught I I 'nrl lament in the seasion 

it of tlu- official rehabilitation of 

tea Coremans and 

introduced a bill making Flemish equal- 

n.-h the official language of Ilelginm. 

ival of th tongue and the 

rvawakenjng of historical memories and local or 



bill would 

by completely isolating the FV 

KakaMStomd ptaoing UM \\ . 

elsewhere, by rram.ti 

nlAmociation petitioned Pi 




i the ground that the actual laws gave 
entire satisfaction to the Flemish, while UM Core- 
mans law would oblige Deputies to Tote articles 

that thry did not understand and wa* only the 

. ... , k . - , , . 

nstituted a dan- 



revealing a tend 



he opposition of the Wai- 

'.-}-:..- 



in their resolution to sseure what they considered a 
- .- "-... 

h that of the Walloon* of UM south. 
They carried the measure through the ClMmbsr of 
Deputies bv a large majoritv without any long db- 

.--.' N. .:-:: 

. ,. i; , . |; Is .- - 

ly roted agaim4 it. There seemed little question 

integrity, especially 
had declared that. hld the 

Bans* MMBd ,'.:>.> . 

on it* return to theChambar rather than admit the 
wast alteration ilatmnv Hut before UM 

*+ taken in t hr Vnate the question began to 
be considered in quarters remote from the heat of 
political strife and the IB 



M 



BHLGIt M. 



diency of the change to be r 

v A : ; :ipiill"l It. 

for lawvers of U.ih nationalities and |H.|in.-al 
camp* were agreed that tin- adoption of th 
language* would needlessly complicate and cncum- 
rm of legal M well M parliamentary 

procedure in II. IUMUIII ami that the translation of 
..mili was frangfa! with 

many difficulties. The effect* UJN.II tin- etanding 
and taiMawt of the Belgian state MM U|H.II UM 
opportunities of it- . iti/.ens were the subject .-f 
^ The act would accentuate the dual 
DftUonnlr n people an<l tend i 

noiig them. F.\ery Wal- 
loon inhabitant would be OOnpeUed to learn to 
read ami o|wak Finnish under i-nalt\ 
ill-Urn I from _' any official post in hi- 

TV. while tin- i would ma need, as 

htfatofoa 1 . to INT., mo j.erfect masters of French. 

, knowledge of Flemish serves no purpose out- 
side of the- lit tli- area where it is read and tpokea 
(hi the other hand, by maintaining the official po- 
'i. tin- '(invrrnninii would render it 
| Flemish youth to be- 
ooroe proficient in a language that is not .nl\ 
ken by every educated member of the community, 
bt nerves as apassport in most parts of the <i\i- 
lixed world. Flemish as a language of affairs ami 
legislation has yet to be created. (!< -iiuine Flem- 
ish, the literary form of the language, i* ii"t 
spoken in Belgium, where each village ha- it- own 
rude and untranslatable dialect. Tin- Walloons 
are entirely ignorant f Flemish except in the hnr- 
di-r district where they can converse in the pnhn* 
of tl -rs as well as in their own. North 

of this narrow district tin- Flemish dialects are 
uniformly heard, and south of it the Walloon dia- 
lects, but everywhere French is the common lan- 
guage of educated people, the language of polite 
onne, of literature and the press, of science. 
of law, and of commen -. All th. -e considerations 
were brought out in the debate in the Senate, which 
war led to recognize that it was a proceeding 
fraught with ^-riotis and far-reaching consequences 
nctly bilingual stamp upon the ad- 
ministration of the country. The only clause that 
finally passed the Senate, on F.-b. ''. was one enact- 
ing that all arts of Parliament should henceforth 
be promulgated both in French and in Flemish. 
The friend- "f the hill would not accept this solu- 
tion of the fjue-tioti. They withdrew the bill, de- 
termined to continue the agitation and press for 
the official and integral equality of the two na- 
tional tongues in another year. 

Legislation. The Government on Jan. 1 ac- 
cepted an arrangement presented by the French 
Minister regulating the relations of Belgian) with 
Franc*- in Tunis. Parliament enacted a bill for 
suppressing gambling operations on the -N, ( k ex- 
change. A plan of the works that will convert 
-Is into a seaport was finally adopt,,) l.y the 
TV. the municipal authorities, and the' 
mission of maritime installations on Jan. 4. The 
course of the cannl will pass through the plain of 
and Taxi*, tlm* brinsring the new dock- near- 
ly into the heart of the capital. The law atithori/- 
ing the police authorities to ex|*-l foreigners, which 
wasoritnnnlly framed in IWlTiand would expire on 
*i>7, was continued in force l.v a v.,t.- of 
61 to .V in the Chamlier mi Jan. 21. T 
Government demanded redres* for I',en 'fillet t. the 
labor organizer, who came to ,\ntw rmec- 

tinn with the d and was expelled by order 

of the Minister of Justice in 1WKJ : but the ft. 

-nnu-nt cited precedent.* for its action. The 
Rritih Foreign Ofl : roposed arbitr 

and, Belgium acceding, a French jurist was se- 



i to arbitrate the matter. A . i om- 

eeC, OOmDOSed of delegates ivpn-entilli; rlerks, 

salesmen, artisans, persons in Govemment empi,.\, 

and the mass of wage earner- who do nt l-l..n- to 
the laboring class, met at hru . -U .-n Feb. 7 with 
the ol .liinu' common action with a \ [| 

bringing before Parliament 1 1: iin-ir 

class, and i-rpini/.-d a sy>t.-m of 1,,,-al unions and a 
central league whose dull it -l.ould )> t<> 
from parliamei pledp- t.> . 

their i He Chamber, which heivtofore i, as 

had no stricter code of discipline than the sim- 
ple call to ord. :!- rules a-ain-l lh. 

f the whole Left for th< >urpose of 

curbini: the So.-iali-t-. who have introduced into 
thed. 'hates an unaccii-tomed laxity an>: 

for parliamentarv eti.|uetie. 

Tlie LiLeral Opposition -upported the mi 
authorities in the demand for army reorganisation, 
which the ('!' iliinet took up 

and then abandoned or deferred because the minis- 

>oulil not p-t their democratic follow.- 

agree to submit to the enforce. 1 milit.i 

that it would entail. The Liberal- Insisted that 

the reform should embrace the ivorirani/Hti. 

the Civic (Juard. Societies of retired o|lici-r> and 

military men of all grades, including veteran- of 

1880, representatives of the Libei.i . and 

di'ler;at ions from communal council- and ->t her <-<.r- 

bodje-. assembleil in Urns- el- on Jui 
and in a monster procession, with (Jen. Hrialmmit 
for their spokesman, presented an address to the 
Kin- in favor of army reform, to which King Leo- 
pold, who is a Convinced advocate of the introduc- 
tion of conscription into Hel^ium. replied with a 
powerful plea for the urgent nece-sily of strength- 
ening the military defense of the conn 
that he was too solicitous for the security 'and 
eventual defense of the country not to desire that 
the principle of personal sen !<' should be the base 
of the military system, and that it would be at the 
mercy and ha/ard of event- unle-s it orpini/ed it- 
defenses solidly, modeling its military in-tilutions 
on those of the surrounding nations, with tactical 
units composed, armed, and trained in conditions 
analogous to those of it- neighbor-. The King's 
out-pokeii utteraiie,-- on the military question cre- 
ated a widespread sensation in I'el^ium and 
occasion for an interpellation in the Chamber. 
The bill for the ivori;ani/atioii of the Civic (iuard 
was passed by the ( 'hamb.-r at the end of July after 
a long discussion. The Socialist I>embl.n pr>- 
: again-t the clause providing for the admin- 
istration of the oath of allegiance, and delivered a 
violent attack on the King, incurring thereby a 

Vote of cell-ll!' 17. With <' 

ab-tention-. The Chaml- ; bill compelling 

all foreigners who have resided in Belgium for a 
\ear to en p !! th.-m -d ve- in the Cjvic (iuard. This 

ure \\a- the re-ult of the great increase of late 
in the foreign colonies of Bni cN and Ant 

'ion- airain-l t lie enforcement of thi- la\\ 
inter|M)s<-d by the Briti-h and American diplomatic 
r.-pr -tion (pf army reform took 

II other matter- in the 'public mind. 
DM- original bill to enforce universal conscription 
and put iin end to the privilege of purchasing sub- 
stitutes enjoyed by the wealthy classes was with- 
drawn by the (Jovernment on : the meet- 
in:: "f the Chambers in -:;. and in coii- 
se.|iien< e (ien. Brji^iiie rc-i-ne<l the Mini-try of 
War. The actual strength of the Belgian armv N 
the lowe-t of any country in Europe, and the mili- 
tary 1 '" i- a third of that of France 
or Great Britain, fniversal lialiility to serviei: 
was exceedingly popular in the Walloon half of the 
kingdom. Even a section of the Socialists in their 






' -. < r ' .' 






-ir.i :- 



: ' ' 

buta 

' : v r _...-, 

of tO,- 
4'ongri-iM-. .r : . 

UUTIHt; rlars 

tiMSjfjtdi 
fall tfel 

;.-. Mfial. and religious upon "I... h it i. 
tid in* means by 

hi.-hlh.-d,-,r,, I- .:.!...., b, ...... -:,':.. M 

.uid Ui-r.pr*- 
*it* un of urominenl renresstitalivea of the cans* 



vs. dealt with the 
ingmen's familir* 

.11 II. .W 




in session, discuas- 

in,. nl-. r\ 



d the masters* The Ic^: 

tries ..n th> nbjti t wa- stadfed vHfc .- 

^ oat a system of compulsory in*ur- 
r..nj;n">v 



' lu'iuin. Tin- f'tirth r..nj;n">v 

tnl the three following du\- tin- fm>il> 

cm. i/ in- a -\ t r itAtioiial proteotire legis- 

latuMi > in mint's, fuc-tones, 



r supprMring tli 

. '!,. r |T .:,:- '. : '..' 



mines, 
h.-r industrial establish 

r women and clnldn-n. Th. 

Mllil-trr I..-J.-UTI.-. III. 'i:- IS| th.- wax- -f in 

Latin- dr 

wa- th.- -i\th ili'.rn.i'i i ai OOQg|f*J a^aii.-! .1!. 

holism, and it r n session f 

most important subiect of 

>,.d nn. 

The international conference to promote arhitra- 
wasoprn-<: i \\\ the hall of 

nil-. nn<: presi- 

There were delegates present fn>< 

'many. Italy. Spain, 
d. and It'oumanta. The 
'flered resolutions expre* 
iltat ad refused to ran' 

.rican art r,-tr. There was a 

women's congress h< just; also in 

Mth the Brussels 

nd nn I 

t-legal awocin r national colo- 

nder the auspice* of 

president . and reprenenta' d fn.tn Knuicr. 

. llunpiry. Hr.i/d. !' ria, Santo lKn 
Serria. a- ,to. 

BOM VI* America. The 

--M.il in : 

r six rear*. 
and a ChamWr of I Vputiea of 94 member*, elected 



ur years. Every male BoUriaa of full age 

aad*bi* torra- 

I'-' .:'.-.. ' . - . , , 

Alonso was iodurud as Presi- 
la>lft.llM. ', 
jrf? was as follows: Minuter of ForTlgB 

^x: l Miaist*Tof tbe'latorior and Jisstie^ 



deot OB A 

\ flair*, Ir 

lliMafio PlaUli M . . 



ur 

' i' 



. 

. - 



. 

a and 

i: ...... 



Populating. Th* 






18s b tjOIM4l* 

- i -. 

< 5.<JUO.. 
I'ai. the 




''' ' .....' 

at Cm,7W bolivianos, and the 
expenditure* at 6.7*7,0*4 bolivianos. TW puttie 

! i':rV, I .- ' ' ' - ..'.' ,- 

,- to 8.06MOO bolivianos, and an external 

d-t.t ,.f -.<-...--. t.... . - : - - 

in 1898 was 1 

th. n is .- National Guard, forming the resenre and 
the extraordinary restnrt, in which, under the coo- 
law of* 1893, all citizens are required to 



serve from the age <>f ne to that of forty. 

Cniumrm* mid rn.dnrtion. UttsJi . ' - 
eat prodncU conMitutc th,- ,-\j..rt . f liolivia, b* 
v,,l,.s aosM .-fT., ul.i- h > un r'- I tO a Hsl 
theArf^tiMRepnblkr.aiMihiaWaiKisknm SUsM 

M. has had no 



seaport The export of rubber is large and I 

Coca is an important product, and so is cin- 
chona, but less so than formerly. Sugar is grown 
n. -f run,. Wheat, corn, bariey.aad 
bflans are raised for Join otic consumption, 
tie, sheep, and llamas are numerous. These list 
1C common transport 

Indians. Th* 
- . 
with silver. andial8Mthe< 




. . . . ' - 

ofcoiyerbs^isSjOOOtae* Gold to 

;ns in small auantitiea. Other 
product* are antimony, bismuth, salt, and 
The imports for 1804 were estimated at j*OOjDOO 

.viMons, hard- 
ware, textile*, wine and spirit*, and apparel. The 

titnat.-d at 11.914.500. at rt* at 

there has always been an export move- 
meat taking the coin oat of the country, hence the 
nnisiaamal now coins only half bolivianos and 
ma! i the old bo- 

livianos. 

.wnnlralloa*.- There are 500 mile* of rail- 

road, forn on of the line lead- 

icaMA to Orum. with a branch to 

lluanrhacm. Coo cessions hare been obtained for 

. to Cochabamh* ami from Cnalav 

pata to PotN. for one from La Pax to the Peru- 

Tian frontier, cotinrrting with the road from Mot- 



BOOK l'I 



lendo to Uke Titioaca, and for one in the east 
from Santa t'r.. A inl ' r - 

national railroad letween Hoi i vim and the Argen- 

projected. 

,raph lines have a total length of -JJHHI 
ile*. The ost offlce forwarded 1.532.1 



latrr the la!.- H.-n. .1.1. nl do 

v pul.li>luMl his "(Juidi- to the Slu.ly of 15, ...K- 



mile*. 



newspapers. aUx, in the in- 1 420,579 in UK 

lational serrioe in 1808. 

BOOK -I' I \ I I v we undoubted- 

ly owe the origination .f th M0UMI example >f 
a book-plate with wlm-h t< mark ownership 'f 11 
printed look tlmt raine from Cirrnmii tvjM-s and t> 
which it in an untrained tequence. The earliest 
book-plate known ha been assigned a prolmM. 
of ali- ll-Vi. A* mi^ht be expected. thi.s was 
nardmcly crude when oompand with more re- 
wntly enftrnvnl pUtr.s l.y th<> IH-I at 
emri/platen w. : :upli- in d^ii:n. IKMII^. in 

fa-t! ..iily what aiv n.w kimwn a. " naim* lalwl-." 
Tbate early lal- jnlar slips <>n which 

appeared the owners' names, often bordered clab- 




KARI.T ramcH PLATK. PRRIOD PRIOR TO 1650. CHARGES ON 

KHIELO aCPRODCCKO OK MOSAIC PAVBMBMT. 

oratelr. Because of the limited education of tho 
masses for a considerable time after the advent of 
printing, it wit* found that something more than a 
printed name wa needed, and a substitute was 
sought and found in li.-raMry. -JIM-C a knowledge of 
Ann- and cpats of arms was th<-n j.ra -tically uni- 
versal. A widi-r flfld was at once oj.< -m-d to the 
designer and the artist, which th.-y fjuickly im- 
prored. and because of this fact and the present 
decadence of a knowledge of heraldry the book- 
plate collector of to-day is confronted with n oon- 
stderable task by way of plate identification in the 

it ..f hi* h.,l.y. N.I fine finds the mastery of 
book-plates to be an elementary or an easy matter. 
as might at first appear. To become an authority 
rat. jinres the labor of many years in 

many departments of research. 

*it Islanding tl,.- < ..mparativo antiquity of 
book-plates, little attention was paid to them until a 
Terr recent jeriod. It i true they were used hen: 
and there, and people knew there were su-h 1 1 
but almost no literature appears on the subjer-t 
until in I*oi7 Kev. Daniel Parsons wrote some mag- 
azine art icles on book-plates. More than forty years 




FRtNCH PLATK fNDKR NAPOLEON I. RAIfK INDICATED BT 
TOVfK AM. PIA-ME8 INSTEAD OF HELMET. DESIGNED BY 
LOUIS DAVID. 

platr-." followin.ir M. I'"iilet Mala^i< on Frem-h 

plates, whose monograph ajipi-an-i in is; ; 

ing. arranirintf. ami "fiu'inat in^ a nomenclature 
that has since served ,-t^ a >taii(lafd. The ruli^ de- 
scribed l.y NVarren. on \vhi<-h the comp<isition of 
book-plates liad f>r the nn.-t jiart taken plaee. lia\e 
been suliject to fn-cjuent mooification and oh 




CNOLI8H TRICKED PLATE. PERIOD PRIOR TO 1738. 

In the fifteenth century it was the name label fol- 
lowed by the varying armorial and heraldie t\ j>e-. 
exemplified among others by the famous AH 



BOOK-PLATES. 



. that continued in use until the sixteenth een. 
v gave way to the Jacobean, the popa- 
of which r..iU!i'.'.-.i unitl i;r,. <* perhaps 
rhal la- -,k-|.;ui.- urk f W 

lli wa 

plate original. 

i.y llir 



is 1 Hi: PROPERTY 



BENJAMIN CASE. 



SOUTHOLD, (L. I.) ill 



DAT* WO TO 1819. 



wful 



aii'l be furnitun- that wa 



too r roon, i 

-!::il. I!.'' 






jortc, the P- 

ami tli- V 

imooeadetl uidasthe 

i ami tli.- artist and designer 

OHMS Bewick did his best book-plat** <.rk. so 

i collectors, in tin 
kndscapeat 

all are Ah that come to th<> m.-l.-rn ! 

rnllfl t! il. win. h 

i>|N>rtunity t> how, 

.. fur a- -u. -li thin..". - .n. ML- ta-t< . l\w '' in I1 1 

!lea- 
initir-* (>r tin- intnNlm-i; 

'hr*. ami a thousand 
.at ions that linger I 



* It wasonoe customar . 
ommisftinn. selected examples of which 

txH nor sol) one 

Krd all, but .|- 

My Mend, should you thU hook 
rfraw to protect it (Vom abuse : 

Tior Mmn. nor mark iu pafft, 

, aiuro old aff: 
Ami tfr.t^l all. 

Plasse to return it err 1 call. 

If any one should borrow me, 

keep me clean ; 
1 am not like linn eUh, 
That can he 



The book-plate collector has since been frequently 



. - :- v. 

irarMms. and who ignore the 
fatt that the record* on book-platas tlu 
asrred by the indefatigable col 

Mail sjsj t . a.- )tothasM . . ... 
, ,-. i Eta ..? - ! i" . -. 

ny booln for the sak* of tha 






d. when in* derivative) 

, . - .- 



1606. Hannah A.lai 



setiarate eJaas. fin* ap- 
I5WL In Futgland th* 
Dtaabeth I'ltMiar. dated 
id the aariieat known 



The daptrtMBtef French book-pl^M it vvry m- 
|.larr. the inflow* 4 



have come down to us, whic 
any other country. The illu 
|.lMf.,ftl <^irrn 



wrrrn 
t, wherein the 



* /**n that 
d BO parallel to 
on of a Preneii 
h ceotury shows 



. 



mosaic parrmrnt 
are r. <>n 

k " tin- arm- !> u..!< aling the 

il of liy arlMirary dota aini In 

botqOBtly 

ilia. 

Hue ny. France, and tba United ! 

r j- libri* itocietiea, m 

turning more an ward 

plea, ami t li.-n- is an cmwcial interest for an Amen- 
1 1 plates as those of George Washington. 
W.lliaiii IVnn, Joseph Dudley. Dai. 





il 1890 did book-plate* begin to t 
ami it wa a 
inaugurated this i 



George Baocroft, and other*. 

*,h historical and other ascialionv The list of 
known eoUacton of book-plates in thb country ts 
not extMaitt, Probably foO would far exceed the 
total number of those who hare more than SjOOO 
apadmens. Thfa fa easy to tmderftand. beeasv 
a subject that does not appeal to many. Among 



- 



BOOK-PLATES. 



the tout-known early engravers of book-plat' 

jca was Nathaniel llunl. whose stvle was 
MiDciimJIy Chippendale, and who engrave*! a i-lat.- 
KrliVnrinl C\5lee wh 

U-raon. who was the first An. 
wood engraver, produced, so far a* nova, ven 
platea on wood and three on cop|*-r. included amoni; 
plaftasfortlMold Apprmtioai' Library and 

bi r.illriv. which arc D the Alle- 

ii ry Di rkini vorfa d - Btta i\ m 
.ndale style. I 

1ml. 

by tone exceJIr I thta kind, which inotadM 

two plafca* for the Soctetii < ollcp-. IVI.T 

Roshton Maverick favored the Ribbon-and-Wreath 
strle. He engraved a | : fitt Clinton. 

a,;,! . Library. Paul 

Rrrn wa >f I ho company of these ivcrs 

k-pUUvs his own an<l that of Epes Sa: 
htiif perhaps, the best known of his work m this 
of the earliest collectors in tin- 
ties was the late James E<My Man ran. of 
whose collection, when he died, in 
1888, numbered about 8.600 plates. Among other 
collectors and authorities in this field in <>ur c<>un- 

iv U> mentioned Kiehanl ('. Lichtcnstcin, of 
Boston', who has pablished several monographs on 

theSUl'j'H l.il'bie. of Boston ; II. i 

of Kleinin. . l>r. Henry ('. Kno. of Snuga- 

iu,-k. nn. . Mr-. Ki.-hanl .1. Barker, Warren, K. 1. : 
HUB He!> iinenl, of Columbia ('- 

H.-nry Illackwoll. of N,-w York; Dr. Char: 
(Mark. f L\nn. M:t>s.: Nathaniel Paine. of Worces- 
ter, Mas*.; Dr. Joseph 11. hnJil.s, of L.-m.-M-i.-r. I'.-i.: 

eorge L. Parmalce,of H art ford, C'onn. ; James 
Terrr, of New H .: II. \V. I ; r yant. of Port- 
land," Me,; George F. Alii-.,,, of Brooklyn. N. Y. : 
ami Ijiur. n, of New York. The literature 
on this subject is not extensive, and has been limited 
mainly to ncwspap. r and magazine art id* >. ( harl< < 

r Allen published in \*\t\ American 1 '-... k- 
pUtes," and in 1896 K\ -1. ii.ris, Essays of a 



HARLD CHANDLER 




AKtttCAK nCTORlAL PIUTT. 



HKAX1L. 



"Book-plates." by W.J.Himly; and I.a-li.V |: 

tltoucli.-re. Hi-nri Mom-hot has 
tn ated of Fn-iH-h plati-s. llerr !'. Wanu-i-ke of (ier- 



HOLD TO NAT 



CHARLES M SKINNER 




lector." Tn Knglaml. IM-V.-TV! i nnted vol- 

umes and those previously mentioned, 

by M. A. 
Castle ; " French Book-plates." by Walter Hamilton; 



RECENT AMERICAN PICTORIAL PLATE. 

man plates. M. ('. M. Carlander .f S\vedi>h | 
Robert hay in Ireland and .1. <>rr in Scot land are 
workers in" the same Held. Min-h r-m.. 
d"iie wit h tlii^ subject. The Italian plates are with- 
out remarkable excellence or defect, beilli; often il;it 
and in>ipiil. The Spnni-h are fr-jnently har>h. but 
bold and gloomy. Th<- Swi are >ti!T and generally 
ill arranged, and th< :.ir as th- 

known toexi>t. ha\e IK-.-H Itorrowed from tin- French 
of the Louis XV period. 

BRA/IL. a federal republi.- in South America. 

The legislative power is Vested ill the National 

< ' inirrc--. d.n-i-t iii'_ r <>f a Senate of ':{ niemliers. 15 

from each State and the Federal District, and a 

Ilou-e of Deputies containing L'l'J memb. 

by the voters of the Slates in proportion to their 

population,] member to 70,000 inhabitants. 

ators serve nine years, one third retiring 

three years: Deputies are elected for ti 

The State of Amazonas el< 

Maranhflo. 7: I'iau! i. IM : |;i,, (irande 

d. Kbrti . t : Parahyba. 1 : 1'i-ma:: . : Ala- 

e, 4; Bahia, 2-J: l-Npirit- 
b Janeir... 17: Sao Paulo, H 

Urfom, I : Hi- <irande do Sul. Hi; Minns 
: : HattoQrOSSO, 1 : the l-'erl.-ral 
i. IM. F\,-ry I'.ra/ilian male citi/en twenty- 
one years of w and able to read and writ' 

sesses the electoral franchise with the exception of 
soldiers actually serving in the army, meiul 
inonastie orders, and paupers. The President, who 
appoints the ministers and, with the consent ^.f 
Congress, the judges of the Supreme Federal Tri- 
bunal ami the diplomatic representatives, and has 
the supreme command of the military and naval 

I bv direct vote of the people, for 

four yean, The National Congreai lci_'M,v 

import d 1 arrangements, and 

bank-note circtjlatin. The St ;, ri-ht to 

imjKise export duties. and each one i< administered 
at its own expense without the interference of the 



BRAZIL 






ilefense, tbe mainta- 
rudentedr 



Area it n -I I'"|' 



frim. then heoaBM 



J. Itat 



:M ,kh in 
-. li inn) i 



In UM population of tbeDortbern 

. 1VJ. v,; Iff . d ls;,.{ s| [ j.; ., 
!-! tl,,-iv irrhrfjd W..V.I- 

n> 87.866 Italian*. 

rih. ami '.'I 1 

Jian settlement*, 15 foreigt 

i;ln r i-diira(iii i" '.;!.: ; ' i,. ..nip . 









Kill tO pi 

:u of 

ulaorjr. At the last < 

, The pn 

pnts),and the exjN,,,: 

xjH'nditurv 

liturv 
I n t IK- i -n. visional estimates for 



iH ar. 



i 

r,.;r. ~ fr 

fr.-in the walerwork^ 



.-. r-.- " ' . . - i , i, MI HI 
inlefwt is pakl. on tbe intrnal funded debt 

"-. - . .... :... 

ajsjajIJejeajsW t f ft aAllfftsV llMiailllaM 

.CompuU^ miliiarr 

. - .--.. ; 

f Hif. 1 tmi,.|..n and I i 

upaniM. 5 ffaniat oneananim. 
ill 



and ImlUlkNM of furtm* anillrn 
IOM of eoftnorrv UM rtrmflb of ibr 



N *M- 



iliao nary cuoti 

'I he- .n..-r 



m.iwl.r, 

r.ieh WM MMk by a 

1 1.,- tm% A l rrtoll of IMW-'M Md a] 

l niflUh-buill Ud 1 tbipa. an* 
U-Ioadin* fun* mooniwl in InnvU. and 

r.rM - IMI . rate r, 'i bi i- :.:.. 
2.750 low. and - Barroto." of 



1M.OOO.OOO kiK^rmmme*. Tbrprodttc* 



>oa aourcea, 1,700.000 lish and 

tnilrvis from 
id 18L805.000 milr 

iilri-is of which 

f the Interior 






..i 



. 

E36.08H.HIMI. an i 
:15 milrvii in ] 

\ .- .;:'..- 

: milr ^laranlenl 

ln\-vl dfl.t*. r.-nv. r-..l into neper raloei . 



i crubera. Tbrv ar* W 
cruincn* and 6 port-dcfentt armor rlad* and 

tore. The tnrprdo flotilla oooffbUof 8 fir*- 

claw and 6 smaller torpedo boala. The torado 

'480100*. built in KnglanVi in 

!-...: .. ^.. i < I- , - \ :,-.-. . 
.f ,-.,i,Mru.-li..n ha- Uvn nd..|.:.-d. M. . ... :.;v .: - 

toriH-do lx*t*. and 2 (J.-uU-l ut>nmnn- 

did Frodartlon.-Hnuil is the 
largeat pn>lii< ' of all coontrtea. UM 

aniiunl vi. "0 l*oi of 60 kilo- 

I , ' :-; . - . i; . 
Janeiro alone waa estimated at 3,750,000 ban. 
Thr rn.i. of .Santm in IMC, ,, 4.|o.24U Ucv In 

f aU^bol is lam at 

a valuable fon*t pn- r and t 

region. The foreata of Rraiil are of < 

main many pmluots of rakie. bl tbrr 

an n. .t . i ailahle on amant of the lark of commtt. 

MUM. The mineral rMoarrea of the eoratry 

tranfi>on far: 
and of billed labor stand in i hr ., 

d French d pan leTope rale cold mine in 

I ':--- .- I'... , 
. '--.-- ^ . . . . x 

. and qntdcMlver bare bem found. 

arr vorkrl. thou*) 

pi ., . ,:.., (bOMth I . i: li- - - . 
% . r. Hi . . all - ' . - v. i . ., w J 
rope** popalation baa aHilr*). .attic raiatef tbe 
leadinK induf n . The number slaughtered tn I8N 



- 
>f an cxtiTiirt! 

' 861 



and t.rrrnr 

A fwrni*? t 
ti ranm* part* c-f Hranl. 
d.-r a protei n r tariff progiMi is Made in Us 



The total raluo of imfrt m ltt en 

at f are very bisk 

totaeco malche> text ik-a.jicvyiatoem. and 

other artidea of consamplion. ranginc from 60 to 



BRA/IL. 



190 per cent, ad valorem* On agricultural ma- 

1 tool* and implement* of industry 
dalles 'ar charged. The chief topatft * 

.v 1 



woolen 



iron, machinery, coal. lion: . 



jerked beet rice, eodfUi. j-rk. lard, butter. 
corn, olive oil, macaroni, tea, candles, petroleum, 

srt.iin'1-- '' vnl " c " f 

einorts for 18W was computed to be about $180,- 
006.000. Theexpofti of coffee from 

*.3.noi*<o. i' 



M :;,..;:< . i; 

bagt; from Victoria* 807.438 top; f> > I 
51.773 bags; f <U 20.302 bags. The ex- 

port of cacao from lU.-m in 1*94 was4,063M>-. 
-ar 88.014 t..n* WPP exported in 1805 from 
Pernambaco. 85.000 .-.nd 4.3o tottf 

Urnndc do Norte. Maranhio exported 
ttoo : Pernambaoo, MOO ions: Bio 

.Whales. The export of riili- 
rom Panl ii i- 20.600 tons; fn. m Ma- 

inde ! Sul in 

-fed 20.831.226 kilogramme* of dried U-i-f. 
: ,.. A. and r.iU.ol 1 ra- 

Natlrallon. I>uring 1SH5 there were 1,460 ves- 
*!*. of .243,16.: red ri the p-'i" 

35,777 tons at Hahia: !.<>" 
lambuco: 1H8, of 184,80*. 

ir.i: and M*. of l*l.s.VJ tOttS, :'ihAo. 

. do Sul was visited by 881 vessels. ..f 

llra/il in 1895 comprised 
386 smiling Teas* S75toDS,ao uer-. 

lar I In- law that went into force 
Ni-\emiHT. l s '.4. foreign vessels are excluded 



from tho coaMintr trade ami river navigation, ami 
.inies that engage in such traflic under the Bra- 
zilian flai: ~ ibventioiis from tin- (Jcin-ral 

Government which amount to 2,809,640 milreis a 
year. 

Communications. There were 8,086 miles of 
railnuds in operation in 1896. and 0.40:1 mile- wen- 
nnd- ' ion, 4.670 miles under survey, and 

^ ni-.re projected. The Federal Govern- 
ment owned 1,882 miles of the c.Miplcted lines and 
subsidized 2,259 miles more; 8,000 lines were man- 
aged by the State governments or operated under 
concessions received from them, and !)!)."> mile- 
roads that received no subventions, of the roads 
junder const ructi.-n :*"> miles were leinu r Imilt \\i\\i- 
OQt subvention >.!(()! miles wen- lein^ OOfMtmoted 
for the State jrovernim-nts. WJ7 miles were bcini; 
luiilt fort Government, and :i.:i!o miles 

companies were building with concessions and L r u:ir- 
antee* fr-m the (Mivernment. The majority of t he 

eompaftiet owning the railroads hare a guarantee "f 

int-rest on their capital from the 

d <i'iv-rnmciit. The ileficit paid from the 

i;il trva-Hiiry up to the end of 1S94 was 11. 11*.- 

:iln'i*. The capital invested in the national 

rmilroads was 2'> nilreis, H n<l their receipts 

up to the end of 1894 had fall.-n >h..rt of the ex- 

psnsMand interest by 11.118,477 mil 

The post office forwarded 83.441.000 letter-* and 
postal cards in 18U5. and :i7.074.000 Camples circu- 
lan,etc. The telegraph* are own. d hy th- -<;.,v. -rn- 
There were 10,143 miles of line'in 195. witli 
i miles of wire. The nnmU-r .f 
sent was 1.2^3.695; re<-oipt for 1897 were estimated 
at 8,600,000 milreis, and expenses at 9,81 
milreis. 

Financial and Political r r M._rommer< -ial 
depression. >t upon the gnal fall in the value 

of coffee, t he eont inuousdeprvciat ion of t he cjirrency, 
and the financial emharrassments of the <;,,v,-rn- 
mont produced a widespread feeling of ftolitical 
uncertainty and unrest. The |ioop]f !*< -ain 
satisfied with the way in which they were gov* 



n a- .tronu r ly attached a< ever t.^ rcpul)- 

.:i-titiitioiis and the more mistrustful of the 

ment. fornu-rly identified with the 

empii. misfortunefl "f the repub- 

lic seemed to Mij^eM the advantagef of monarchy. 

The melt of tried eXperiel. t\r t,.||,' 1 

litical life In-fore the n-volulioii. have Urn debarred 
from any pari icipat ion in public alTair-: iu;i 
them | .'. A -troiiu' and turlmleiit fal-lor 



in the political situation ha> b,-en the semimi.. 
element that has spt ill ..f theili-- 

turbed condition of affairs in the la-t ei-ht \ 
Tin- j irdeiit and jealon* repub- 

lic.-ui-.. \\ ho imau'ini- they see at i-\er\ turn ;in at- 

tempt iore-t..re the monarchy. On slighl pn.\o- 

cati.m-. or with n<. neat all. sin -h m. n ha\. 

M the street- of B .Hid other cil u-s 

and attacked their political oppoiiet 
to the length of killing proinineni citi/en- su-p. 
of monarchist sympathii--. In l^'.Ml and the . 
ji.-irt "f ls; violent and irrational outbreak- ,,f this 
character occurred repeatedly. The aut horit ii- 
no precaution* to prevent -udi di-t urlian<-e-. and in 

co||-ei|Uence the-e extreme rej HI 111 ic;i n -. lll'-t of 

whom are yoiini; men. ha 

terrori-iii iul citi/en- ol .dive 

tell. Irl. 

The enormous debt that ha- accumulated under 
the republic is. with the diminishing revenu. 

:\e burden. ( lut of a tta| income of little 
more than *.-<.< KM.(M> in old value the National 

(iovernmellt ha- to | ' tO meet tie 

nual debt char_-'--. K\c.-pt the cii-tomhoi, 
ly any -oiin-e ,,f r.-v.-mn- I- a\ailalle. The .,rl 
expense! of the administration swallow up the 
leavini; unforeseen and extraordinary re|iiirerir 
such as theco-t of -uppre in:: in-urrect ion or t he 
purchase of war ships and munition-, to be added 
to the debt. The expenditure has invariab!, 
ceeded the revenue for many year- pa-l.and tin- 
usual method of meeting the deficit has been by 
fresh issues of inconvertible bank : this 

the. chief part of the financial diHiculty of the 
Brazilian (Joveniim-nt mu-t be attributed. The 
true condition of the t rea-ury i-< not publicly know n. 
nor i- t he exact amount of t he-e paper i ue- in cir- 
culation, but there were computed to be in the 
sprint: of I*!i7 not less than TIMI.OOU contos of 
e.|iial to nearly $400,000,000 in face value, and 

'><K),000 at the depreciated rate of e\ch , ; 
Commerce has been depressed not only by th- 

obtained for coffee and the Calling rate- ,,f 
exchange, but by tho constant clian^-- made in tin- 
tariff to which the (Jovernment 
in order to protect itself from the iv-ulis of tin- 

nit <lepreciation of the r-urreiicy. for the tariff 
dutie- !e in paper, not in L r "M. To tide 

ov.-r it- di(Tlculti<-s. which were" incr.-a--d 1-y the 
expeditions -cm a-ain-t the fanatic- .,f I'.ahiii. the 

Iillient propose* 1 to .-ell the lea-e of the State 

rail P., "Min 

L'old. Neirotiat: 
Mil-land and (i.-rmanv. 

Til-- depre-sion in the cofTee market affected nr,t 
the finaii'-e- of the (toverninent alone, but the con- 
dition of the whole population of Mra/il. Nearly 
all the energies <.f the country have been dc\ 
' e cultivation, while cereal- and other D< 
saries of life have been imported from abroad In 

former times the southern province- of I'aran;. 

<'atarina, and Hio firande do Sul produced 
wheat and U-ef for the supply of Ifio de .Janeiro 
and other northern markets, but the revolutions 
and disturbances of the la-t few years have cau-ed 
the-e indu-trics to be almost abandoned. Since the 
currency has depreciated, and coffee pri'-r-s have 
fallen at the same time, the difficulty of obtaining 



Bit AX! I. 



upplies from abroad has been doubled. There 

i fat-turing 
offee gave j:--l r turn*, and all the 

nomtmti 

i^ry 

r.wt.U not on 
^il. > -rice, and other 

*a* much leas than 

In* than half aa large. 

:< alfMil I |.l MM I.I MM) A. k-. While 
prill. Ilia! 

!. $30,000.000 

ami $U 
f$ I .*.'," 

nil.ber is constant 

Creasing. '"" ' ' ' l't 



The 



iir. 






Miirar*. i 

\ N inkier, l s '.',. ,.n |i.- i.i. .1 -.f ill 

'MM.-.I hi-. 

In June. <iem 

tin- military n-n wrll 

v a hoavi. ;.^-ti.l IIIK! 

h nnriOM, K<-..n..ini.-s t.. tin- rxti-nt .-f 

The fliuuicial miniM. of (In- ( 'hamU-r 
I that it wotilil In- 

\ t.. s^sp-ipi th- |.u\!ii. iit ..f interest ui.<l 

') iii.-r preat- 

IJOOof ra 

;'4Hi,,ii th- inti-rnii. l*4inis 

;.,. Hunk r 

:in<l annn- 
-.Kll) to j..> 
Tin- r-timat- 

ei|tinl to 111.000.000. inakiiic th> total .-\|-t).|il tin- 

1 0.000.000 milr* 
a-".- M). The actual receipu wera moeh 

In l-Vl.r 

vat signed U'tween France ami llm/il fr the 
MC of nHutrat 

in th.- Ui-in of ti,.- ruiniii n\.-r. a lipule 
whirh n-a-h.il an acute phase after 

BOMrOuMud. This 

orotiftlr, despite strony opposition amonjr tne people, 
whicl 

it., I that the 

A mafia question should be dealt with anl nettled 
vith n.-^. tuition* relative to 
<.iiana iMMimlarv ili|ui-. 

Itah.-i !.-nt nia>l- nal claims 

;uttr.l upon Italian 
that txHMirred in the presidency of 
\traiiition treaty was OOB- 
>tod States in May. 



twenty yean a religious enthusias 

-..' ,i.- 

.... . 



among the emotional and naturally religious pro- 

.iarR^ 

ImtNi. ami thr ...untn fartUr t- ih, }.. nl 
rhafl* in inan j.U..-. 
: k 

! I . i . . . ' . : - . 



north. 



|.|c. I.. |,..M, 



..--/ 

^re heppineej if ihev 
4 his cauae. The fu(. 

^elheirti weps In great part armed* It 
mom of the cot, fry arms. 

. , ;,.-,. 

thrr a 

of obtaining ft- aitlr and otaer 





iii\i..l.l the pU 



W|MNI they 0M 

.-' . 



killed r woundetl 

1 n|M>n tt . ij' an 

with tli- 

second affair Con* 
X firrra with t 

n in a natural < moveroei 

lak.-n on th- rharm * -el lion, peo 

rura 1 plantations 

fanatic- 
would not KIM- willii 

rabjecti-.i to t he vengeance of ConeaflMlr 
A Im- :l troops was dbpelt 

and Major Francisco >! 

j-'l in the valley of Moi 



n w I 

.nset was 

.^1 t 

AotiMti.who Uu|;htere<l the 
:he relirU attr 



dden arnl furiou* thai Ib 
arm* ami fin I in panic, MU 
wuundrd. 



militar training improved 



troops were defeat 

to mote upon thr 



In K-lruary 

in llahta. . ral 

i M when attm more upon tne post- 

tkms h 1.1 by the relieU. fighting through a whole 

lav. ban. and finally re- 

treating with a loss of 600. leaving gun. and aremu- 

insurgents. Many plan- 

- an.) two tnall towns were burned by the 
fanati.-* Ilavmi; .4laineil Meam launches, they 
ttmlled in the districts when 

I^argr quantities of arms, ammunition, and pro- 
pound in 




of U 

oi ine 

*rmtwr n* of the 

mrittott*bcJief t, 

iprnal flair, wan the f.-nrninnrr of a fvoetml 
monarchic rrbrllion. and that the Tonde d'Bo. the 
nn-in !a of |Km 1'e.ln. II. ** at the head of the 
In Rio Janeiro. S4o Paolo, aad 



IIIMTISH COI.I'MBIA. 



cities monarchist* were mobbed, and the office* of 

ve newspaper* were wrecked. In March 

OonseJheirota bands appeared in S-nri|^. Piahuy. 

:! Ninas Geraes. Saraiva, a li.-u- 

teiiant of CVrnwlheiro, attempted to l*rt an m-ur- 

ICii.JaiuMr *-. Con*elhein> him- 

> :.!/. about 

in the northern province*. The Government 
pratxwrd (.. double :th ..f I ho arm>. ai.d 

ihrratenmg damooitrat ion* in 



again* Pmudent Moraes. who expressed a willing- 
neat to resign. After the last engagement, in 

V ...... . , .- :,d. a fn>l, G,,v- 

foreeof T.ooo men wa* *ent up t-> Qanndoi 

..ii.l P.-rnambiico. (.* n. Cantu/ia was 
to liahia with a large force of artillery. 
,*, commanded by Gen. Arthur 
attempted no rash movement*, but advanced *low ly 
against Canud.*. where the fanatics were regularly 
i*-ho.l. Their progress was impeded at . 

-j:4> mile* fn).n Bahia. \Vell-guar.l.-.l 
>rk* stopped them, and fanatic bands of men 
and women rushed upon them from hiding-place*. 
The arduous march took two months F.arly in 
June the Brazilian tr.M.ps. under Gen. Oscar, de- 
feated 8,000 fanatics, killing 300. Before the end 
ith they h . them within their 

us, and were victorious in several skir- 
mishes. On .1 1 the following <1 
series of assaults on the town were repelled, with 
the l,,ss ,,f more than 1.0IM) of the Federal troops 
and higher losses on c,.n-.-lh.-ir.'s side. The Gov- 
. n-eiiforced until they oiit- 
numlMTitl the town's defenders three to one. The 
bombardment was kept up day after day, and in a 
final assault on July 7 the town was captured after 
a fierce battle lasti'ng four hours. The troops de- 
stroyed churches and other buildings in which the 
fanatics took r :isclheir's forces concen- 
trated in five villages in the Canudos district, which 
Arthur Oscar proceeded to invest. Further 
reinforcements of 4.000 men were forwarded. < >n 
July 23 the Brazilian troops occupied two of the 
villages Before the main position was attacked 
uneiit army consisted of 15,000 men. 
Fighting occurred constantly, and the fanatics fre- 
quently held the road between Monte Santo and 
the front, and interrupted the transport of ammu- 
nition and stores. In the mean time fresh bodies 
of fanatics appeared in the States of Sao Paulo and 
Parana. The force in the Canudos district was 
still 8.000 strong, and was well intrenched. In 
the petty en gag >t took place during Au- 
gust 2.400 Brazilians were wounded in the hand- 
to-hand conflicts In the In-ginning of OctoU-r 
Conselheiro's position was at last captured after 
! i nous fighting for several days. Admiral 
Harboza directed the final operations, (luring which 
Conaelheiro was slain with thousands of his follow- 
ers. The fanatic leader was a man of powerful 
build and stern and commanding 
poaseesed unusual military talents as well as a gift 
of m.t.:'i, ||. WM \.-rv go,d and hu- 
mane to i. troops, who obeyed him like 
rvn. Many soldiers From the Brazil- 
ian array to Conwlheir... While the vj.-torious bat- 
tnlioin were und.-r- s ,, n their reti,- 

i.ineiro a soldi- attempt on the life 

racs, killing Col. Moraes. who Jnter- 

l the dagger. Immediately afterward a shot 

'I'-ncourt. the Minister of 

hired under martial law. 

BRI MMI < o| I MBI \. of the 

Dominion of Canada ha* :iinently before 

the public of other .uring the past 

on account of the mineral discoveries and m in ing 
development. It extends about 700 miles north 



from the international boundary line, and nearly 

- uM and \\' JUKI Mjuare 

. \\hich includes part of the ranp-s of the 

v mountains and the Selkirk>. the (Jueen 

Charl'ott*- Islands. Vancouver inland, and a 

\ of forest*, valleys, mountains lakes, and 
ways. The chief imrUirs are Esquinmult 
tin- headquarters of tin- British Pacific squadron 
via and Nanan .'-ouver i-laiul. C.al 

llarb'-ran*! Kii-li-h Bay', in c..nne-t ion \\ ith Bur- 
rani Inlet, are the port- *.n the mainland. The 
' 'jiiiinaiil 1 ' loti^. with a 

WMtfa "f !MI feel, while the fort i flcat iolis. \\hi. 

partly built at British and partly at Canadian 
-ileralle. 

Political. Then wen o< politioal changes dor- 
Ing the year IsjMi-'ji?. except ing the -hare which 

the province took in the Dominion elections, LKU- 

tenant (iovernor the l!..n. l-M-ar I 1 lired 

at the end of his term, in N*.vemb. i \\a> 

succce.l''! 1>\ Senaii.r Melnnex. NN'illiam Tenijtle- 
man, a local lieu-paper editor, wa- calli-d to t he 
Dominion Senate in place of the latter. The I 
utive Council at the end of IM'.I? included .1. II. 
Turner a- Premier. Minister of Finance and 
cut niv ; Hon. < harli " \-'.. '. 

Council: I>. M. Bberta at Attorney-General ; Jamei 

'rovincial S.cr. tary and .Minister -.f Mines 
and Immigration; <i. B. Martin as Commissioner 
of Lands and Works. 

The Legislature met on Feb. s and adjourned en 
May 8. The budget speech showed an estimate.! 
$1,288,000, and expenditure of 
$1,500.000. During IH'.W the receipts were $989,- 
705, and the expenditure xl.c.U.T'j:',. The (I. 
incut's railway policy was the lending of $25,000 to 
various mall development lines at the rate<.f > 
a mile. The (juestion of retaliation against the 
I'nited States was discuv-ed and a }.arliam<-ntary 
committee n-jiorted in favor of a law for prohibit*- 
ing aliens from mining in the province. But the 
central topic of discussion in t he |iro\ii, 
Dominion policy of subsidixing the Canadian Pacific 
Railway to Imild a brunch line through tin- < 
Nest region into the heart of the mining districts. 
The province wanted an independent and competing 
line, but the continental road won the battle. The 
following were the terms accepted by the Canadian 
Pacific Railway in return fora Dominion grant of 
$11,000 a mile for :'.:!0 miles of road from Leth- 
bridge through the mountains to Nd 

1. Running powers over the Crow's Nest Railway 
are conceded to other railways at a rental 
fixed by the Dominion Government. 

2. The freight rates are to be under the c..nsrol 
of the railway committees of the Privy Council. 

::. Freights from points on i. 1 Rail- 

way to points on anv other part (.f the Canadian 
Pacific system, and />>, -..be undo 

tr<l of the Railway Committee, or of any railway 

n to be hereafter appointed. 
I. Rales ,,n certain classes of freights on th< 

ern portion of the Canadian Pacific Railway- that 

is. fp.m Fort William eastward are to |,e reduced 
by from 10 to 33 per cent, at the beginning of 
L8Q& 

.". Rates on wheat and flour from Manitoba and 
farther west are to be reduced 114 cent- p. T hun- 
dred. In-ginning in 1HJJH. and an additional 1H cents 
per hundred, beginning in 1899. 

0. Fifty thousand acres of picked coal land 
transferred to the Government. 

1 oal is to be put on the cars at the inii. 
not more than $2 a ton. 

i prk of timber lands, in the lands 
granted to the company, are to be subject to the 
regulation of th rul in Council. 



I HI A. 



M 



. The bituminous coal, of wbi< 
i'aeifte coast center, ha* i -!. 
ereaaed ii> a and ale. Large quait 

ancouvrr U thr mainland 
' anadiaii Pacific KaiUat, and from 

..*. Jii|ii. alia. 

Wr-limn-t. r .h-'ri. ' h.i* btHI VOT -' - : : 

herrie*, |>rer, MM evm flf>, 
ui-d with profit. In Ihe Knurr 






fmnt a a 



r he* 

gidd region, and considerable 
iicai -.. nol 1.. 
and other w.l i 



good grating land. 
(MUM and seat- 

1 pnpulati 

farmers, ranchmen, lumbermen, an<t In it 

.iiatfan valley, which i* | 

uninousooaJand iron ore and plati 

t.u, Yn 
non, and Ashcroft, along the line of the 

IH become known d 

fr.'in tin- i '"lumlim n\.-r !< ( ( 
iar\. hunt!- !-'. nintf 

i th- 
: (o ^'..INN 

I Railway, by a branch line 
r row head, at the head of the ' pp- r Arrow 
from n; establish 

itmtnrrs run* to Na's'.-: . \s ' n rail ommunii at ion 
i* had with NYw Denver, Sandon, and 
center*, flteamiiri have also i 

. mouth <>f t ; i\iote- 

vhence tin- Canadian Pacific Kailwav runs to 

Nelson, Rowland, n: at NT 

flare was a small camp in IM'4. and in Janunry. 
"'.17. ha>l VHNi people a i, -I a r-am/,.1 muni. I- 

Kovdand. inrliidr* tin- UM 
- N.-l-iii a iv thr ^ 



pvrehaac 

ti 
of l 



,f in 

i 



v an ROfliah i-inii|iany 

- MunmeF of UM new 

itnd coif 

to $8 a dar. of mintn 
*4. 

the Inrp-r 



par 



i?:: -,o. 

l\ ' 
region k: 'iio naim- 

rwl fnun tin* en-t I .lnn 

m h mineral 






region, and varimw 
i and opera! rd. 
larp arva with vj 
Qd has no settlements of imjwrtanc*. It 



one ewk-the Wilthimj fmii which 
in gold baa been takm within a dav 
of t milea, The I'aiMar 

. 



whole weaurn portion of th 

SSwT^oil 01 r a 

Ike beginning of 1(07 there wet* over tft d 



At Ihr 

S: 
and copper aboumU at 

hr main land. A ledge of 

!..._ I.L 




r.-ad n..tr,| , > . .rp 
and a - tHng worked on the Canediin nor: 

drr.fthe province at a place ceiled / 
figures, prepareq by the 

frnJIttN to the Iwginning of IWI \ 

$8177jM9 ', silver* 





Mingstot. 

f I-.- 

lumbia are very valuable. During the sssinni of 
the- runs M bri k 

maybeiven packetl wlthmaamf of 
way to the {iawning ground*. The 
tier of the canneries where th* 

in the more northern part of the province. There 
are 00 canneries in the nrovince, each employing 
about 000 men lie season. Keen cannery 

cosU from $80.000 to $40.000. equipped, so that 
about $2,000.000 are thus invested. In 1W8 the 
i to f 104.097: : |71Hj5ft: 

n. I-'- to $1.078,088; in 1890 to $8,407.48*; in 
1894 to $8.9A4^3K To this should be 
' halibut, sturffeoo, herring, eolac 



. of 



..-: : '-: 

nt,Hl to M.781 
< i own Lanwa,-Crt,wn land* in 
bia are clansified as either surveyed or 
and mav be acquired by entry at the 

. any person who is the I 
of a family, a widow, or a single man over eighteen 
years of age and a British snbj. 

v n lands on making a declaration uf'thnr 

i ion to become British subjecta, The quantity 

I that may be recorded or pre-empted mast 

not exceed 890 acres northward ami eastward of the 

le or ( 'oeM mountains, or 160 acres in the rrat 

-.;.-,. V ; - ,- ., .. . 

pre-emption claim at a time and prior record or pre- 
emption of one claim, and all right* under it/are 



i* a valley ft* 

tfl rtM\ an>i Irnt prai- tini 

sources. It contain* much bw game, and ha* 

.tUI. and 

M ; .:, r.il I'! ...In, I lei 
nr.- the famoti 

Pur; nee Team a nrw nnnetue baa 



. 

an< (her claim. I .and, recorded or pre-en|4rd can 
not be transferred or oonvevrd till aft. r a Crown 
grant ha* hern bMir,!. Such* land, until 
grant i* tnrd. is held by occupation, and t) 
cu|tioo must be a eofta/a** personal resioeneeof 

c land within th. rt > 
and muM continur 

longer period than two months 
r or famil is deemed cee- 
may be 



ur month* in 



granted not r\creli 

iiirtead Krrnlation,-Farm and bnild- 
Jin not be takrn f- r debt m> 
< n. and an* f rr* from erf- 
to a ralue not grralrr than 
haltrU am alo free up to $,V\ while eel 
< on sharr- are abo protected by an 
prloneat 



Hitmsii coi.r.MBiA. 



BrLdAlUA. 



Dominion U*. All the land* in Briti- 
Itinii'ia it Inn 90 miles on each side of th 

arc the property ' >f tin- Domin- 

.vith all th'i* timber an*! n. -y rmiiaiii 

t the precious metals). This tra t of land. 

with it- imiU-r. Imy. wntrr powers, oo*l, and 

is BOW adininu4crrd by tin- Department <>f tin- In- 

anada. practically ac. ordmg ! the same 

law* and regulations that control the pnbtto lands 

i and the North W.-M Tcrntor.es, aXQCpl 

thai the hocnesleads must t.-t <-nlv bs resided u|...n 

and cultivated for not less than six m<>i> 

three Tears aft.-r entry, but I ilso be 

|*i.l for at the rate of fl a& acre, Dominion lands 

in tl also be acquired l.y DUTChM*, 

'ruin M>lflrniflit condition - fT the 

disposal of these lands have been established m 

Kfjsjoopl in the mountain- ami New Wc-tm. 
..n fhfctiaM. The mineral- in thi- tract, other than 
coal and sUone. art- administered l.y thr Briti.-h Co- 
liimliia Government. 
Trade and Com mere*. Though tin- trade of 

i Columbia is -nil iinini|><. riant \\li-n com- 
fiarcd with its extent and resources, it ha- greatly 

|HM! during the past few years, ami is m.w the 
large- 1 in thr world p- r h--ad <>f population. 
that of Holland. In 1*71 the imporls were $1,789,- 
983 and the exports $1358,050, and in ISIMJ there 
were $5,526,490 of imports and $10, f ex- 

port*. The exports include fi-h. coal, gold, silver. 
timber, masts and spars, fur- ami -kin-, fish oil. and 
hops, A large portion of tin- -alim-n. canned and 
pickled, goes to (Jrcat Britain. -a-t. -rn Canada, the 
United States, S.uth Africa, and Australia; the 
Slates and the Hawaiian Islands consume a lar-e 
share of the exported coal ; and great (plant it 
timber are -hipped to Australia, some to Soiiili 
' .1, China, and Japan, and to places in South 
America. To Great Britain. China, and the Tinted 
States are sent the valuable furs and peltries of land 
animal* and the much-prized seal and otter. Valu- 
able shipments of fish oil. principally obtained from 
dogfish at the Queen Charlotte Islands, are con- 
signed to the States annually, and also to the Ha- 
waiian Islands. Gold and silver ore is shipped an- 
nually to the smelters in the I'nited States. 

Mineral*, Including coal, the total output of 
the min. - f-r 195 was $5,655,302, and for !*'.; it 
was $7.146,425. In 1895 the value of placer gold 
amounted to $481,688. and in 1896 to $544,025 ; 

juarU, 1895. $785,271. and in 1896 $U>IJ. 

-ilver, 1895 $47,642, and 1896 $190,926; lead. 
1896 $532.255. and 1896 $721,384; coal, 
$2.K18.962. and 1896 $2,327,145 ; coke, 1895 * 
and 1896 $8.075 : other minerals, 1895 $10,000. and 
1896 $15,000. For the past two years the produc- 

f coal has been decreasing by reason of the 
increasing competition of British and American 
coal in the Pacific coast market of the Tinted 
States, where most of the coal is sold. 

TlMber. British Columbia probably possesses 
the greatest compact reserve of timber now left in 
the world, and of this but a fringe has yd 

The coast districts claim the un . at ,.f propor- 
tion of good accessible timber, and aimmj; tin-, t he 
climaU being humid, the ravages of forest fires 
which have m part depleted the thinner and less 
valuable woodlands of the interior drv Mt of the 
mainland hare not been severe. *The timber 
limit* of the coast follow the nigged shore line. 
fringe the mountain sides, and extend even to Alaska, 
while there i* &\*r> much good tirnU-r in the ' 
chan, Chematnuft. Xanaitno, and other districts of 
Vancouver island. and on several of the giilf inlands. 
Large and serviceable timber of lighter growth than 
on the coast also extends over wide regions of the 
mainland interior. 



Among the province's principal timbers is the 
.as lir. widely distributed from the coast to 

> mountain tops. This -r-'U- to , 
tiotml proportions ..n the coast, where it sometimes 
rises 800 feet in height and has a base circu infer- 
ence of 50 feet. A good average is about 1: < 

f limbs and 5 feet iii diameter. 
A timU-r license may U- granted for 1 

-arson payment of $10 annually and ir> 

: ami n<> | 

not licensed may cut timber on Cn-wn land- . \ 
for farming and mining. Only one li -n-e at a 
time bits, ami this js m,t t ran-fi -rabl. . \ 

!o|- 1.INMI acre- 
obtained l.y application in tin- " oil'n-ial < ia/ 
and payment oj $50 to the Chief Comn. 

I duration. The follow in .5 wer.- the educational 
figures of the last tw. he common sol 



ITBMS, 


I Hfl.-i. 


1K1MJ. 




17" 






l--'i 


I'd 


Pupih 


:. i si 


B74S 




-.-:: 


i 1 1-- 









26 graded schools, with 139 teachers and 

. pupils, in 1MJM). The high school.s numbcriil 
t. wit h -1(>(> pupils. The expcndit lire upon t.,, 
salaries in 1S5 was $169,44H. and in 1*110 $ls:, 
and the total expenditure by the (o.\, rnment upon 
education was rcs|XM-tive; 

MlBCellanooilH. The gross debt of the proviner 
was $6,469,768 in 1896, with assets of | 
and a yearly debt allowance from the Dominion 
rnment of $583,021. Tli g tonnage 

(.f the province in 1896 was $ - J. !'.;. I'.'?, compar.-d 
with $2,228,047 in 1895. There were s(K) miles ,.f 
railway at the end of i 

Bl l.dVKIA. a principality in eastern Kurope 
under the su/crainty of Turkey, formerly a Turkish 
province. It was created an autonomous tributary 
principaliLy by the Treaty of Berlin, signed on -Inly 

ti"- 



]'>. 1878. Eastern Koiiinelia. which was 
tiited an autonomous province, expelled tin 
ernor (icneral nominated by the roite and pro- 
claimed its union with Bulgaria on Sept 17. 
and on April 6, 1880, the Sultan, after a i-onf, 
of representatives of the -ignatory power-, i iied a 
firman confiding the admini-trat ii.n of the province 
to the Prince of Bulgaria ami appointing him 
ernor (ienoral. Since then the two par:- of Bul- 
garia have practically formed one nation. The 
Mu-sulmaii district- of Kanjali and IMiodop.- 
retroceded to the I'orte as' a condition of the Sul- 
tan's acceptance of the de furtn union of North and 
.South Bulgaria. The legislative power i- ve-ted in 
a >ingle ( 'hamber. called the S.branje. the members 
of which are elected by the votes of all adult male 
Bulgarians, in the ratio of 1 member t.. -Jii.M(k) j n - 
halitants. for the term of five year-. A -pei-jally 
elected Grand Sobranje must be convened to decide 
on the siu-ee ion to the throne or amendment- to 
the Constitution. The Prince of Bulgaria is Fenli- 
nancl. Duke of Saxony, the yoiinr;e-t -on of Prince 
Augu-t of Saxe-( 'oburL r -<otha and Princess Clem- 
entine of Bourbon -Orleans, daughter of I.ouis 
Philippe. Kinirof the French. He was elected by 
the Crand Sobranje on July 7. IMS;. a ft.-r the ]ep<".- 
sition of Prince Al -xan- is finally r. 

by the powers in March. [895. The hail to 
the throne i- Prince Boris, born Jan. 80, 1HD4, son 
of Prince Ferdinand and Princess Marie Louise of 
Bourbon, eldest daughter of Hobert. Duke of Par- 
ma. Prince Boris was baptized in the faith of his 
parents, who are Koman Catholics, but on Feb. 14, 
1896, was received into the Greek Orthodox Church. 



YK1A. 



Ml 



dmi -i at the beginning of 1807 was 
Area and I'OJMI la tion.-The area of tb* original 

ot84jMOMitiar 

iria, at 13,300 square miles. The total population 

ilgaria. l 

-tiana. Sofia, the capital. 

il The nutnljorof 
IgM in 1808 was 31.64"; of l.ir 

was 



nits. 

I mil 

! t)u> communt titan 

he boys and > 



..'. .'.:-.;- :-..- . .., [,., 

loUl *alu. 

uf . hicb tumyooo tf *aii for iriui^rSSSEfloo 

. 
' - 

roMohiatfY. The . Kng- 

land, Germany Prance, atM Turk FT amounted to 

- ,. ... - ;.,, ., 

for. 

u Urgrly made in Bulgaria. 

... n&. *: 

Tllr trad. ith forrtgti eountrtc* in IKtf to tfcown 

h fi%c* thf dim* 



r 1806 was estimated 

r .-venue 88,777305 lei were de- 
ics, and dire.-t taxes pit*: 






piilili 



11 Id for the public 

'Hi lei 
preliminary e>timtUes for 

and ti. 

aga 

railroads, harbors, etc,, 
valued at 157J800.80G 

-..KlO.OOOdue to U,,~. 

accon iiverance, nor the unpaid 

bate, 
nor the share of the 

The Arm?. All u.!.-l--li.-.| Bulgarians are lia- 
ble to be railed into military service. Of n 
40,000 who reach the age ninually 16,000 

und an* r-<|uin--l to serve two yean 
in th hreeyears in the lit her arms. 

The |.- a . eeffecthrt i* .;'..::.' oflfa ^ .it,. I ?.- . a, 1 ,. 
war strength <>f thr armr is about 175.000. The 

!.. Mnni.: 

>l with 1 ; IDJ and 12 mountain guns 

peace footing;, with an -.juul muni 
guns and t -untnin c 

umerre and 1'rodn. 

Ir^al tr land, as under the 

h rfffimt. ami the landlf ttial 

K-H ..".. d.-. ending n. th< r fainili >> .: cai 

the tint-eminent n lit: 
il |'rln M kind. Most 

ire less than 6 arrrs. Po^turr and 
woodland art* .v iiinen and used 

rtt. and silk. 

-e 7.060800 abeep, 1.453JOO goats, and 
H> hogs in 1808. Coal. iron, and Mil are the 
.pal mineral product*. All mines bak>t 

ment. (. n an ian, and Austrian 

merchants have most of the foreign trade. 




NaTliration.-Therewcr* 76? ressrls. of 45? JOS 

-rl <>f Vrna during 1C**. and 

;;.:. Q| r,vm BS, . .. * 1; .. B .-. i m ' 
879,188 tons, were enterrd. 

( MiiiiiiiinlratloBJi. There were 588 miles of rail- 
mad in 1896. The slate trlrgraph lin lia^ a 

h ,.f ::.!:: | ,:;,-. with 6.048 miles of wr 
1894 tin- i.tunU -r ..f messafes sent was 1.208.094. 
Tl ! i r*, newspapers, etc^ that nesird 

thr, 1*4 wa* 

receipts of the postal and telegraph services were 

I Nti .1 I i eU.- While the trial of the mur- 
MnmbulolT was pn- 

- liutantly 



i 



-tify, demanded why, instead of the 
mistr real asiaaiius. the men who 

form the prwn f Bulgaria, wen not 

placed on trial. The trial was oondwded at the 
of January. 1HU7. uh the con v id ion of 
the actual | rpH rators. On Jan. 8 the Sobranfo 
passed a decree granting aa amnesty to all Bul- 
garian oJBcen who deserted and took terrier 
the Russian flag after the 

-1UC4 

.stores their pensions to 

the Kigali M-ni.v ul~,|...nt t.. Ai* '.'. l^,ai.d 





..,: . ' ' 

ffc . N: 



hare atnred ten years in both armies. Pending t be 
coming into operation of the new cnstonu treaties 
on May 1, 180B, a provisional import tariff was ira- 
posed on all goods coming from abroad. The Min- 

rm had no floating debt, and was under no 



of contracting new loans, although an 
additional railn.l would be built which 
as a supplement a r> guarantee for the whole debt. 

:tionlrM. the t+* 

olmn tnlMite. ami three loans amounting to 
ilgaria had wired 

.7JOOJB06 franca, onnsistiag of 



88346.430 franca had been |-ndl. and 4UM&.- 

853 francs inrmted in the National Bank and laid 

Ml oaput> , 

Daring the Onek war aome bands of 



I'LATIXi! MAi'li: 



insurgents crossed tne Macedonian fn-nn-r. The 
rnroeot took prompt steps to check the agita- 
tion. The Bulgarian Government declined t. re- 
call its rvprmrntittivr fnun Athena when called 
upon to do no by the Porte M su*vrain. Th.- Bul- 
garian ao-nt in Constantinople demanded the issue 
more Bulgarian I Mace- 

donia, threatening in the orent <>f r. -fii-al that the 
Bulgarian anuy would * nobili/.-d ni once. The 
Sulian promt**! to grant the lm- 1 the 

Bulgarian Government t.. have patience until the 
termination of tin- wnr with (Jreece. Th.- iiillu<-iu-(> 
:<i4a restrained Bulgaria fnun inking any 
advantagr of Turkey'* difficulty. When tin- war 
wa ended n d Russian governments 

addrewd an identical note i<> tin- Hal 

ll their correct attitude 
duru..- -i*. In August Prince Ferdinand 

viito.l tin- Button fat Constantinople, and received 
from him satisfactory assurance* regarding the 



Tin- Prince ha.l previously vi-ited other 
- and had conferences with" the Kin. 
1 ipl. BoitchelT. the Piv 

aid-daHMUnp, wa- ..n\i-tf.l df murdering an Au 
trian actress, and a few ,i newspt 

print. -d interviews with 1 r". Stoil,.fT. imputing 
political animosiu a- i h,- mti\c ,,f i| M . Austrian 
rnment for insisting on hil punishment. The 
Au-tro-llunganan I .ill. was . 

.(uently withdruwn fnun S..|ia until the HuL 

'r denied the n|T. u -sions. A inin- 

il crisis was settled l-y the r. con.-l nu-tii.n of 

IM. BtoilonTl < 'al'iiH-t on S.-j.t. 7. (iue-h,.ir. Mini 

!|.M M |..|-..|T. prr\i..||-ly 

.Minister of .In-tier, t..uk \\'\* portfolio, lu-iii^ 
ceeded l>y /-.'Mi-etT. hi- chief >-ul...rdinate. while 
VelitchkofT wa- appointed Mini-tT of ('..in! 
and .\L r riculture. t ran-ferrim: t he ji.irtfnli,. ..f I'ul.- 
lie Instruction that he Ijeld before to Vasoff, a 

Deputy, 



( \l< I I \ I l\, M \( HI MS. Machines for 
simplifying arithmetical processes and for per- 
forming U :.ii-al work incidental to addi- 
tion, multiplication, division, and subtraction have 
been employed for many years in astronomical ob- 
aarratone^' institutions of learning, .'i'i'1 bu^ine-s 
bouses. The basic principle of mechanism in near- 
ly all these is the gearing of wheels to the ratio ,,f 
one to ten. S'lnetimes figures, from to 9, are 
placed directly on these wheels and brought to an 
ojening. no th'at the answers may be read ; some- 
times they are arranged to print at a certain point, 
so that the answer appears on a slip of paper : and 
onetimes the wheels direct pointers on dial- to 
rife the required visual results. The illustration 
snows a mecnanism of the first-named character. 




umrmimt rm PKINCIPLK or OPERATION or notntc 

A ro* CALCVLAT1XO ADOITIOK AXD 8CBTRACT10X. 

The gr- . //. ami r. each have 100 te, th 

and U-ar 100 pin-. /.. //. j,. ..n their faces. The pin- 
ions 1 and 2 each lia\.- 10 teeth, as do also the pin- 
:'.. 4, and 5 of the figure wheeN. and the idle 
gear* ' : ! H. Cin-ular gnuluated 

' '/. '/. anil <l. n,,e tenth of a 
rotation of the crank ^ turn* one tenth of its 
circumference and bring* 10 pin- in contact with 
the pinion 3. causing the figur. -..makea 

'in | ftl the siiini. time the pinion 1 

_-ear&one toiith. and a nin on // turn* the 
pinions 6 and 4 and cause* the figure wheel 
turn one figure. A complete rotation of a 
nuired to turn the figure wheel c' one figure. The 
figure wheels may be arranged with springs and 
stops so as to make one tenth of a rotation ii 
taueously when a pin bears on the pinion, so that 



ieh represents hundreds, will turn only at the 
completion of H turn'- of I, in-tead of turnin 
tenth of a figure at each turn of b". If it I 
sired to add. -ay 1 M and 546, with these wheels, 
thev are fir-t set at 1 J!. a- her.- illustrated, and the 
dial of a' is set at /en.. If. then, fi be turned 
around five times (.,r n half a turn either 

scores 500), and then It turned to |( on it- dial, the 
figure wheels will be so rotated as to have carried 
around 546 more point-, or t M.~>. whi< -h is tl 
swer. It will be apparent that subtract ion p.. . 
accomplished by a re\er-e pro* --. l',\ an \ten- 
sion of this principle some of the most dillicult 
arithmetical problems may be solved mechanically, 
one of the b<-t knowii of these machines of re- 
cent design i- that introdui-e.l by I orr K. Kelt, of 
<'hicago, in 1889, fcnd improved in I^.M;. T 
in use at Cornell I "Diversity and other scientific in- 
stitutions. The operation ifl made extremely sim- 
Kleby the introduction of a keyboard, which may 
< manipulated like that of a typewriter. Tip 
are placed so as to form rows jn two directions, 
numbered from left t. riu'lit. and aNo to and from 
the operator. This machine will not only perform 
the four principal arithmetical operation-, but will 
also extract a cube root. In no case is it 
to -trike more keys than there are figures j n the 
problem given to the machine to >o]\,-. and in the 
latest machines the an-wer i* delivered on a printed 
canl. If there i- any doubt in the mind of the 
[tor M to Whether he struck the keys correct- 
ly in setting up the problem, he has only to r 
the operation, and -e- whether he gets the san 
suit. In adding, one set of figures is struck on a 
M one direction, and the other set on a row at 
ri-ht anirlev. hi multiplying three figure- by three 
fiirun nly to select three certain 

which may be done very promptly as soon as 

j loard is memoH/ed. 

The" Thomas machine is commonly used in 
France, and tin- Tate machine, which j an im- 

I form of the Thomas. j< much used in < 
Britain. The Odhncr machine has Keen u-ed to 
some extent in Poland. I'.abbaL'e's difference ma- 
chine, which i. js n-ed in Kn-land for 

'metrical and logarithmic calculations. The 
machine devised by (e., ; _'. |;. (Jrant. of Cam- 
bridge. Ma--., has f.'.imd considerable sale. This. 
like most of the foreign machines, is operated by a 
small hand crank. It employs a series of adding 
rings, registering wheels, and "pointers. Both add- 






-UN-ring wheels bear num 
iiuiltipHeaM ami the rafmtafii 



< , 

af' - '. !- 









r ami then, by ruiatti.. ,. ami 

rtain ruh-s the 

>n recording wbaaia, 
nd calculate 

ttfimally, th- an-w.-n. bring delivered in 

inputinir mmlu a f n'.m t'i 

the system include* thrrr ma- 
Ma ona for punt-lung holea in card*, a svoond 

(lunching machine baa a 
board of 340 characters, each nnraamHng ona 

:;' . . . . . - 

a. l.la.-k. wl ingle, . 

411 |rvntage. A |- - 

if ting with a 

r.nY ..f ih> '-lank rani 

m to represent m the rr- 

roi,rr k.->-. and II with 

-IM of that imlm.lual. Alth>ugh there are 
140 possible facta in each ca* 

I'I.MI that 
upttlly as read froin tiir n-t'irnv 

tin- talmlatinu' 
marhiiir. \\hnh ha- 
> throne). 

lie mechanism of <lml* as fast aa the 

holea are thus mtrl. \\'h. n a - 1 of ranis has 

]4i*fl thnmirh tin- nun him .-oord 



necessary to copy the records - know 

f t| M '- |-o|.lr in tha Nun!, in- 

sane, man 4 box 

aenres to obtain answers to all sorts of cram-ques- 
tions as. for install* A how 
-n inmates are of imti\i l.irth. or 
bow 'many single person^ ami how many 
colored, a'ml so on t- 

a-ljii ke note of 

Terr can 1 in a x-t nitr-"li: ! wln.-h has answers 

^ hlrh thr crOSS 

ry in mailr. With (.u* iiioohaiiiiin a great 
numt i ami 

alilrt| to the censu- 

r an- ii 
f tin- ranU. ami -m-h rrr.r* 

that tin- rr-ult 
ilatioti arv rrrlainlv 

.ratr than rtcal labor was em- 

i in all thr ralriilationa. 
Mil ni:\i \ Art State, a.luutt.-.l 

in a. i: 
I M. i >u lat i. 
ecnaus im. n *i 

-: MO.^47 i: "J.fllM in 1>*0; ami 

ipital. Sn. 
.uent.-Thr following wrrr thr Slatr 



May bir Andrew J. Clomle 
tie of the Supreme ( ( oun \ 

H.Oafoutta.Bepubli, 

AH 

mi Tamp 



A illiain T. 



.luriiu- tho 

ralil. 
an: Comptrolb . 1: : 

rinteiidenl 

: liran : I nsnrance Commiaskwer, M. K. 

TOL. XXXVll.- 



f.w 

Kepublic- 
iran: 




UMB. and J 







, , , mm* 

I i.uinrrH.- Th- following Matrment of the con- 
of the general fund wan made in February: 

*tr<l 

1 k t754.M3.H4 : railway taxes, second. $4MHL- 
1 1 . State offlcen* fees, e*tiinail. 1 13.000; pay for 
innm .t li.OOO: |y f 

of PrrM,.nS-h...|.t4.000: Mal.tlwl7JOtaJML llal- 

navailal 

527.575.KH. Appropriation forcoostrocUon of J&ris 
dam, $850,000: estimated nprnditure for orphan*, 
etc. $250,000: Indian war bonds. $116.7- 
tingent expensea. Asaembly. $90,000: 
r,atr.tr.\SOO: NdarieaofCc 

of Il, 



$1.000; to meet ordinary expense* of Slate gorrm- 
fire months from July 1. at $390.000 a 



month, $1.230.000. CM I 
$S.4S9.124.7u. luiaiLv. * 

Ksuries, tbosr 

Modoe, suffered from pacalationa by of 
it was charged that a lorn from another. Sonoma, in 
t. supposed to hare been by burglary. 
was t.y the dishone*ty of the county treafurrr. 

..a.-The school craana, complete! in 

. a ca.n it of 18M: the 

lieamoun- 



apportionfd'to the schools in January from th- 
v, 1 1.904.WCIH4. Iwing t-V T ; 

>tale treasury. 

.ratnoolbookfund.tSJ07^S. In addition 
to th., there were books on hand ralunl al tH9.- 

-\ DrdocUng the esUm*lri v.h.r 
aalable books, left a total of $1 15.731.39 in enm and 
salable books. 
The oorner stone of the affiliated college* was mid 



CAL1KORNIA. 



2? on the college site south of Golden Gate 
Park. I'roidrtit K 

madr "i>- of the addreaBea. in \* hi< h ho said : 

: >-am ago tin :' "<ir 

College* Of law. >f in.ili.in,-. ,.f -i. nf,-:r\ . and <>f 
pharmacy with a Miitable common home. A remiest 
for aid w"it. made to tin- - -laiurv. 1 

It received favoralile lr.-ntin.-nt from the two houses, 
but was n threshold. 

Two yean ago tin* n^nest was repeated, and mi 

.-** 1.1 r 



approurtai 

.v as needed, an. I there was 

a fin :he ..Her of Adolph 

..ft hesc colleges on 
this commanding and U>utifnl 

Mleeted s> sitfl for the pro- 
posfd Wilmerding Trade-' School in t! 
addition in San Fraud*-.,. There was lively com- 
n that city. Alamed - klon 

for fho M I. mil il.malion of $400,000 

ha* Uvn well r ',d amounts to $435,000. 

ft WHS made in Kebrua: 

Jane Stanford to the university which bean her 
sou's name, of her residence and grounds on the 
corner of California and Powell Streets, with all its 
valuable contents I'poii (he deed becoming effect - 

in-ate.1 anl ad 

as an affiliated coll. g.- of the I .eland Stanford Junior 
t"ni\ M a library for the us*' of the students 

of the saj,'l university and the people of the city and 
county of San Krancj-co. ., r f..r some benevolent 
iur|ose for the instruction of the s;ud students; 
but the same shall never be appropriated for the 
use of a clubhouse or boarding house, or place of 
undignified amusement." i. -nee and 

grounds are estimated as worth $250,000. and tin- 
whole donation mav le put down a* equivalent to 

m 

The college of agriculture at the State I* diversity 
was destroyed by fire April 16. The flames con- 
sumed much valuable apparatus records of many 
yes**' investigations and manuscript and specimens 
represent ing the life work of Prof. K. \V. Hilgard. 
head of the department and founder of the experi- 
ment-station system in the United States. Kir,. 

extinguishers were brought fr various parts of 

the university, but were of no avail, from the fact 
that certain of the students a few days before, for 
no further apparent reason than distinguishes many 
of their pranks had emptied the contents ami ren- 
: the safeguards useless. The agricultural 
building is plentifully supplied with hose, but when 
the necessity for use" arose it was found that none 
of it would fit the mains The building was com- 
pletely wrecked, and the loss, apart from valuable 
manuscripts and records, i^ estimated at $25,000 to 
$30.000. I'rof. Milgard's personal loss was great. 
It included his herbarium, containing over 10,000 
specimen* and manuscript* representing the work 
of forty-five year*. The professor's geological data, 
gathered in the Mississippi valley and arranged by 
him for publication, the gn-at work of his life, was 
ashes. A new building on the founda- 
tions of the burned structure was at once planned 
and wa exjerted to be in readiness soon after the 
' the fall term. 

State Institution*. The appropriations for 
Mse were materially reduced in the legislative bill 
as it finally became a law. The State Hoard of 
Examiners pas*ed a resolution in May declaring 
that "for ninth and fiftieth fiscal years 

the various Stale institutions comir part- 

ments. and offices must be supported by the appro- 
priations made by the Ixgi|itture for that purpose. 
as the State Board of Kxamincrs will not rat.t d.- 
ficiencies in the appropriations made for their sup- 
port or for any other purpose," 



Abuses were alleged to exist at the IV, -ton School 

..f IndiMn Mi.l an in\est igat ion \\;i- made 

bv thi State. \\ho reported that " it. 

n .it deal beti.-r that the school 

alNili>hed than allowed to go on as it K There 
were ' n.ing the employees. Though 

culled an industrial school, it \\-.\- \\ ma< -hinci -y, 
tools, or implements f.r teac-hing useful trade*." 

The pn- ijuentin Penitent iar\ . ..f 

whom there are about 1MM). revolted in .luiie and iv- 
fiiM-d to work in the jute mill, demandim; les- 

and better f i uble they 

were snbdin-d. those who were most rdi 
ing brought to tcrm at la-t by the guard- turning 
a hose into their cell- ami playing water upon them 
until they proini-e. 1 to return to t heir \\..rK. The 
revolt was said to have been incited by the opium 

- among the prisoners, from whom the : 
oiis 1 1. i have shut olT t heir -up- 

ply. 

Banks Toe reports of the Bank <'!imii ; 
show the condition of tin- banks Keb. 27. to 

been pro-piToll-. 

The tola ml liabilities of the 1< sa \ 

batik* of San Kmncisco is silo.:;. 
liabilities are a* follow-: Capital paid ' 
000: re-.-rve and profit and lo-s. * I. s'.MJ.si :,>r, : ,| IM , 

dep<-i to,s. $100,049,095. 11 ; other liabilities, $1, 

The total assets and liabilities of the !(' commer- 
cial banks of the city is si, i'he liabili- 

< 'apital paid up. *1 

and profit ami lo-s s K.7in .i.i:;.70 : due dep.- 
$:iO,5>s: ;.(;:;: ;.l 1 : due bank- and bankers. ?l. 
f,: other liabilities. *2.:M2.40!.!H. 

The 20 private banks of the state reported : i 
assets and liabiliti. I. l.iabi. 

capital paid up. x1."l^.;> ,inl profit. 

and ! : due depositors *" 

due banks and bankers, $84,199.81 : State. ,-,, 1 inty. 
and citv money, $49,1 :!". 71 : other liabilities. $41,- 
481417. 

The 46 saving* bank- outside of San Km; 
reported : Total BSSetfl and liabilities 
Liabilitie capital paid up. 
and profit and loss. xl.:;. due dep- 

$25,834,140.4:5: due banks and bankers s4:5,()()6.92; 
other liabilities $27:'..\M;i.::i. 

The 15? commercial banks outside ..f San 1 

!-ted : Total assets and liabilities. 
:;.!*. Liabilities capital paicl up, $!! 
847.50; reserve and profit and loss, $6,1 1.1 l">l : 
dm- lep..xjtors s-J'JI.'.J^J.S?:!. (rj; due bank- and 
bankers, $1.51.V.'''."> I : State, county, and 
money, si. }_>:;>:: : other liabilities, $689,080.98, 

The liandall Hanking Company, of Kureka. failed 
in April, with liabilities of $U1V. 

Itaih-oiids. (iround was J.rokcn in October for 
the IJandsburg and Kramer road, which i- to 
Uatnl-burg and the adja<-ent mining count i'\ n 
to the market- ..f San Krancisco and L- 
Starting from Kramer, a station on tl> 
Kailroa. l.:!."i mile- southeast ,,f Mohave.it run 
a gently undulating prairie 28 miles to Johannes- 
burg and liandsburg. 

The Sierra Pacific Railway, from Oakdale to 
.laiTi.-town. was finished, and 'the event was cele- 
brated Nov. 10. 

The work on the San .b,a.|uin Valley road has 
been pushed rapidly during the year. A long tun- 
nel is to I*? bond on the section between Point 
Richmond and Stockton, a work which, it, is 
mat. -il. will take not less than five hundred d, 

U .iter \VayH. The lioard appointed by the P 
ident to decide upon the local ion of a deep-water 
harbor for commerce at either San Pedro or Santa 
Monica made its report to the Secretary of War 



< AUKnKMA. 



N 



harbor at Baa 

' contemplated is a stone breakwater bs 
>in the shore and exiead- 

',1 lit... *P> u.-r,,ia 

degree* curve aout l,Nm f.^t : thence in a rtraight 

n l.ill carried large 
i eipended t M.ir- 
.1 part was for dredging and work 
the *ea wall. 

about $80.000 fur im- 

:i J< 

wbl 

un".at men. 
Mi., i. the. report of < harks G. 

*tician of the branch mi. 
in 1H98 precious mruN t.. tl,- value of $1?.- 
;.. 7U was gold, an.l 
.npaml with the |.r 
rt. these figures show an 

^oi.i.an.i a .locrtass of $177,883.! 



which have bam * soaroa 



ll 

I i 

r U 



BJ i ; r . -i..-mg $1.000.000 or 
! fn.ni th- I . WITH, the new 

rithfUBl 

*e prtxli 
aintains 



t in growth. \*i 



: : 



se of tin- <! 

i.ljicnl th,. t,,tal ti.-lil ..f gold ttt $I-V 

luised 



his estimates on t In- l.-i 

and assay offices, identiii.-.! 
at tin- ti .*it as 

;in<l ffii. ,rts re- 

from privm. njr works in 

iled StateH, ^ 

TVS iniii. -I in California in 
It i- rlnimnl that -\i-n i ho larger flgnras 
fail topv,. fui! I, ami fall 

Kisburg district in th.- uth continues to 

iiors and prw|MH-tor>t, and rich strikes 

u-vn n-|H.rt-l at oth.-r i*. Iv in Trin- 

Jay 
rth nlH.ut - 

fniiiid in tin- ^ 

with the |Milil> i 'nlu- 

Terai I. which wa rv|.rt. 

weighed 195 |n- . and to have been worth 

ore than 

ml |ro,K >! is 

as $34.291.398. The minerals whose ralue 
a.Mdi fnmi ^n|i|. 
-r. $1 
- 

$.110.241: of 
$888.900: of nunrnil 

-|rt of the tf.M r.; .-ral- 

Ojrirt pirc^ th,- f..ll..wini; H 

- in operation in California TM milU 
and 109 arastras. Thcve milU rontain .: 
an average of a litt I. nill. "Die 

total niiinU-r ' in uso in 7 

an work -riritv. :WM) l.y water. 185 

by steam. 2 by gas. 4 by gasoline, and 8 by bone 

mines were opened in March at Corral 
low. 88 miles from Stockton. The N 

prospected for 5 miles, and to a ,!, ,.t h of 800 
f.-. 

- te Minen^ Convention mot in San Fran- 
Cisco in October. J. II. Neff was elected president 



M4.740; ,.f 



Oxthtafm. It was resolved that measures be 
laas mad win 

.lapproatiatloaifor 
the navi- 

ilhout uijur% to the streams t 

.MM* 

sat the 




nih 

I8M 

; 

. 



The following uUk of 

iB the SUlr rrr 

a otrsais was about 10 per csoL 

ft. The wheat erop 0/1898 ia 

.. ., 



- ' "' '" '' ' 

ia Hour and wbeat to thr . 






! 







,..,;.,....,. , ; , ;.., 



....,. 



. . 
- 



raiur iiiir 






han nominal 

m to rrach out modi 
in 1898 is stated at 64^00.- 



In 

mand 

farther West t 
beet sugar in th 

The total pack of fruit in 

xiO cans, aa increase of at 
least a third orer that of 1898. 

It in j*ail that a ci? . - .nU R**a hat fband 

a im-th.xl for i-i.-lucing at small cost a good sub- 
.stitutc for India rubber. It U made fmm the gum 
of a tn-. which grows abundantlv in ^**^*me Coun- 
ty and which has been naine<l the (Hto e/oWion be- 
cause of its jlal ^iderable amount of this 
gummy substance. It vulcanites readily, and can 
be put upon the market for less than 'one fourth 

' - - 

1*5 was about 18.000400 gal- 
lons; that of 1898 was somewhat smaller: and thai 



of 1897 was estimated to be cmaltrr still The 
- to <liminih emr by year, as 
1* are planting, while the vfoepssts 
are constantly at work. Vine growers were dis- 
couraged by the low prices a few years ago. 

!riments with tobacco culture in San Diego 
County have proved quite successful Ia oar 
lately retorted three acres yielded $1.000 worth ia 



clay, can 



Protection far 8e* BIN*.- At toe soliehatioa 

ncri- 

Cists' Association, the I 
at Wa*hm k Mon. huh has the affairs of the 



Karrellones ia charge, has isned a decree that the 

i Ian ' i ..-ntaoasa Boari briag toa 
close a unique industry of San Prancben. The 
egft of the murre. or foolish guillemot. hav been 
hippo. 1 to the market* of the city in great quanti- 
ties ever since 1*40. at which date thrv were almost 
the only fresh em to be bad. bringing oter $1 a 

n the breeding 
sea*.- ' ,v until August on the flar 

md that although permteatlf 
taken their numherrcti.< 

diminution. In r nt years, however, naturalists 
hare nt^icetl the effect of the annual persecution of 
the vast colonies and several had fears that they 
.._--.. . . v 



100 



CALIFORNIA. 



\ New Town. Following is an account, given 
in September, of a town made to order : 

In the Uttt three weeks there ha sprung into 
existence up " niv. close by t 

am*her such town a* Pullman a city l.uilt 

upon and around a great indu>tn. Omton fe thi 

name of the U> : he result of the proposed 

italion of the immense timber tracts in the 

M>.juirvd by the lui. 

Hotmrt durinc the laM thirty year* of his lif 
and Mitwqueni : '**. They i-oin prise 

HOW, mid sugar pine and 

fir all a virgin forest. Of this Tast area of timber 
40,000 acres are to be cut, sawed, ami manufactured. 
an operation m I -sti mated will occupy t In 

time of a large force of men and the employment of 
much machinery for sixty rears to conn-. A broad- 
gatun railroad has been built to Tru.-kee 



on the 

tic, 7 miles, as well as a standard spur 
of 2 miles to the timber belt, and 7 miles of na 
ffauffr truck are to be used as a logging road into 
.Is and mount;, 

Oatennlaln. The hundredth anniversary of 
' Mission San Jwse* by l-'riar Parmin 
Francisco de Lasuen was celebrated* June 13. An 
altar was prepared on an elevated platform, and 
mass was celebrated in the presence of about 10,000 
twople. after a procession made up of a great niim- 
panies and societies. After tin- ivligious 
serrices all who were in nttemlnnce were provided 
for at a liarlm-ue in Spanish style in the Ix-autiful 
I'nlmdale ground-, which date their beginnings 
from tin- fniindntioii of the mis-ion. To the sub- 
stantial* of the rciuist were added the pure wines of 
the Gallejjos cellar. 

An incident of the celebration was the presence 
f an Indian. Felipe Jost Marziano, one hundred 
and twenty years old, who was present when i In- 
mission was founded, and remembers the simple 
ceremonies of that occasion. 

M m ilar celebration marked the hun- 
dredth anniversary of the founding of the town and 
mission San Juan I 'a 

LotAmr.l ->f 3,000 acres has recently 

been given to this city fora park. It is just be- 
yond the northern line of the city, and includes 2$ 
miles of frost less foothills bordering on Cahuenga 
valley. 5 miles of Los Angeles river bottom lands, 
and a beautiful little val lev, which was (ailed the 
Press Colony site; also, with these lands tin- im- 
provements thereon, consisting f several building 
and water plant, with tunnels and piping. This 
nark will include m..n- than 2.000 acres of tillable 
land, and nome of the most romantic scencrv of anv 
park in the world. The land is the gift of Mr. <;. 
J. Griffith, formerly a newsfiaiH-r man in San Fran- 
cisco.and is to be called (Jrifnth Park. Tin 
asks that no railroad that may be chartered t< 
to the park shall have the right to ohai 
larger than five cent*. The value of t he hind is be- 

.,..;. ejoQjooand pooyooa 

LrrMathe SfMlon. The Legislat .ire co nvem-d 
Jan. 4 for it* thirty-second session, and adjourned 
March 21. Thomas Flint was chosen president 
pro tern, of the Senate. Frank I* Coombs was 
Speaker of the House, a. , akcr 

pro leaf. 

In his measage to the Legislature the Governor 
called attention to the need of economy in 
affairs, the expense* of which had been steadily in- 
creasing during the past ten years. In regard to 

" The State Board of Examiners found salaries 
and wages for the same service exceedingly dispro- 
portionate; the number of employees excessive; that 
there was no uniformity in the system of keeping 
books, warrants, or checks; that attendants in the 



various asylums vary greatly in their ratio t<> the in- 
mates thereof] that employees fretjiient 1 y in. : 

in Dumber and the pay mil was augmented by thou- 

i.. liars, while the number of pat ieiits re- 

: tUtionai Med." ,, 

- '. ha\e been clTecled. t lie 

luring In- term, amon^ whi- 
I in the e\|ieiiM-s of management ,,f the 
Stt' ' -\lunw of $65.H'Ji.:;i from tin 

propriationj for the year ending .lum ::M. i^:n;. ami 
of $90,070 for the five months ending Dee. i. mher 

!iii-s and reduction- o! e\pni-e to the Stale 
pointed out as accomplished, in accordance wit h his 
SUgpestion on co-i.peraiion. were the transfer of the 
iutiesof the Viticiiltural < '"iimn n>n \ the I'ni- 

v of California at a saving of ^od.dini; the 
t ran-fer of the oilier^ of the Horticultural Coinmis- 

to tin- SUte Capitol, saving $20.000; u,, 
approval of appropriations to agricultural soci( 
aggregating f 108,000; the repeal of tin 

ing support to ap-il indip-nts. sa\ 
year, and of the coyote scalp law. sa - >.(KX) a 

year. The reorcani/alion of the National (iuanl 
has also effected a great saving. Tin P,,.ard 
aminers has eliminated items amounting to $06,- 

I I. and rejected claims r^gregatin^ > 
An election of a successor to George ('. Perkins 
in the I'nited Stat. l-ein.-: in ord( i. Mr. 

Perkins was nominated by the Itepulilican cam us. 
Jan. 5. and was elected. .Ian. \*2. \>\ a \oti . f ", l to 
!">. The Democratic v.te was divided amoni:. lames 

(i. Ma-uiiv. \\. \\. Poote, John J. Dwy< r, P.. l\ 

Langfonl. and <'harli- Lane. The I'eople'.s parly 
vote went to T. V. Cat or. 

The sc ion was conspicuous for accusation- and 
investigations. 

A -caudal arose in the beginning of the s 
in regard to the temporary organization of 1 1 
sembTv. It was charged that the chief clerk, who 
had the authority to appoint the necessary clerk*. 
porters, etc., had | nit upon the li^t almost KMI p.-r- 
sons more than are required by law for the House 
when fully organ i/cd : that these j> i 
placed apon the pay roll and allowed mileage ami 
/" / iliem for several days for the purpose of paying 
political debts. An investigation was ordereil. and 
the committee reported that the charges \\. r. sub- 
stantiated. The total amount expended nee.:. 
was found to be $4.21.">. 

Still another scandal of the session was that con- 
cerning the "coyote scalp bounty claims." This 
bill appropriated $287,000 for paying back claims 
for coyote scalps. "The bulk of the coyote claims," 
said the "San Francisco Chronicle,* "hw been 
known for years to be fraudulent, and on th 
count principally the bounty law was repealed in 
1895. Thousands of coyote scalps were taken from 
county to county, certified in each, and not de- 
stroyed. Coyote farms were established, especially 
in Kern County, where, according to the report ..f 

t Moore, 20,000 fraudulent scalp 
ter.'d at a charge against the State of $10' 
Eastern wolf scalps, or scalps collected among fur- 
riers in Ka-tern markets, were brought \Vi-t dur- 
ing the years when the bounty was in force, and 
made to yield from $5 to 25 each by collusion with 

OOtraty Officials." The bill passed the Senate by the 
casting vote of the Lieutenant (iovernor. In the 
Assembly it was defeated, but there was a call of 
the House and 15 men changed their votes. The 
Committee on Commissions. Retrenchment, and 
Public Kxpenditurew was directed by the Speaker 
to investigate the charges of bribery. The com- 
mittee took possession of the telegrams sent ami re- 
.Mieiito March 5 and after: among 
them were found 14 which had a direct bcanir_ r "n 
the bribery charge ; the committee submitted these 



GALVOU 



101 



v with the report that their belief 
money had been u*ed to paw the bill. 
i against the r.*i 

] -.,.-.:.. ' : 

a in 
.-oiumif 

-Ogatioa was also mad- of the - 
tig office. The Governor vetoed a b. 

flciency, and made charges of extrava- 
ioh wart investigated and pronounced 

e bill niipniprinting UTft.Oi*' 



|0f till* Mlpl* r 

nt of the 



K depart ment 

<aid Hint, a* Ihe Board . 
for n defloieoey wli. 

hint;' ""!.! I* 

him -lurm- t .. I-TI.-I. 

refore cloeo hU office oil July I f..r th.- 

ii wa* made in connee- 
i lull fr tin- K' 1 

,! that tin- hill wn* tampered 
.it tin- in*ti;;ati"n <>f the president of the 

- 
i niiinga were thai he had tent a t< 

r n-.kin;; him to LU Li-L tin- lull. 
and n imilnr hief ,:,[. 

and had ronv*ponl. -h the At- 

tatnbly clerk. The bill twice reached the Go\ . 

i!l flllle||i||||i-||t \\llirli 

long iii n. : ..tint in the I'ill 

Ii that it prm i tru*- 

tata, one to U- a|.|-.mti-.l for <>nc year and one each 

.iii-l four yean. As the law now 

i* th .n-.. 1 at the will of th,. 

in.! any teacher may be forced out of 

- BMMH in tin- bill were 

aiiirn.imiMitH |ii-h luil IHI-M j>n|H.s*-<l in the Aft- 
. making the law oiHra- 

t omittini: tlu- 

l>iv*i<li-iit of a chool the ri^ht t. iimni- 
Bate teacherm, The trurftre wa n-mov|. The bill 
wan flnnlly ni>i>r rm. 

i Franciiicn " Rxaminrr " hn\ 
Ibhrd a comni with 

, IKS-M 1-riU,! to paaiacrrtnin bill, the man- 

of the |. . 

tots were mill-.! U-fon* the Senate. fiiMd 

the information, and two 

1 fr contempt, by a 

\ ' $800.000 

provided for : 1'here 

wan mueh ..j.j 

wn.* to U-nellt the owner of n 
pnti-t the |iiin-hd<M- >f which wa* 

>e lull, nml to .Irani fr j 
- nwamp InmN thnt wen- n*ijuinN| fn-r 

r nothiiiu*. with the uti<l 
thnt they wen- ' 

; and alto n*ound thai it it not the 

ncy u|K>n the 
improremnit ..f n in OaUfornia.' 1 

n fnvor of the bill, a Senator amid 
.hi to.l., wn.< "to .lomonrtrate 
with the * ne.nthai 

fn tnke up the M 

l>K.tl nmciulinent to mnko the bill grnrral 

Iteration to all the navigable water* 

of the State. Apportioned according to the amount 



-.: :, ' 

by a vote of t? u> If in tbe Senate and 
in UM AMatobiy. and *a* n|.|.r 



r... .,-..- 
bv 



Uovernmrni hi a, 

poam. ll WM cbargrd thai, a* th* amount* calUl 

f. r by theat bUUl wuuld do . 



make a beginning, the nit i mat. 

-. .'. '.'; 

the Slate would 

, 

>n relation to 
will relieve farmer* from the 

"Anther law of apseJal interest 

act was Mated which embodied the man 

fU t.-. r "i -..:. \ , 



to farmert pro- 



-..:. 

new provbion* for primary elect ion*, a county gov- 

..-w Inw f. 
an a*-' ut.if.-nn tyvtrm of road gov- 

eminent in the \.in-.. '.:. tm were alao lainaf 

The political coda relative to State normal ataoob 

,..:,-...',.'.- 

of each normnl-tchool board, and the president of 
en< h M-IH M .1 an rr-o/ffno member of the local board 
.f the ^ h.-.l with which neb connected. Teachan 
are to be elerted u|-.n the norninntion of the prtai- 
local board, instead of by the local Unl. 
at formerly. Training achool* 
foiatboaidol 



h i 



,111 ;,_ oth< r bill* (tawed were the following: 
reate a detiartment of highways, Tmt 
mi- nt of the Inw of 1898. 

that pernon* residing in any county 



I* prmiib-d for. 
Am-. 

reate a detiartn .hwari 

of the Uw of 18M. 

i.lini; thnt |ier*ont residing in any county 
may organize and incorporate mutual fire insurance 

* for the funding and refunding of the 
xi of levee and protection districts. 

-.e Federal 

pun* 

n.lju it U)and and land* adjarmt to 

Uroe Point and ltln.-k Point. 

ling n enn.li.Ut. 
pledgva to other* than hi* party 



E^l <. Hofpanomi ;'- :- - . 
ige goats, the eouipments of a livery 
,addrird fruit*, aim all boxes, fruit grader*, 
tray*, and fruit laddavm, 
ling to property heretofore exempt fnm 
cution one piano, one ahotgnn. and one rifle. It 
farming uten*il* exempt to f l.OOO in value; 
-,- FpH n i . 
Ml * wages not exceed" 
irdmrnd in good faith 
for nse in the conatraction. alteration, or repair of 
anv buidling. mining claim, or other improvement. 
Providing that all infraction* given to iuri. i 

Jit incHlentalh luring the 

.vidence. shall W in writing, unlew 
the giving of an oral infraction 




exempts one flatting 



the 

\ 



ttmnta 

t km to the d vil code cooceramg 



llowing countiet and BwaWpaUUei to grant 
ichwr* for the r^nM motion of path* and road* 
for the ota of bicycle* and other honalaat vehicle*. 






M.Il-'oKNIA 



Fixing the ininimura rate of i*y for laborers em- 
ved on public work at $2 a day. 

.i:ng that unovupie*l t 
mei - shall U- O|M n ti> iinti. -ml claims. 

the translation and 
pub i.iws into Spanteh. 

iubiling mining conjuration from Ailing. 
leasing. .-r rn.-rt gaging any part of the mining 



ground owmd by u. or of puohaaing new fronnd, 
it the consent of two thirds of 

inning the recording of notices of minim; 
claim- wiih.'tu aoknowledgm. :iii.-ato of 

acknowledgment. 

Repealing the act Dilating the sale of 

mineral lam I* belonging t< 

liibititig divorced p-r-.-ns from man 
within A \i-nr aft. r tin- granting <>f tin- dr. 

oofMant at sixteen \ar-. 

Requiring that when goods are pun ha-ed f,, r the 

MB Of the Slate or any citv or county in the Slate. 

retire shall lie given to those produced or manu- 

betored u. th.- s 

ndmg thf application of the law on trade- 
mark* to those which an- copied or imitated, as well 
as to those which are unterfeited. 

Establish) n u' a five market mi the water fnuit of 

mncisco under the care of the harbor com- 

Amcnding the act providing for the organization 
of municipal corporations, so that cit i-s mentioned 
may own and operate plants for water supply and 
street licit tin.::. 

Requiring every corporation doing business in 
ate to pay it's employees at least once a month 
all wages earned by such employees. 

Providing for a public-school teachers' annuity 
and retirement fund, and amending the law of 1895 
relating to the same. 

.mating t he office of the Public Works Com- 
missioner. who is to have control of the expenditure 
of the $300,000 for the improvement of Sacramento 
river. 

Km it ling railroad passengers to carry bicycles as 
1 .]__.._ . 

iT-ovidine for a commi-<ioncr to the Central 

American Kxpo^ition at Guatemala city and an 

exhibit there, and appropriating $10.000; also for 

an exhibit at the Hamburg Horticultural Exposi- 



; -.jnt resolutions were passed: 

Calling for a constitutional convention. 

Memorializing Congress to reject the railroad 
funding hill. 

tion in the new tariff for California 
fruit interests. 

AsK ss for an appropriation of $300.000 

to be used for restraining barriers for mining dArtc. 
and one of $300,000 for dredging the water ways of 

Const it ut ional amendments were passed relating 
appointment of the Lieutenant liovi-rnor: to 
oonaolidat< i county governments, the ob- 

ject being to exempt San Francisco from the county- 
government act, and allow the city a large measure 
me rule upon the adoption of a new charter; 
to sessions of the Legislator*; and to grammar 



The tax-levy bill fixed the rate at 43 i 
sides a 2-oent tax for the university, which will in- 
crease it* revenue $224,000 a year." This will 
more than $10.000,000 for the'general fund for tin- 
two years. The general appropriation bill called 
for *' "he ^-hool* for $4.629.926. orphan-* 

and half orphans for $6?~i.OOO. and the sinking fund 
and interest $282,870, which constitutes a total of 



re was a large increase in the appropriation 
f<r I 1 '- :il (iuai.l. Pro\i-i..n was made for 

5 new companies at $3,380 cadi for equipment, and 
1 company of Naval Reserves at $1.' 
Tli- >truck out many items from the 

'.d appropriation bill, amounting in all to 

appropriation of s an exhibit at 

the TcnnesMH- Centennial Kxposition \\a- \etoed. 
and the appropriat ioti for the Stale librarian and 
hi- twodej.iitie>; al-.. ap: - 

viticulture experiments a for forestrj 

lion-, on the ground that tin- State I'niv. 1-1: 
support them hereafter from it- increase.! revenues, 
The $5.000 all- tti leparlmeni of a-ricul- 

turr was also stricken ,,;. tli,. follow ini;: 

$25.000 fir dredpn- Alvi-o >lo U -h. x i 
improvements to the asylum al for u 

water supply at Ifonticello Asylum, ; the 

< lara State School for Girls (not 
li-hed). $!M),00>for the Vountville Home, 
establi-h a p..l\technic institute in San Lui- < bi-po 
County, $?.").<(>( f,, r a heating and vi-ntilating plant 
at the Cl4>itoL appropriations for di-lrict agricul- 
tural fair-, and a l>ill providing for the sale o! 
bonds to raise a fund for the use of the harbor 
mi ioncrs in building a sea wall. 

A resolution to cede t I . \ t" t he 

United States was defeated. 

The total cost of the Senate was $75,000.40. in- 
cluding more than $4.000 f<>: 
cases; that of the As-embly wa- 120.177.40. 

Decisions on Mate l.a-. Tin Supreme Court 
decided iii May that the section of the count \ 
eminent bill of iHlJo which pro\idc- f.,r lev\r 
inheritance tax is unconstitutional, ina-muc! 
is an attempt to levy an ext raordinary tax. ami al-o 
that it provides tha't the fee so collected -hall be 
paid into the county treasury and u--d for county 
purposes, whereas the Le^i-lature i- forbidden to 
impose taxes for county purposes. 

6n application of the Comptroller a- to tin- IT t 
of the veto of the item in the general appropriation 

bill for the support of the State printing office the 

'ney-<iejieral decided that the Slate printing 
can not 'be legally done at any other place, and that 
no deficiency can be created for support <.f the of- 
fice. This, if it shall be sustained, will do away 
with all State printing till tie -ion of the 

legislature. 

By a decision of the United State- Supreme 
C"iirt, May 24, in the litigation over the .M.-nitt- 
Garcelon estate, Oakland will receive for a general 
hospital about $600." 

According to a decjvj,,n in the l"nited - 
cuit court in .June, the authority of the (i. .\eni- 
ment over the navigable waters of the > 
aijsolute that the Federal power may legally inter- 
vene to prevent tin- ^.i<Tanienlo 
and San .Toaquin river- and their tributai 
the light, flocculent matter which invariably e 

h.-I.e-t impounding dam- and ma 
d"\vn-t ream pre-umally to the sea." If this is sus- 
tained, the imponnding dams to be built by the 
.as provided ly the Legislature, n.av be re- 
guarded as tre-pa--int; "n the property of th- ' 
eminent, should it IM- found that injury to na 1 
tion results from the use of the dams by hydraulic 
miners. 

In a ca-*e involving the owner-hip of San Pedro 
inner harbor, which was claimed by virtue of an old 
grant, the decision in May in the I'nited S 
Supreme Court was against the title. The court 
hold- that where a patentee of land accepts a pat- 
ent and survey he has not recourse, in ca-e of de-ire 
to contest, if the boundaries do not accord with the 
original lines. 



\l.\. l 



108 



< \\\h\ DOMINION oF. The year IflOt- 

;-.r!aiif |--ri-t ill the history of til* 

' only ha- tlun t--. 1; a < hang of 
.1 from Ihr < .,n- rvu'n. * (f.r I .lirml 

.11 UirM-l.- 

I. 



te upon the question will be 






I I I . . I Hlf 

lister of Kail- 



i l;. . 
. !?.... i, 



: . : ' 



rOli -in the D- 

jmrtni. i.t .1 .lii-'i- | .>!.! hi ,i- . . | tan ' 'i" II I 

High! h Parliament was opened in iUto 

-. from the throne outlined the |M,ii-v <f the 
party in j..,,-r. 'It Mgniflcant 






after the last sm-ioti th- < 
A was iimt.-.l t<> hoi.i .. 
* on ih. Mihjift of t he grievance* 
f that province r.-latn.i; to 
1 in 18!" -M-- to t! 

1 

was readied IN t \\.ni tin 
>. win. h wa> the best Arrangement 



. measure will be submit t. '<>r the re- 
of the tariff, whirl. ,-d will pi 
fccioary r ng due re- 
gard t industrial interest?., will t fiscal 

masses of the 
I- .. 

A ill be asked to a bill 

ling 'he pn- 

and adopting, for "ii o*f 

cr* of the H..UM- of 

several provinces, 

lias determined that the ail- 
vantages to accrue. b..th to o.ir u ,^tern producers 
and the business interests of the wl 

the completion of the works for the enlarge- 

f the M. Iawrence canal*, should no longer 

1 ha-, .iil.j.. t to the approval of 

Parliament, tak. >tei for a vigorous 

prosecution of thone work-, and for the perfecting 

"Arrangement?* have U- 

1 enable th.- Inf. r... I. .nial Kailway 

,i. and thus >harv r 

smrge traffic centering in that eitv. App 

rarmei 

n gootl condition, n 

> at creameries, on railways at |-rt, and on 
steamer*, by which thcv- products can be preserved 
at the dc*irrd tempemtu- 

nit of pnhi. ti-'Tt to (in at Itntain. 
le that the mind of the j-e< 

*rlv ascertained on iheMibject 
and a measure enabling the electors 



-1 r.-^rri i Ut the rrcripts from the 




.-. ^ . , : - ' 

proMtedrv ' 



-ill. -rtors the 

t- ..... M : .' .1 - M- ' - 



l of tU most 



important were prastntsd and di uesrd. but were 

uliin 

Ion. The 

I >r u tuition. ! railway bill, nhteh iropord the pur- 
fthass of a short lineconi 

olonial Kail* ,iif\. a lh. 

lrty kostility an 

.- .i ... -. '... . 



. . .- , 



Charges of c. r 

f. . :...' . 

l ; 

j^ naurr w -i t tl 
was th the PwlftwJU Company, of 

establish a fa* At 

i.adian M, 
An alien labor n< i a |*>*nl, mofMsd pntiss 

Iv aft 



rnniriit iui ar- 



-le only at the will of the 

luce. The Comptrollers of Inland 
Revenue and Customs were raised to the rank of 
Btmbtn of theCabinel Th \ . 

lies were given coi 

ineiit. Arrangement^ ere made for the regulation 
andrc^istr i.emr fa t.-ri. . an-i 

>rage t ranportai ion fmilm. 
> f $15,000.000 was aiithoriied. jy 

id way and other schemes, and the Goven 
was given power to pay bounties upon iron and steal. 
to levy ex|M.rt duties on log* and minerals. 
was a good deal of private legislation con- 
nected with railway charter* and projects, which 
was made subject to a railway commission wi 
was proposed by the Government to organize here- 
after. 

But the most important event of the session was 
the new tariff. It wa> introdi. Iding 

rgan 

with a MIII mars of the financial position from the 

angrs an- 

noiin. ! were niuinp rtant in detail, but not in 
illy I'lcdp ^rrn- 

njurious to rev 

inimical to the maintenance of the protective tar- 
iff, huties on iron were reduced considerably, to 
help the implement manufacturer* in 1) 

. the American finished product, 

>n smelters as a set-off to 
Auction. On spirits and tobacco the excise 
an. I im|-rt dutie* wrrr made very much heavier, 
were especially affected. In fom) products 
little chants vas made except in flour and sugar. 
upon duties were lowered one half. The 

duty on coal oil a* reduced, and tliat on bitumi- 
nous coal was maintainnl at 00 cent* a tn. anihra- 
It was promised, however, that if 
the I Mrnt w<mld lower it* duty 

wan I her 

Canaila oiild r. Rut Ihe moi impor- 

tant |mint in the tariff .M-)*edule, which wan a great 
surprise to the count rv. was the enact men: 
when the customs tariff of any other coantry t> 
made favorable to Canada the duties upon the 
pnmluet* of tK, -.or he lowered 

. ami after Juh 1. 18B& one imsrtcr. 
<^e ma*le applirabl. to .ivaJ Hritain 
created a roost favorable impression in the 



oompe- 

t, .hile 



and 



CANADA. DOMINION OP. 



t'nfortunatelr, however, it was discovered that. 
t.-rin- of secial trvatir* with the (Jerinan 



Kollvorvin and with Hrlgiuin. the euuds of those 
count r.-* would have to bo admitted on the same 
UTIII* gi\en t" Knglmid. Asa n-Milt of Canadian 
pressure and partly as a oonasquenoe of the im|*>- 
ril spirit manifested during the jubilee y.-ar. tin- 
Hriti-htiiivrniinent a few month* lal 
many and Belgium the necessary not ice of it- int. n- 
to abrogate the treat iw. " < Hi the whole, the 
budmi was well received, and the policy became 
popular. Mr. Fielding ron. luded his speech with 

" u- - ibmil a tariff which largely abandon! tin- 

apaciftv dune* that have been so unju>t to the |>oorer 
cluara We submit a tariff in which t he large free 
IM is n-.t pnt ' ;rl.ed. l.ut has largo addi- 

tioos made to it. We give to the country the 

f five corn, which will have an ini|N. riant ef- 

lo|niii-nt <f our fanning interests, 
ami particularly <>f the dain ing interest. We give 

country a reduction of the duty mi coal "1. 
and i ; <f the burdensome restriction- iv- 

i- t ho sale of coal oil. We give to the farmer 
his fence wire at a low rate of duty for the p: 
Tear, and place it on the free list from .Ian. 1 next. 
We give him his hinder twine on the same terms. a 
lower rate of duty for the present, and make it fr -.- 
from Jan. 1 next. We put all surgical and dental 
instruments on the free list. \\ " recognise the 
great mining industry of the country by placing on 
the fr.-e list all machinery exclusively iised in min- 
ing enterprises. We gift the people the benefit of 
n*lnctionsonbreadstuiTs, flour, wheat, and corn meal. 
We give the manufacturers the benefit of cheaper 
iron. We provide the necessary revenue, but pro- 

meet the great n ..... Is of" the country by in- 
creased taxes on articles of luxury. And last* but 
not least, we give to the people the benefits of pi. f- 
erential trade with the mother country." 

Post., | N. i \i,e. The 9,103 post offices in the 
Dominion in 1896 were used for the transmission 
of 116,028,000 letters, 24,794.800 post cards. ::. 
500 registered letters, 4,803,800 free letters '.24,024.- 
000 newspapers, periodicals, and circulars. 2.352,000 
packages of printers' copy, deeds, policies, etc., 
1,320,700 packages of merchandise, :;:;i.7w parcels. 
post packages, 22,630 closed parcels for the United 
Kingdom, The mails were carried over 1,669 miles 
of railway, an inoreaseof 206 miles over 1895. There 
has been a very great increase in the amount of 
correspondence between Canada and china and 
Japan; 229.168 letters went to these countries, an 
ase of 49.745 compared with 1- 

li nance. The financial arrangements of the 

fiscal year 1896-*97 did not pass without severe 

sin. The exjH-nditure was $1.1 ;..:,, i more 

than that of the previous year on current account, 

ftcit was $525.739, and the addition to the 
net debt of the country was $2,794,000. The fol- 
lowing were the figures : 







i m m 



|ig I78JM 



M8MM 



,781 



The expenditure on capital account for the year 
ended Jim- :u>. 1897. was $8,705.<;i 1. 

In most of the current services there was an in- 
crease of expenditure, although the defense was 
that this included payment of debts of the late ad- 



inini-tration. I Miring the session annual payments 

wafa piadnd bj kha Qovemmenl to tin- extent o 

$1,055.(KH> for" the Atlantic >erviee. the Crow's 
Nest 1. !i-i"ll. the deep- 

Ill (Molier. IS'JT. Mr. 
to |...n.|..ii and placed a loan of 
rice \VM- !!. \\hich made 

the U.iids yield aitoiit ',,'jf per cent. The whole loan 
was taken up at . -m .. m,,iv I han half of it l>\ < .m.i 
ilian liank- and in\. stoit. Half the ani'Mint \\a- to 

pay off floating indeliieilness. 

deluded ;. total ex- 
Hire of $44,6o7.'.:ts. In thi- w.-r.- i\\.. items 
of ttgOOO aaeh for statues, opposite the parliament 

buildings, to the ( t >l|ee|| and the late Al. AaildiT 

I l< < I ions. During the \ear several l>\ 

t \<>\}* Were held, win ' .i.iai Went. 

with the (Jovernment. Winnipeg. M. I'.'.nifai . and 
Macdonald. in Manitoba, a con-liltieiiey in 1'i'inee 
Kd ward's i-land. Coleholer in Nova Scolia. Chain- 
plain and I'.oiiav.-ntnre in (Jn. -l.ee. an<l 

ronto in Ontario, seemed to indicate that the ij.ie 

still ran strongly with the LiU-raK 

The >lanitol..i s.-l I (Jn-1 ion. --Thi> \.\-l 

prolilem WHS set i led for the time ln-ing. Mi. l.au- 
rier. the Krench Catholic Liln-ral Premier of tl 
minion, went into consullat i<n with the l-ji-li-h 
Protestant Premier <>f Manilolia, and the. two gOT- 
ernmeiit- exolved the fol N iwing agreement : 

" Legislation shall le introduced and pae.l at 
the next regular -e-xj,n of i he Legislature of Mani- 
toba embodying t he pm\ i-i"ii< hereinafter >et fort h 
in amendment to the public schools act. (<>r the 
purpose of settling the eilucat imial cpic*t joi,* that 
have been in dispute in that province, lieligious 
teaching to be conducted as hereinafter provided : 
1. If authori/.ed by resolution passed by a ma 
of the school trustees; or 2. If a petition be present- 
ed to the board of school trustees asking I or re- 
ligious t, -aching, signed by the parent s or guardians 
of at least lOcliildivn attending the school, in the 
case of a rural school district, or by the parents or 
guardians of at least 25 children attending the 
school in a city, town, or village. :{. Such nli 
teaching to take place between tin- hours . 
and 4 o clock in the afternoon, and to be conducted 
by any Christian clergyman who*,, charge includes 
any portion of the school district, or by a p 
duly aut hori/ed by such clergyman, or by t he lea. her 
when so ant hori/ed. -1. Where s., >pccih'cd in Mich 
resolution of the trustees, or where so required by 
the pet it ion of the parent* or guardians, religious 
teaching during the prcseril>cd period may take 
place only on certain specified days of the week, in- 
stead of on every teaching day. :>. In any seh,.l 
in towns and cities where the average attenda: 
Ii'oiuan Catholic childrci .pward. and in 

villages and rural districts where the avera- 
tendance of such children is 25 or upward, the t rus- 
tees shall, if required by the petition of the p;, 
or guardian* of such Dumber of H-man Catholic 
children respect ivelv. employ at least 1 duly c.-rti- 
fied IJoman Catholic teacher in such school. In 
any school in town- and cities where the average 
attendance of non-Koman Catholic children 
or upward. and in villages and rural districts where 
the average attendance ..| -\H-\\ children is ."") or up- 
ward, the trustees shall, if required by the petition 
of the pa 1 .ardians of such children. m- 

i.loy nt least 1 duly certificated non-Koman Catho- 
lic tear-her. 6. Where religious teaching is required 
to be carried on in any school in pursuance of the 
foregoing provisions, and then- are Hornan Catholic 
children and non-Roman Catholic children attcnd- 
'ich school, and the schoolroom accommoda- 
tion does not permit of the pupils being placed in 



\1.\. IIOMP. 



106 



wimra(<- n-om* for tin- purp"**"* of 

ruvUiion .I..11 U inadeby regulation, of (I* 

atfttw* tthall obaerve) wit. 



.on* teaching nall 

n fthall be carried on during 

;*riod on half of U,. ,|a% 

h month, ami the religious leaching of thr 

-I oil ha 

The iH-j.u 

*.T i..makr regulation* 
uoottsistent with th. .'f tin* n 

;Tect thr provition* of tl 

in accomi 

S instead of allotting 

f the W.-rk t.. ' 

r the pur] llgious lea- 

M-| m rated when the hour f.-t 

hool speak the 
'tfUage (or any language ..th. r thai. 

:i. UJMIII thr lulin^iinl sytttem. 

it. In cane the j 
sjanUansdonol desin th< atb ndan< of tl..- \ m s 

thru thr i.ui.iN -.hall I* 

illMin^.l I- f. r.- thr . \ !, |MS) 01 Mil r. M.a;n :n 
another r 

ire of the 

.m^rxin. of \Yinni- 

Tair. and - 

:oii was M-nt to the 
signed by Mea*r. Uurier. Ta- rick. 

tnrmlier* of thr (iovernmcnt. 

an.i i. to tad 86 other nem- 

t. I t-.s^-ntiul passages were these: 
i maile aware of 

the conduct and altitude of certain prelates ami of 

bo, iluring 

neral elect ions in this country', in thr month 
bat, intervened in a violent manner in re- 
st rail .|M-nlv for 

I. iU-nil party 

-o far a* to declare guilt > .s *in 

tmli- 

ml party. 
Ily represent to y.mr IlolincNi that 

i tiller win- 

and f \<>ur Holinens has many time* ex- 

|.r--.'.l -..j,; mi.-!.'- . f nlmirati n . ! .: 

slider n j t.iral f r. -. 

rofjvttoref 

1 lM>lltitil : :e*t i* a cr 

anil we would not for a - him 

:>inioiion any matter 

to the elect.. rate; Inil when the exercise 

velops into violence, and when that 

ligion goes to 

s grievous sin out of a purely political 
-. abuse of aut the 

connequencesi ca U- fatal not onlv t- 

'ive and \ rvention of the clergy 

in the domain of j^.litirnl i|ueMi.<n *ubmif 

: nnluoo among the 
Ifrea' tmlation 

mliriftl to tl 

which reUgioi ami r n should ever inmire 

and cinnmaml. Some twenty yean ago his 



mm Ptas IX. your iltnrtotts and lameatad preds- 
osssorof the pontifical thronr. acting through the 
rrgatin of the Propaganda. 4e*ii 

rum aba*** of a Mimlar 
haraf er, and fortMMe the imerrmiiofi of thr < 



in politic*. This 

Us 
able to guide the Church in Taoaila. but 

tCabossM to 







put a tp have begun again* ami osjet 

m fr ? fa'- ' . . a' . - . ' | 

r\ lut !U 



u. 



aitu Harm. 






y that roar llollnrM will r 

W - ^ .- ,-- -r ' I.- .: 

'..: ... , ..,.,..' 

Catholic elector*, and thuc teeure Dte in our cotto- 

the union of religion and liU 
The rretth of thu t.-i. the appointment of 

-I \.l a* a ||l deltr 

iiiijuiri- into the Whole malt* r. II. .-..:. A ur uf 
ion. hrlil tnrrllii^ . 1 1 nhfaJMIM 

liiahopt of thr fh. 

conmuncd with |.rtv Iraden of all kimk. and 

o month* to Mibmii hu 

report to the Pope. Thw had not been made pbtte 

! lilla.-The report of the MmUtrr of \ 
tuiil h.f.n-... ubtiu I IX. 

dealt with tin- arnnn^ ..f thr militia with n- 
KnfteM rifles ari<i th. . r.. . n f mi|M.riant new 
armories in Toronto. Kingston, and Halifax. It 
inclii - .ascoigne't report an commaixi 

ilitia, in which MiMlaW utxn the neesssitr 
of an annual training for the whole force, nrgeil 
th. r. aniline "f th.- Held hatterie*, the 
ing of tl .*riMat Quebec, and the 

reorganization of the forces. 
I in | - >rt an t rhangesregarding < 



ami honorary appoiBtOMOtl in the militia 
multrat. <i m -nrral onlera. ProvisioB i 
for the retiretn* Banding officer* after five 

Tears* service, ami for the aptomtment of honorary 
lieutenant colonel* and chaplains. The regulations 
regarding commanding officers are amended to pro- 
hat all appointment* as commanding officer* 
an* for five years. Anv eitension of tenure will be 
for three years, and will only be granted on the rec- 

ict officer commanding. 
By these regulation* seventy colonel* were r* 
at one. sweep. <>n June 30. the permanent militia 

-ular tn.>i) numliered 80S. ami the * 
militia UO.OH3. The eti^mlitun- for the year end- 

> HIM 80. 1898. was .186. 7 
In^iir.ini .. The pcwnfasM received by fire < 
panic* in IH96 were $7.079.794. anl the loasss 

nbvCai 

$114.879.480; by British 
398: and by American 
V The life iiiMimi in this year by 

fana.lmii companie* wa^ ? 

companies. $8iJBia914; and by American compa- 
niea. $97.696X009. The premium* were re*pe 

:w.20G. and $a.:ti.l?. Accident 
.!-.. wa- taken otit to the amount of $H1.66B.- 
888. with premium* of $410.639 and kar*t> 
$8tlJ06. Guarantee inmirance wa* effected 
amount of *i.: th premiums of $69.064. 

and li<^ paid of $T.H09. 

uilnsl StatMicv Particular* are given by 

rt for the year 

rmling June 80. 1W6. The total t- nit.-ntianr pop- 
ulation w< a* follow-*: Kingston. 605; St. VlDcent 
^.rr heater. W : Manitoba, 80: Brit- 
ish Columbia, 101 : total. 



106 



ADA, DOMINION OF. 



The increase during the rear was 6-5 per 
and in the past two yean more than 10 per cent. 
The record of pardons .luring the ia>t three years 
wa 49 in 18B-V4, M in ISM-TO, and 
1806-lft, 

i-'ifty per cent, of the sentences are for terms of 
lea* than 1'ifi* sentences constitute 4 
per ivnt. of tin- total numb -,196 
under twenty years, 085 U-twr.ii t\\cnt\ ami 



thirty. :<4S U-tue.-n thirty and forty. Mil U'tween 

tween fifty ami sixty. ami -jo 

portion oi "f the va- 

rious large religious denominations \va> : Koman 

' Lurch of Knglaml. 

JI-17 Method^' 

|-.|HTtviit.: liud- 

dhi-K ! |K-r r.-ni. f the total mnnlier of 
i7 were native 



were natives of Can a. hi. IM ..f the 

>ml. 5? <f Ireland. 
Scotland. There won- I'-'-' total abstainers, TOG tem- 
perate persons, mid .V;.; intcm|>cratc in the |..-ni- 
tcnlinrir*. Although many of th- w iv 

colored. Indian. <-r ChincM-. only 235 of them could 
-ad. while 1.040 could both rend timl 

f the penitentiaries was * 

1805--96. compared with $:! I I.55JI in 1894-'i)5. The 
cost per capita was reduced from $269. v 



Trade and Commerce. The trade of Canada 
for the IK :iding .'line 30, 1897, showed a 

mark' hi 1806 the exports were $118,- 

the imports $110.588,100. In 181)7 they 



respectively s -o and $111,731,000. 

The following is tho classification of the C.\|H.I 



ARTICLES 



Animate and product* . 



AcrirtiltunU 
Mann far 



hetsvs*,. 



Coin aod bullion 



Ttx., 
Product of Canada.. 



1806. 



1,090,609 



NfeMBJM 



1807. 



HUB6M5Q 



njHOflftl 
tlJSOOJMt 
K#M* 
10,109,197 
mjOM 



H$4,ii8,9n 
iUfi8,7n 



Of the products of the mine, $175,512 went to 
Great Britain and $7.482.984 to the United States ; 
of the fisheries, $4.462.000 went to Great Britain 
and $3.501.671 to the United States: of the forests, 
$12.n- Britain and $15,516,901 

States. <>rtuiim:ils ami tln>ir products 
$32.488.801 went to Great Britain and $:i.:*85.261 to 
th.- I'niti'd States Of miscellaneous farm produce, 
$9,551.01 1 went to Great Britain and $:i. 
th.- 1'nited Statos. The total .-xport was $5> ' 
579 to Great Britain and $31,129,509 to the rnite.l 
> .- -. 

Mineral l>.\ <!,,,, inent The central feature of 
i a material sense was the rn-li to the 
Ekodiln and the Mories of immense gold discov- 
eries there and on th. r. Meanwhile. -,, 1,1 
wa heinjf steadily produced in I'.rit i^h ( 'olumliia and 
in th- irold mines of Ontario and Nova Scotia. The 
great Yukon .liMri.-t of Canada, which borders upon 
ukon district in Alaska, contains the Klondike 
region and most of the jroUw far discovered. Dnr- 
*ie year the Dominion <;ov.rnment ma<le every 
possible arraniriMncnt for dmiobterinc the newly 

ntrol. Regulations 

were made as to mining- which were very liber 
the Americans who were flocking into the region. 
as they placed thr latter ujKin exactly a level with 
Canadians, and pave them the rijrht to take the 
C"M away to a foreign country. Major Walsh, of 
the Northwest Mounted PoHc, ws* appointed Ad- 
ministrator of the Territory, and with him went 



Juire as . In Oct.. her Mr. 

be Interior. vi>itcd the Yukon 

in his ullicial capacity, and made further arrange- 
ments f.-r tin- manairemcnt of those who iiii^ht 
si-itle there. Mr. William Ojjilvic. whu has xp,-nt 
\ears in the region propei-tini: ami iu\i-ti- 
! ' .MIL -II ;,. 1,,-iral Sur\e\. made 
rl diiniiu' I he summer, and di , 
that there was $77,001 'iiof-old in si-ht. 

Railways, The report of the (irand Trunk 

EOT the half year ending Dec. :n. 1896, wai 
most 8atisfactor\ ; n sh<.\\rd a >urplus of $-1^ 
The net delicil o'f its two Am. terns c|,i- 

cagp and Grand Trunk, and I>etn.n. (,r.md Il;i\-n 
and Milwiuikei amounted, however, to $s7(i.ll-l 
for the half year. The half year show, d a d. . 
.f 1 i 1 "U per cent., in the nnml"T of j.a-.- 

Sengers carried coin ja red with the corresponuing 

half of 1895, and a d< i i p. r 

lit., in i.' - under that head. Ther- 

however, an increase in the mail and < 

ceipts. so that the net decrease in the receijits fr->m 

passenger trains was $104,468. It wa* in the freight 

and live-stock trallicthe advance w.i- mad. . 

total trallic for the half year v. 

incn-a-e of % j:;!'.in tons compared with the trallic 

of H.. .ndiiiK' half of the pivxion- 

The receipts from this branch of the trallic I 
half year showed an increase of 1 
percent.. <, m pa red with the figures for the 1 1. 
ber half of 1S!5. The ratio of working expen 

lereipN ha- l.eell reduced from T'J-57 |,e: 

to To-:; pel-cent., and the working expense- per t rain 
mile have l.een reduced 6*8 per cent. The Amer- 
ican branches operated by the (Jrand Trunk Com- 
pany are still H heavy drain on the road's y< 
ret urns, but the year ISJH; showed an impro\ement. 
The annual meeting of the Canadian Pacific Kail- 
way Company was held in Montreal on April 7. 
Sir William Van Home declared the property of 
the road to be in an excellent condition, and that 
there was an increase of $345,<HX) in the gross 
revenue, 

The (|uestion of building the Crow's NY-t line 
by private initiative with (Jovernment aid. by the 
Canadian Pacific Kailway alone or with (Jo\ern- 
mcnt help, or as a distinct (Jovernment road.. 
wide and bitter diM-u ion. Finally a c..mpp 
was tITected by which the Canadian Pacific Kail- 
way was to bni'ld th- i part o,"it-o\\; 
tem, but snliject to certain defined rates, and 
turn f..r (Jovernment help was to lower it* nr 
t ran-jiortat ion of \\Y-tern irrain to the seaboard. 

Tin- position of the Intercolonial was also a sub- 
ject of much discussion in connection with a pro- 
posed bridge across the St. Lawrence at Montreal, 
and the purchase of the Drum mond Kailwa 
branch line connect ing it with Montreal fron 

l.ec. At the end of 1HW) the mileage of the< 

dian Pacific Kailway was 6,216, the (irand Trunk 
Kailwav :5,101. and the Intep-.-lonial l.::;n. The 
total mileage of Canadian milwav- The 

total nnmi n carrie.l during th- 

\v;.^ I4.sio.4o7. an Increaw of SIMMKMI : the tons oi 
freight were LM 

the earnings were $50,545,560, an i n< 
000; the work in- .xpen-es were $35.o|-j.i;.v,. a n in- 
crease of x The total capital of pr 
lines was $840.800,200, and that of Ciovem 
lines ^:,!.(H7.(;iO. The Canadian IV-ific in 
carried 8,0 jers :ind 1. 
fn-itrht : the (irand Trunk passengers aid 

Melons of freiglit : the Intercolonial. 1. 

-issengers ami 1 n-of freight. 'I'hc 

.t- of the firt were $i20.1?-V s ">. and e\|>cnses 
$12.20->.:{M: of the second. $ir,.:,nr,.s7H sind $11,- 
544,625; of the third, $3,104,117 and $3,237,066. 



DUSTBY. 



lot 



liwrle* The report of the mt> 
department up i Jan. I, 1807, 



Hi.iM III" I thn: 

marine 
rim-lit in 
i.umU-r of hghu u, 

5 ten years ago. The 

c and' rr,.,r* ,,f U..- 
W..MW. The total number of 

and Cana- 

ll.r i,u..,hrrof 

lost was 43. The registered mer- 

UW ton%. U-ing an inm-A-- of 17 ** 
Tase of B6J97 tow compared 



II 1. 1 



b $3W,6 7H.OOO. During the year W7 new v< 
and registered, of' a valu 

M sabmttted on Mav 37, 

and was not sal sifatHtu y in ninny r ! 

:.-n, Ihr fi trt of 

.'.TOOMIIlii: 111. I III ^ II.- 



: "belies was computed at $20,100.- 
S8H, being a decrease of over $500,000 compared 

Jir. 

h the except*. h Columbia. hi. h 

shows a sir 1*500,000, ami Nr\% Brun- 

t increase, all 

.111 last year. The figures 

f fish con- 

!i of Briti-h Colum- 
bia n: 

;.nr in the history of Canadian li-h- 
aries salmon, an anadroinous fish, has Mipplant.-,! 
^^Btgtn : -sea cousin. th< 

'i.- Inltrr has .i 
$500.11110. the value of thr f.>rmrr has increased by 

-aim* amount, thus rr\ri>inc thr >: 
f $1.000,01)0 which . \isT, .1 M, IV. | u 
o species. Other must im|>ortant fluctuations 
.re inrn-a-M- in herring and sardines, and 
thr f.i n innrkrrvl and lobsters. 

\N\I\(. IMH x| |;\ 

put up annually I 

^^KrieS Ml. -. al'<-u! onr tl. 

,' in inrnt*. and the n-tunin-: 

and vegetables. Thr annual out put in 

of all -i,, 1 in rr 

art- al-.ut J.iKNi ran 

id a htt Ir more than 

hin that State. 

and California, in the order 

named, are thr Statm n. \t m.-i pnnliu live of 
d goods, but there in hardlv a Statr in the 

> not some share in thr iml 
Illinois \ and Indiana are largely 

n to alxnit 1 .000.000 persons. < 1 in- 

Thr iiuinU r n-x'ularU employed b fewer 

Thr luMry liegins about 1880, 

Introduction of machinery began t. 
plant thr hand labor that ha*i loted in a 

i 'rrra- 
'onipany, of Bridget on, N. J., and 



the nanvJafltan of 

.:.,-.:.: r:,.' - , ' . ' ..". : _ ,., 

of law-* . 

orgauixai own 

Iteti B began ... >- 

iunin,..r*. 10 


rtult 



in Indianapolis in I8W; thr 

1K4; and thr AlUi 



lUltimonr in the 

1:. . ' .'. ...,- 






.. r,.' .- 






.. -., V . 

-.-.... .- .^. jMHUjr north and wast of 

fraturt-of thr i*. k -hilr salmoci u put 

nta, and oyster- 

supplying toe canneries, while m/Htt oyster tmits 
and 30.000 men are enjafsd in raisin* oysters for 

' ' BUM i . ' : ! ' .. : - . 

tfarjiaad s. ^ i . . .. 

. here the most brans 
are parked. New York being a close second. 
milk, apples, pears, pineapples, small fruits geaar* 
ally, pumpkins, squashes, etc.. are put up in large 
quant r ver they are plentifully grown. 

-10.000.000 of capital invested in the 

the I i,:t..i Mates, and about 

-0.000 is paid out annually in wages. The 

raw material costs about $40.006.000. Almost all 

joods packed a tnestie consumption, 

-h the export trade is increasing, the canned- 

465 ti yrar. The canned-meat export is 

known to be larger than that of the fruit, but the 

exact figures are not obtainable, own 

of classification of the exfiorts. Great Britain takes 

the greater part of the export. Canneries flgHI 

in packing fruit and vegetables are obliged to do 

most <>f thnr work -i .ring a few months of the 

MI miner, 



cheap labor in ti 

m $2.50 to $1 a tlay in wages, a great 
deal of the work being done by women and chil- 
drrn. who are paid by the piaca. 

irge porn u plate produced in the 

country i iiM-d in making cans, and many of the 

ate concerns are also manufacturers of cans. 
Thr cans are mostly round, though square and ob 

ans are common. All the work is door 

. 

w it h presses and dies, and put togrthrr ith 
and header*. For many years it was necessarv to 
oat hand labor fur scaling or closing up the 



t. ir wor .uring a ew monts o te 

omparativfly idlr the remainder of 

v generally engage all the floating 

bor in the vicinity during their busy months. 



aftrr filing', but a practicaJ mechanical capper was 
mir- ut 1883. and there are now set era! 

capping marhinea in the market. An .fficient cap- 
per will solder 40.000 cans in a day. 

machinerv of a rannin. 

fruit and vegetables includes usually a steam boiler 
j a water bath. thi being connerted bv 
pipes with rariou* unk and kettles used in scald- 
ing an.l blan. > assists the skinning 
operation, ami tomatoes or the like, held in ire 
basket v are dipped in the kettles just before skin- 
Cookers are made in a great variet v of forma, 
according to the nature of the goods and the caps- 
.^uired. They usually have a Mnijcr as an 
attachment, for applying a definite amount of 
tirup to each can. and frequently an automatic 
can-filling attachment constitutes a part of the 



108 



CAPS Cii."\\ \M' sorril AFRICA. 



mechanism. A double-filler cooker, with sii 
should have a capacity of about 5.000 can* an hour. 
Process kettles or tanks are used in " processing " 
or cooling the fruit. Exhaust tanks and kettles are 
employed to exhaust cold air from the cans just 
final closure. Crate* formed of strap 
iron and arranged to be hung from cranes, are used 
for handling the cans in the operations of process- 
.n4ing. etc. For special work there are 
fflfth machines as green-corn cutters, which will 
handle <000 ears an hour; corn mixers; corn-silk- 

f,.r removing silk and refuse from 
its separation from the cob; pea- 
hulling inachim*. fine of which will hull KH> bush- 
els in an hour: rotary pea separators, grad in g the 
peas into half a dozen siwss, at (he both- 

els an hour; pea sieves, for grading peas yi small 
qtmntities; pea blanchers ; pumpkin tillers; pump- 
mt: pumpkin peelers; besides various wipers, 
parvrs. oorers, i: 

, M-l i n|H\\ \N| sn| III MKM \. The 
Cap- was -ett led by the Dutch in the 

seventeenth century. In 1H06 tlie colony wm 
nrxed by Great Britain. It then extended east- 
wani as far as the Great Fi-h river. Many of the 
descendants of the original Dutch and Huguenot 

-lied with British rule, founded a 
new colony in Natal, on the east coast, in 1885, 
Other discontented Boer- mi-rat. -d northward 
across the Orange river in 1*:U> and succeeding 
years and establi-hed the settlements that wen- de- 
clared indc|endent and or-ani/ed into the Oran-e 
Free State in l<il. The Natal settlements were an- 
nexed by Great Britain, and the Boer colonists aban- 
doned their farms and traveled far into the inte- 
rior, where they established, in 1849, on the farther 
side of the Vaal river, a new commonwealth called 
the Transvaal Republic, whose independence was 
recognised by Great Britain in is.VJ. Xatal was 
separated >ny and erected into a 

colony in 1856. Briti-h Katfraria was incorporated 
in CaJH- Colonv in 1N65, and Tombuland. Kast Gri- 
qualand. the 1'ranskei territories, and the harbor of 
U .1 '- :. i: >;>. :i ;.. KMthwest OOast, wen- annexed 
subset] uently. Gfiqualand West was originally a 
part of the Orange Free State, but after the dis- 
covery of the diamond mines it was annexed by 
Great Britain, and now forms an integral part of 
Cape Colony. Basutoland was annexed to Cape 
Colony in 1*71. but was detached in consequence of 
difficulties with the native-, and was placed under 
direct British imfM-rial administration in 1SS4. In 
1884 Germany declared a protectorate on the sout h- 
west coast of Africa over Da in am land from ' 

he southernmost point of Portuguese West 
Africa, to Walfisch Bay and over Nama<|iialand 
from Wattsefa Bay to the Orange river. British 
.tiiialand was annexed by Great Britain in 1884 
after the suppression of the Government estab- 
lished in Stellaland at Vryburg by Transvaal I '. 
ami in 1885 a British protectorate was proclaimed 
over independent IWhiianaland, the count rv still 
ruled I iv Chief Khana, Xu Inland was divided aft. r 
the Zulu war, a section next to the Natal border 
being set apart as a rescnc for loval Zulus who 
aided the British in the war. The rest was re- 
stored to Cetewayo in 1888. In 1887 about two 
thirds of this territory, t / ,i u re- 

serve, were formally declared British territory and 
were placed under the admini the 'Gov- 

ernor of Natal. The Transvaal Republic was an- 
nexed by Great Britain in 1877. and a British ad- 
ministrator was apjiointed. but in 1KSO the Boers 
took up arms after expelling the British officials, 
and after successfully re-istm- the British troops 
that were sent to conquer them obtained by the 
treaty of 1881 the restoration of self-government in 



internal affairs, the control of external allai- 

i ne reserved to the British Government under the 

title of su/erain. \ - .; -< Client eon vent ion, signed 

ndofi in 1 V M 1 the IM \ 

>'nth African lu-|>ul>lic atloptetl by the Transvaal 

and aliandoiieil the assertion of suzerainty, lun re- 

i real Britain tlu- riirlit tore\i.-\\ and re- 

i>\ the (i. .\erninent of the re- 

public with fo: r \\ith independent 

natix'e chief- to the north r i-a-t 'f the Tran-vaal. 
Tin- new re|iublie. foumled b\ B'M-i-s iii /ululand, 
was subsequently h i a- the di-tr 

Vrijheid in the South Atri'-an IJepublie with the 
assent of (; real Britain. Bythi- ..... \.-iiii<.ii.. 
a |-a! land also Was added to the iv|iiililic. 

All the territories north >f the Tran-\ aal. includ- 
inu r Matal.clelaiid. ruled by King Lolxuigula, with 
the neiirhborin^ countries of the Ma-h< 
lakas. and other tribes paying triluile to him. and 
compri-iii^ all the re-ion north -f ',',' ( ,f -<nith lati- 
tude. ea-t of 'JO of ea-t 1. -n-il tide, and \\i-t ..fth.. 
I'orlU^lle-e prn\ilice nf > declared 

within the liriti-h >phere <.f mlluence. In I 
r.\al charter was granted to the British S.-uth 
Africa Company, which wa- aiitlmri/ed ; 
an administration for the-e territorie-. The roiu- 
pany was empowered to take under it- admini-t ra- 
tion, subject to the approval of the Imperial (iov- 
erninent, the i. Till of the Bechuanalaiid 

protectorate, and we-i of it to theti.unan bound- 
ary. Portugal <-laimed the banks of the/ambesi 
and a continuous /one of terrii..r\ across the conti- 
nent from its colony of Moxambicjue, on th- 
coast, to Angola, on" t he we-i coast, but. \ ielding 
under threat of war to -nperior : ed in 

is'.M to recoi;ni7.i' as a Briti-h (U'ot ei-torate t h" 
countries south of the /ambe-i. including th< 
nica plateau, and aN> the r.arot-.- kinirdom and all 

the regions north Of the Zambesi up to the border 

of the Con-" Stale, including the Lake 
^ion. where British missionaries were active, hi 
l^'.i] the British (Jovernmcnt extended the fid, I of 
operations of tin- Briti-h South Africa Comp., 
as to include all the territories north of t he /am- 
be-i. known as Northern Zambesia or British Cen- 
tral Africa, with the exception of the Nyassa land 
districts, which had been declared in l* s ! to be 
within the Briti-h sphere.and were now proclaimed 
a I'.riti-h i'1-oti'ciorate. I'ondoland was annexed t" 
the Cape in 1894, and in isji'i the Crown colony of 
Beohuanalaad was incor|M>rated in Cape Colony. 

Cane of <.ood llo|.,-. pe Colony has npa 
sesseu responsible government since 1^7.. The 
le-i^hitive power i- ve-ted in a Leiri-lative Couneil, 
elected for seven years and containin<_: -j:: m. 
and a Legislative Assembly of 7! member-. 
for five years. The colony is divided into 7 di- 
each electing '} im-inber- to the Council, while (iri- 
qualand West and British Bee h nan aland are each 
represented by 1 memlM-r. Memlier- of the A em- 
bly are elected by single country di-tri<t- and 
towns. The members of both houses an' , 
by voters able to register their names, occup.v 
and addres-es and qualified by the occupation of 
hoi^e roert worth l'7" "r the receipt of a salary 



property wort "r te receipt 

'. The 'law of 181>*2 roviiled that elections 



should be held by ballot after July 1, 1W4. 
number of registered electors in ]^'.> 

The (iov.-nior i- Lor-i !. formerly Sir 

ile- b'obin-oii, who was Governor before from 

ill 1HHJ>. and was reappointed in ]*'.:.. The 

ministry in the be^inninu r of 1807 was com pof 

follows: Prime Mini-ten and Treasurer. Sir -J. 

fiord .: Colonial Secretary. Dr. T. N. <'. 

T. Water; Attorney-General. Sir Thotna- f'pintf- 

ton: Commissioner of Public Works, sir .lames 

right; Secretary for Agriculture, I'. 11. Faun-. 



NI SOITI1 API: 



100 



u. The ATM of CAM Col- 

ire mile*, ami the populai 

. 

milce, and^e ipuUtkm &0,00u,o 

H.III fiUWftr ,.' / I I,,- ,-,,- ,', . ' i ,, 
' 

;i in .11.1 ,.f sdies 
' 99J80 Kuropean children r 



.r m \m . 



U and college* in I--V nh 106.6H3 , 

^ iV.M Mi AM -ra^'f aIN n.la 

iropean |N.|.tiiati. n toiiM read 

I, 

., 80, IHM. wn 

.-v 887.979 from the colon in! 

II fr.xn 
lltlltv wu 

<!! and Mukuiu' fuii-1 of 

1 

f.T |Nl||l 

-tal.h-Miii.nl. aii.i 1*9)6,428 1H 

ecu. Tbe budget of expenditures for 180? i 

ti .Ian. 1. lK96.amotr 
ts <*f thr livi-ioiial coon* 

ltk I" t'l.ll l.ll-l. 'I'll*- mull. 

\ Mini tli.- expenditures i 

nwriTe and l'i ...In. ti.m. Th- pt.-i> 

.>: ,.,- 


:''.?."ii pounds; of 

f rni- 
1,686,566 pouml .noS: 

: ofl-ntt,, 

V*- .-art!,. ii.|.^.i.:i ihccp, IJI89J86 - v>. 
?.i>vi,..-- , in IVH;. 

The total value of th. unj-n - in 1895 w 
C04.HMO. The tiu>n-liitiiili<4> iiniMiri.H atiioiint- 

exports of colonial prtxlmv, i'18,798.187. 

uj-.rt- of t.. \tilt* ami ap|iir. 

. 

.Wi.WO; of Angora 

344.50?: 

i tn 1. 1 mi-til. fiV.'^V. 
i came from < 
*h poawmionm anl 

BL448.690 from forrign ciuntrir:of :' ex| rta, 

lint- 

bfc i Domearion*. nn.l i^ll.rr. t. -untriea. 

"95 thrir were 851 1 1 MthL 
1 in the ocran tnnie, of 
iOi: ami 

" -5,097 ton*, were British. In the roa.t* 
n' rntrml. anil 

* 
uu-rvhant mat 






aw*edof8sftffliigvssssJ*of698toit,sjtd99 

touittiimiralioM. The 
the railroads exeept 905 miles 
railn^U 

nly 63 ii. 

and on Jan. 1. 1896, (he 

lea. The system extends bit 

and fit-. 

being eoi r the 

i- 

to Mafeking. 96 miU. was afco b, 
r. and is operated for it by the 
The capital expended in ike Govern- 

' . -, " . .... 

expenses 9lf596j01&. There were transported dur- 
. yor 6.709096 passing, r. ai. 

: wing through the post 
office in 1895 was 16.609,*. 

-460; of books and mm- 

I : . ; : ' : .- -.' i. ..::] 

; expenditures of postal end telegraph service, 
receipts from telegrams wave 97.- 
Musseges worth 

:ii5 to dt|>at<h at regular rate*: 
90,608. The telegraph lines have a length oY OI6 
miles. The G< from tbe tele- 

..1- in 1*7::. and has built tbr 
rest of the system. Tbe number of dispatches in 
1895 wss 1,798,061. 

1 I^gMatlon.-Cape Colony has 

.insvaal and the mi' 

aj-ital into S.uth Afric a and of a new population 
to consume its products. Tbe dsprossfon of tbe 
gold-mining in.lu-try rvacted on the commercial 
tu'rii nltiirnl inton^t.- of tin* Caije, and in 1897 
\ pension received a sudden check. Tbe im- 
ports at the South Afri.an ports in 1896 amounted 
to 86.0UO.OOO. | N .rts to only llV.UOO.OUii. 

As capital ceased to flow in the balance could only 
be fettled by shipments of specie, which began in 

a year. The rinl q* -i, in *|>it- of quarantine 
N at last invaded tbe colony. Tbe rail- 

t. in IMD&andtlx 
.-rninrnt Ml j., 
an a 

u'ht to work all rail- 
option of thr llrira 

nal. for three years, with the option of four Tears 
more. A railroad convention was concluded wbere- 
took over the lines built 
within its boroN ( 'ape Government. 

In thr Parliament, which began its srssJon OB 

April -J. t>ilU w, n Introduced to amend the mining 

to encourage the development of the resources) 

.mote public health, to amend 

the luniu-y law. and to give greater responsibtlity 

to comnuinitir* education and 

grant m.-n- lib* ml ni.i toward tbe maintenance of 

Mie schools, The eostoms union art was 

miiflM. Thr rab act was extendr. ! rans- 

the measure was diminishing 

thraogho 

i: Mr. I- -.-sidrnt of thr 



kaixlrr Bond, movnl a rmolution deprrcaling war 
between Kuropean peoples, expressing the 
tion that psMeoin best U - Uithfnl 

ami rrciprnceJ observance of all obligation* under 
t reaties and con vent ions, and suggest ing that inaens 
should be derised to obtain a settlement of any 
.iiffrrvnees wising as to tbe interpretation of those 
obligations, so that by the adoption of a policy of 



110 



CAi'K COLON? AND SolTH AFRICA. 



moderation, mutual conciliation, and fairness the 



peace -f S.uth Africa might be secured. Mr. Itoee- 
looee^ leader of the regular Opixwit ion, prannted 

as an amendment a moderate declaration of im; 



. a demand for UM rattan of 

..f the fit lander* in the Transvaal. In the 



end the Bond rwolution was adopt. tes to 

88. but with an amendment deprecating the inter- 

m powers in disputes hi -t 
the IIHJ-- :ment aji.l the >"tith Ai 

!t<-. In the Legislative ( 'ouncil this reaolntion 
in the interest of jx-rtce in Suith Africa ami non- 
tin- affairs of the llorr Itcpuhlic was 
carried by a two-third majority. A few days later 
Mr. Merriman. repivseniing tin- friendi of the 
Transvaal Government, .-tiered a motion of no >n- 
fldeoce in tin* ;. .\ernmrnt. Although Mr. Itose- 
* and 14 of his (tarty now voted with the ex- 



treme iMit.-h party, m.-t <>f In- Knglish followers 
support. -d the mini-' - members of the l'r<>- 

grusuive hutch part/ also stood by the Government. 
The result was a tie vote of 36 votes on each 
and the speaker gave his casting v< n the 

Government in office, Mr. Rose-Inness then re- 
signed as leader of the Opposition, taking, \\iih his 
diate supporter*, an independent position, 
while tin- Dutch party, which for years under Mr. 
Ilofineyr's lead, had been able to control icgisla- 
iu~d li<-tate (Milicics by giving or withholding 
its v. the raguhir Opposition under the 

'Ir. >aiier. The A einhly n-olved to 
limit the introduction of undesirable immiL': 
A bill was carried giving licensing iK.anls JK.U 
prohibit the sale of liquor to natives, l.ut it was 
thrown out by the Legislative Council. The sur- 
plus revenue for the past year wa< l'.">00,000, and for 
the ruining on, rdoii Sprigg estimate. I a 

.. "f 'J'i.TI.-i.lHMhmd an expenditure^ 6,488,- 
000, leaving a surplus of 227,000. He asked i hat 
the whole surplus be reserved f,,r the extinction of 
the rinder|>est, which had already consumed . 
000. The cost of suppressing the' Hechimnaland re- 
volt was estimated at !'~> ""<>. A ; -.lution was 
passed authorixing the Prime Minister, who was 
alMHit to depart for Kngland to represent the colony 
in the diamond jubilee, to take provisional steps to 
arrange some basis of contribution by the colony 
toward t he imperial navy. Accordingly, Sir J. Gor- 
don Spring offered the" gift on the part of Cape 
Colony. subject to ratification by the r. 
bly. of the co>t of a first -class 'bat tie >hip to be 
io the HritMi navy without condition-;. 

Baaiitoland. The native territory of Hasuto- 
land, lying U-tween Cape Colony. Natal, and the 
Orange Free State, has been administered ly a ! 

Commissioner umler th<' direction of the Hi^h 
Commissioner for S.uth Africa since March 1:5. 
1884. The area is estimated at 10,298 square miles 
and the |M.pnlation at 250,000. Kuro|K-an settle- 
ie land is prohibited. There are Wt Eu- 
ropeans in Maseru, the chief town. The native* 
raise wool, wheat, mealies, and Kaffir com. and ha\, 
many horses and cattN-. The exports, consist ing .f 
grain, cattle, and wool, were valued MKI in 

IW*. nu- i- derived from a hut tax of 

10*., trading licenses, and the post oflicr.and i- *up- 

i by a contribution .,f ilH.000 from < 
Colonr. The whole amount was 4.1.r:j in 
and the expenditures anu.untcd t' 
Resident Commissioner is G. Y. Lan. 

Kaffir DiMnrhancen, As soon as the < 
mountcil rifle* departed from Bechuanaland a body 
of armed and m.untel natives r< ill e-t. d at I'm/ini'- 
kulu and presente*! their demands to the n. 
trate. When the unruly rhi-f at the head of the 
movement was arrested, the natives as<*-ml>Ud at 
Kokstad to discuss a plan of action, while the whites 



and : ttrei guarded tlie maga/ine. and a 

Mounted rifles was dispatched to the 
spot from the south. The threatened disturl 

1. On .lune 'Jl the Cape Aeinhly 
patoed a bill under which a di-oU-dicnt chief . 
dangerous white can be arrested i-\ j TO< lamation. 

:-llowers of Sigi au in Pondolaiui liccame rest- 
leas and insulordinate. and in ItuMitoland si 
troulles\\ ned. Tnlial (juarreN had re- 

sulted in bliHiilshed. and the contending chic! 
accord 1 1 1 u r 1 > suiiinioiicd l.y the Kevjdent ( '.intnis- 
-ion. : . him. 

due chief relnaed to attend. Iml ultimately ap- 

d \\ithan imposing cavah-ade of follow . 
Keehuanalaml I'roi, . |.-i .it. . 

..uialaii-l I't-'itcctofate is altoir 

miles. When British Hechnanaland \\a-anne.\idto 
Cape Colony in Novemlh ; menti 

made for the government of the pr..tec: 
The chiefs Khaina, Sebele, and I'.athocii rul 
respective tribes under the >up-r\ i-i..n of a n 
eoinmis-ioner. The. ive the hut tax. 

side of the houndar i-them the adininis- 

t rat ion \\as committed to the BritM, South Alnca 
Compan;-. The natives are peaeealile and indus- 
trions. devoting theinse|\. ullure and the 

rearing of catt lc. The Koident ( <'iiiiiiis-i<.ii( \ 

loll. 

Nati\e Hehcllion. The natives of the llriti.sh 
Bechuanaland reserve, reduced to a deploraM- 
lit ion Ity locust, plagues, rinderpest, and oth 
-naded t heiusci e p rsuai;. 

they afterward -aiil. by a llocr intriguer named lios- 
mail, who was. however, fully exculpated ly his 
Government after an investigation, trial th. i ap.- 
Government intended to take their lands, which the 
annexation act of 1805 declared -h-nl-l i 
alienated or in any way diverted from the j.i;' ; 
for which they were set" apart. The forcible killing 
of their cattle, as a precaution against the spread 
of the rinderpest, they were led to he]je\e was 
nothing but a device "for wiping out the people. 
The relaxation of the liquor regulations and other 

actions tolerated by the ( 'ape < ',< .\ -eminent -! n iiL'ih- 
ened their suspicion that they were to be ;:'! rid of 
in order to hand over their lands to wh; 
Rendered desperate by distress and this belief in 
their impending doom, they began to plunder the 
outlying farms, and committed several murders, and 
soon the tribes concerned in these outrages found 
themselves in open rebellion airain-l th. Govern- 
ment. This movement spread till it involved about 
one seventh of t he Ilechuana nation. Fir-i. in I)e- 
cember. !*!(;. the chief (Jalishwe. in the Tain,. 
serve of British I'.echuanaland. revolted. His iriU- 
numbered 'J.OXKl lighting men. and against idem 
were sent !;."> Cape police. :',s.j mounted riflemen 
from Kimberley. and 10o Cape volunteers, while 
the burghers of tin- disturlM-d district defended 
themselves. Lukas .laiitje's f.. Mowers joined the 
rebels, who murdered s,.\, ral settlers and storekeep- 
ers. Molalla. who disputed the supremacy with 
Galishwe, offered his aid to the Government, while 
Tooti and the rest of the Itatlap-s tribe joim-il the 
rebellion and committed outrages southwest of 
Vryburg. These natives, u ho had never been trou- 
blesome before, were quickly defeated l-y a -trong 
force of burghers and volunteer-. The nati 

Griqnaland also became restless. and the farm- 
,roughout these regions placed their families 
in security and went into Inn*/, ,-. A field force was 
Organized at the Cape, but, volunteers were not sum- 
moned from the eastern districts, for then 
there was danger of native di'safTect ion. Mian- 
while (Jalishwc's following increased largely. The 
eolonial force, numbering 1.0(? men, advanced on 
his position in Langeberg, to ward the end of MUK h. 






SOI 



111 



.-.- columns. Lukae Jam jr's village of Gama- 
IH? mountain*, wa* burn. 

-hole 

re destroyed an into 

t.i starve the r-l-l- 

-h-.ld ** 

fhr in,- U ! 
^Ull hrlil 

ar.l. In 
^M lar. ion waaorganiaed fur the pur- 



waa L4S7JHO marks. The budget for 1898 






t the troo|iM alrt*>i field, waa 

mill fur tint k:ii< I f wrfnr . 

t U-gilll till la 

i- k.-i I !!;, I -r>; at nil five 
i attack living on (inli* 
.iiafticpan-i ! uka- 

^ kill.il, and Ikikwe. hia successor. 

commander ! 

.tftrrward pmnh<-d fur having lli< 
.* Jnntjr rut off for tin- ; 

HUM MM.. iiitli-liwi> waa 
t'Ut escaped. Twaai'* kl> '.th.- 

.. nu- 
ll. UNM afobM ujon I'mlu- 
laat stronghold in LangeU rg. and found 

:. <itli*h * 1 aftrr > 

placed on trial at KiiuU-r 

Jit in n lull'to confiscate 

m^' tin- nat 
'ii Miutll enough to cnaltlr tl 

linn uini- The Kill 

irra taken from thr 

natives waa 488,000 . :' th<> 

Brrbuannlatid reacrve*. with A population <>f aUxit 









\-rnmrnt made proriaioo frtli<' 
rt in th.-ir own 

t IK- failure ; s It waa 

nii n- indmturrd li>rrrs with 

datix) wage*. - 

re to visit the farms to are that 
Ir. Thr rrU-U had 
<* iiirn'iidrn . ition that 

MI to tlirir hoinr*. 
1 '!-. n\ . I i that 

war in IWhiianalAii<: 
i*|M>rt tin- |M>piilatioti of thr .li-turl.^l 

d thoiiHaii >rn.il off ? 

aooth and di-t nl-nt^d among thr fartm-n . 

ni4tH with wages at the rate of lOa. a 
i for aol, I'hilanthn.pic ^ 

w'laiul pmtete<l against 
i alarery aa a violation of thr rinam-i|ntiion 

h".-i V frlra. The German 

^4tt and 



,!,. in then..uthai. 
h latitude, with a Mrip run- 
Xamhaal 

north latitudr. hnn nn r*timatrd area of 

M.OOO square miles and a population of 200.000 
iinrn. hrtinaras ami KafflrA. 
n in IBM waa 2,025, The Im^rial 
> Majorl^ I'herevenr. 

1W>. in, 1 Mtrinution of 1 

000 marks, wa> marks. The expenditure 



, 

OOOnwrtu. Tb inpuru by *ra u> 

..*5 ma :<J6.K mark.. 

.and in much frwtrr. A harbor it 

1U, 

r .ad guid hare U 






d with 



DM they nave not yet been worked wu 
rai*r large m r .t in 

laml. Bhesp and native foata are bred al* . 
The nalne n*mg* in liechuanalaud and 

Damaralai 
900 in a rll I 

force near the British border. Kariy in August 
in* attacked the position tnth artillery 

Afni 

waa a nment, by 

.inary and other measure*, endeav- 
ored to prevent the entrance ' 

through German Sthr.t Africa 

vlUdiaMfeoaaafaet The dearth of cattle deter- 

r.t to butM light railroads on 

hi.-h thr ear* will lie drawn by mulr*. hundreds 

<>r win. h . imiNirted for the |Mirpose from the 

A harbor is to oe co 

at thr mouth . fiat vill 

thr (, ..f WiilfiMh lUi. ami 

fr.'in thr IM-H |--rt i.i Windhoek, the rapiUl. a line 
of ratlroail win be In. 

Natal. Thr < 'on Dilution of 1896 vesta the lefb- 
lativr |-., r in a Lcgiftlative Coonril of 11 mem- 
bers appointed f.-r tm vears. half being replaced 
every five yearn, and a legislative Asembly <f 37 



members, elected for fur \rnr by voters cjuali 
by pomeasing real |r the value 

pmjing10 ;ving an income of 96. The 

nnini 'n in 1H06 wa 0.488. The satnt 

of the Governor, revocable it Inn two years, is re- 
jiiir. -me law. Th< ' 

.'n.' in^-n. ap- 

jH,int..| in 1^'.::. Thr ti t<eginning 

riary and 

: TrvM. 

Mior; 
Mini-trr of l.an-U nnd \V,.ik. T. K. Murrav. 

I ui I I .., i latlon.-The arm of S.tal u 
eatimateil at 2O.461 square miles. The 
IH 54&918. conaisting of 4.7 
KafflnL 



41.143 Indian*, and 



Durban, the 



capital, had a popwJatkn of 27.984 in 1894. The 
attendance in the aided and inspected schools for 
uh.tr. in 1896 was 7340, and about 1000 children 
-rhonU. About 96 percent, of the 

white childrrn mt-ivr instmction. The Govern- 

; . Inure on education in 1896 was 
000. The native schoob have an attendance of 
6.790 ami MI the (i 

dian schoob with a daily 
attemlame of 2.010 srhoUfK 

I i nance*. The revenue of the colony from or- 
dinary anurrea in the vear ending June 80, 189S, 
,ich 586.409 came from rail- 
'.026 from customa* 30^849 from excise. 
.ml tale* from the post 

legrapha, C9J8J99? from 

*lam|w and licem**. and H4.H68 from the native- 
hut tax. The t<ial ,-\|.. ndmire was 1.148j098, of 
hi,h v:ui;:.i7rt repre^nt railmad expenses. 64,- 

'enae. Th 
penditun fnin loan* 

n June :)0. 1M0S. waa 8UOS4>*8. There is a 

.the 

.:- 



^m mounted f - 1<^ 
hu h and *>f the jails of the colony 



Ill' 



CAIM: COLONY AND sorni AFRICA. 



he year, besides which the Government con- 
tributed l \penses of the volunteers, 
who number 1,531 men. 
\ .'iiiuierre and Production. Ti - ra were 808,- 

898 acres cultivate.! --an- in IS'I.Y 

leadi: M*rt is sugar, of which 20.401 

were exported, of tea 787,000 pounds were 
gathered from 8,897 acres. Corn, wheat, oats, and 
green crops are grown. The natives had :t: 
acres under cultivation. Kuropeans owned v 
horses, 889^18 cattle, 950.187 sheep, and 60.582 An 
nrai tta,and ri res8<X871 h nea, 508,988 oaUto, 

: ' >.' - , ; .-. IM : / . T: ft] OdtMll 

-.15 was Ifr ;al value of im- 

iii 1*95 was 8,409,808. The princ.pal art. 
del are haberdashery and apparel, iron manufac 
tares, leather goods, flour and grain, cottons, wool- 
ens, machinery, and beverages. The value of the ex- 
ports was fl.ai8.502. Gold. wool, and other prod- 
ucts of the Dutch republics make the bulk of the 
exports. The v - >ol was 1 r gold 

. L ..:.'..'.:: .,;. i;-J,:i:.; of sugar. 'j:.U.!M51 : 
of hides and skin-. t'46/J7U: of Angora hair. 


Navlgat ion. During 18115 there 
els, of 788,495 to,,,, entered, ami ::MJ. of 7si.:,7i 
tons cleared. The shipping of the col.mv con-i-te,l 
of 18 sailing vessels, of 674 tons, and 12 steam ves- 
ela.oi 380 tona, 

Railroads. The railroads, which belong solely 
to the Government, have a length of 402 miles. 
There is a line from Durban to the border of the 
Smth African Republic. :{(>? miles, connecting with 
a railroad that runs through to Johannesburg and 
Pretoria, the total distance from the port of Dur- 
ban to Pretoria lHing 511 miles-. Branches ha\e 
been built to Verulam. Isipingo. ami Harris-mith. 
in the ( >range Free State. The capital expenditure 
up to t lie end of 1895 was 6,11 T.-,' 11 : gn receipts 
for 1S95, 526,494; exr* leaving a 

ie equal to 4*05 per cent, on the capital. 

(ahinet < hungcs. n,, Feb. i:t Sir John llobin- 
son resigned the premiership on the ground of ill 
health. Harry Kseombe. the Attorney-General, 
reorganized the ministry. In September theGov- 
nt. in compliance with a request of the South 
Afri' an Republic, granted rebates amounting to 
the whole customs duty on numerous articles of the 
transit trade. The general elections took place near 
the end of that month, and the ministry sustained 
an in. defeat. Mr. K<c,,mbe aiid his col- 

leagues resigned, ami on Oct. 5 Mr. Binns formed a 
new ministry, in which he took the post of Colonial 
Secretary, with the premier-hip. Mr. Bale became 
d and Minister of Kdm-ation. Mr. 
Hime Minister of Public Works Mr. Hulett Minis- 
1 Mr. Arbucklc Treasurer. 

Indian Immigration. Ph. people of Natal 

were greatly excited at the beginning of the year 

bv the arrival of two ship-loads of East Indians 

ii of coolies to work on the plant a- 

MII time contracts has long IM-.-II permitted. 

but the settlement in the country of Indians who-.- 

w-U have expired or the immigration 
Indians has always been unpopular, and various re- 
ions and regulations, based ostensibly on sani- 
tary or oilier lejjal grounds, have been adopted to 
Indians from remaining in Natal. An In- 
dian is liable to be arrested at any time unless he 
can produce a pass to show that he is a free Indian 
and not an indentured laborer. An indentured In- 
dian on becoming free pays a poll tax <>: 
as long a* he continues to live in the colonv. Al- 
though British subjects, they are dcnird fho elec- 
toral franchise under a law withholding it from 
natives of all countries not endowed with parlia- 
mentary institutions. ThefioverniiK-nt high schools 



are closed to Indian -tud. -n'-.. T prevent the land 
: tin- Indians from the ships the inhabitants of 
Durban OTganiiad themselvefl Jo obey leaders and 
to assemble at the \\har\e- prepared t'o resist their 

landing by force. They demanded that th. 
ernment send them back t" India at it- \\n ex- 
pense, and that a law be made forbidding the 
further immigration of free Indian-. The -hips 
were held in .piarantin.-. and meanwhile a b: 
passeil conferrn ..-rnment tp im- 

pose quarantine indeflnitely on -hip- \\iih Indians 

Another bill established nc\\ 
otiOttl n|".n t ra-l.-i-s <.n the prt-len-e .! 
venting unsanitary condition-. A law to exclude 
undesiralde immigrant- \\a> n<>t dinded exclu 
ly again-1 Indians. 

/ul u land. The territory that \\a- formal', 
nexed by (Jn-at Hrilain in Ma\. 1 SS 7. extending 
north of 'the Tugela river, the boundary of Natal, to 
the border of Tongolaiid and to the South A: 

lie on the northwest. I,. about 

tlliles and a population c-iimated in 
1895 at 1 ,246 whites and l;:,.i-ji natives. Th. 
dent ( 'ommi-sioiier. Sir Marshal ( 'lark.-, admii 
the country under the direction of the (ioveriior of 
Natal, wh<> is al-o (Jovcrnor of /ululand. The po- 
lice force is composed of % J.")0 native-. The Zulus. 
\\ho raise cattle and till the soil, pay a hut t 
1 l>. (iold. silver, lead, cojiprr. tin. 'iron, a-1 
ami coal are found. Companies organ i/.ed for goM 
mining have not yet met with success. Th. 
s ? miles of telegraph. The revenue in 1895 was 
ITil.THi. and t he 'exj.elidil lire ' 

Orjinge Free Mate. -The Constitution pro- 
claimed on April 10, is.")}, and amended on |-Yb. !. 

and May s. ]s7. vests the legislative | 
in the Vofksraad. con-i-ting of ."is members. el< 
for four years, half of them retiring everj 
years, by the votes of the burghers Dossessinj 
property worth I'.VK), or paying ' 
leased property. <.r having an income < 
owning 800 worth of personal property. T: 
ecutive power i- vested in a Presiaent elected f-r 
live years. The President is T. Steyn, elected 
ji. 189* 

The area of the republic is estimated at I 
sipiare miles. There \\a- in 1*1X1 a white popula- 
tion of 77,716, consist ing of 40.571 males and 8' 
female-. The native- numbered 129,787, of whom 
67,791 were male- and 61,996 females, making tin- 
total population 'JOT. .')<):;. l-Mucation j> i-ontn-llei' 
by the Government, but is not conipul-orv. n..r i- it 

five, except for the poor. Thefe Were 1' 

ment schools in 1895, with 220 teachers and 

pupils. 

The revenue for ten month- ending Dec. :;i 
was 259,589, and the exp.-nditu!. 

the receli imp.rt duti.-s. I'Jl.r.ls 

-tamp dir i 1 '. tran-fer duti- 

oflicc and telegraph receipts. I'lo.-rj.", ipiit : 
and I'T.slO the native poll tax. < >f the di-i 
ments. I'ln.ir.'.i were f-r salaries, L'-UMHH) for public 
work 'or education. ra.'.MCi for posts and 

telegraphs 1-10,048 for police, and :::.'.MI forth- 
art ili 

!-v abli-Unlied man in the country be- 
n' and sixty \>-.\r< of age can be called into 
military service by the field cornet of hi- district in 
case of war. The' number of burghers fit for 
ice in 1896 was 17.:M. There is an artillery 
which was doublcil in 1896, when a new for 
built for the protection of the capital. Mloemfon- 
tein. Th- -rength i^ 10'J men. l.- 

of :',."if) men who have served their term. 

The land i* divided into about fJ.OOo farm-, hav- 
ing a total area of 'J J. <;?.-,. sod acres, of which ^rA- 
600 acres are cultivated. Mo>t of the land is only 



K COLON V AM) SOUTH APK 






r grating. Tbert were 848378 borst*. 
lHa_ There art good coal mine^ ,,d 








e'oara* i v MMLM 

ii> < 'ape and 

676.716 oame from t , 
Natal and 

06 from Batntoland. The 

5E . By and M&M8 

i ' ^ 
tondt, and ottri< 

IttO tran-f. rnd to tl> 

tph system* of Natal, the 
, and< ipi OoioOJ bj I.'-"" 

H imJ Lnflnlatlon.-Thr railn.i. 

Free 81 , pe rail- 

m\ alinini-r .1 In,, - 

'T the 



, 

! on the question, t h<uch lot bill m\o|\. 

I till was pMwd in June 

_ ihnii r. 

^^^MT allegiMico t<> lluir iiHtiv> ooai 
law thnv four 

I ain- 

rmany was r.i 
liarion wa revine the Con 

proposed amendment* at thr 
.-:..n of Haaii agreed to 

*er tiniiin witl. 
rntirtitl thr jM-ht i.-.'il tn-aly nego- 

. WA.H nttitlfl on .In no 20. 
.M i:,-|...i.li, . l.-ci-lativo an- 



in< impendence in 1881 or 
M.aml tl:. 

V.>lk<nuwl is elected 
econd class burgher*, comprising natural- 

e all. M can USM.MM- imtur.i rtll- 

taking the <*ath of aJlefiajice, and j-.. 
8, Nat u T' 

^ns of 

pagistered at the age of sixteen may t 
lited at the age of eighteen nn<l a. .| 
-hern at the apr . -f 

'an. 1. 1W7. mttt 
ntificmtion an-i 
Mip|mrt t hemselres. ami mu*t further 

: f.-r three tn.-t 

year if remain. Th 

iwer it Teateil in a Prrudent. eUx tl for fire 
- I 



years by the vote* of the first-class 

-.-'.....! 

memWs-'- 



IK 



and t 

lurmad. The - 

rdtaneM.> 

IMML Th. 

in, K . . -. - . .-?:-.: 
wa* composed M follow*: Commandant General. 

>xddkj K4Brtal 
M. A U 

i ,.,.!!.., i. - 1 turn 

.i, tut .'' I] MM 
The inciraiai if dot to the rseeipu for UrensM. roy. 
aitksv et^ from the goW fUldi The ripet 

f r tfM lb SJOSjtfa *a- t! ...->...,.-,- , 

not of fl,.MO.tM5 in the trrasury on June . 18M. 

l: . . ...' .- . : . - 

OOfJM f 't, ..... .riitiMh! .- !. r....: fr. BJ |sj| I fjlfj 

and quit rmta, ctutoms duties. A nali%e-hut ta&. 
-rt .In.-.. MM! sumpe. The rerenoe from the 
old nta - in 1881 .:.-.: -i- ':. 

CS^MjMft. In the e*imaTr* for the full 
MSJ 1886 1 ) r. , . v - . : . 

led the extraordinary exprndtlurv of 
.i M H. f. r fvvsjni .--.-;. 



,--:. t:::..,--, ' p .. -., : ,;., - 

:IM- of war m I O8M80 for other 

,iil,|i,. d,.l,i 



Ler. 1Q6, to i'2'.flW' 

a Ion: '."> contracted 



The only permanent milt- 
artillery, numbering 88 offi- 
re is a fore*- 



ed in Septrm. 

linking 
l.ildandadel* 

the I. 

n in 187C 

force is the bone 
cers and 868 men. There it a 
teen*. In ca*e of war every able-bodied citizen it 

called 

UN S.uth African Republic it 119.- 
189 square mile*. T made 

the white populnt,.. n 1 111.128, divided into 66,488 
males and 52.680 females, was very incomplete. I n 
1896 the white population was estimated at 1^,000 

d. has aU nit 8.000 inhabitant* 
the center <>f the mining district f \\ HI 
hiul a j-pulHti,.!! on Ju . 

liites, 7.088 of mixed race, and 
444)96 natives. The Government school* 

instruction, hail 7.679 po- 

. i L; :.;> n ; : I ' . -. . . 

* the alien residents maintain septrate 

toil it wall adapted for agriculture at well as 

fnui: latter hit* U-, n I., r. f.-re the chief 

cmin ami other produce has to be 

mil. : re are 12JM5 farms, of which num- 

U-r t 



'iniNiiiies 6,997. and alien 

rts are gold. wool, callle. 

hitles. grain, ottnch feather* .m.ly. and 

minerals The dutiable imj-.M* in 1885 were ral- 

.a 916JOi. of m 

Kuropean count ries and 3.536.677 from the neigh- 
U.ruu- ...ut.tn-an.l -th,r-. Tl, iluH- : 

'. The incorporate*! mining com- 
|nies in 1C. nun. ! * ith a total nominal 

capital of 48jM<tt*and a w, 

t'.7.-.-..-,. TL. .-:.'.. : 

principally at Witwatenrand and Itarbertoo. wat 



m 

fia.886.1 in 1888. fii.6SH.879 in 1H92. and C. 
inlH91. In six nxlhsoM8W the product was 



114 



LOT s<'l Til AFRICA. 



Coal IB mined in the Witwatersrand district and 
in ih- extern part of the Transvaal. In 88 mines, 
emploting :*0 whites an 
toniwere produced in 1900, valued at 

. cop|-r. and lead hare been found, but min- 
- not now carried on. Tin i* * m al- 

luvial driinsita in Swaziland, the product Imvi- 
cmwwl from 80 tons in 1808 to W 

revere 434 milea of railroad in operation, 884 
mile* in proceat of const ru ; :>i n.iles pro- 

: in S.|.i..inU-r. IHSC,. P0a4 travel 

Ihthe rail- 

r.wi-U of Cape Colony hat been continued by the 
C|*. Government, by agreement with the Booth 
.in Republic, through Germiston i 

'rom where it crnase* the Yaal river and 
,|H- Town. The railroad from 

Natal hat been built through to Johannestarf ami 
Delagpa Bay Railroad, which has 
for 205 miles from the Portuguese 

u-undarv to Pretoria, has been in operation since 

l.lte. Of the Slatie line of 11M miles -VI 
have been completed. 
re are 1,952 miles of telegraphs in the re- 

\ on-titutional Conflict. A constitutional con- 
flict arose out of the decision of th<* Hi-hCourt in 

u*e of Brown >. hr. I.- \.U. delivered on .Ian. 

S 97. The plaintiff, an American \ 
had staked out gold claims within what had been 
i as public diggings, luit when he applied 
for the licenses. : >rmed that the proclama- 

tion had been withdrawn, and this wa- -ul>se(|uent- 

irm.-d by a resolution of the i Volksraad. < me 

o'f the judges held that the resolution had n, / />st 

efTeet. and clid not extinguish Brown's rights 

acquired under the proclamation before it was re- 

. Chief-Justice Kotze and Justice Amcshoff 
found for the plaintiff on constitutional grounds. 
The (iov.-rnment attorney contended that the sec- 
ond proclamation, after it had been confirmed by a 
resolution of the Yolksraad, could not be brought 
into question, and quoted a statute of 1890, accord- 

which the legal validity of any law or reso- 

i dulv promulgated can not be Questioned in a 
law. The Chief .Justice laid down the 
proposition that a mere resolution of the Volksraad 
can not alter a law that has been properly passed, 
and the further doctrine that neitner a Taw nor a 
resolution has binding force in so far as it is con- 
trary to the Gr>< < >n-t it ut ion of the Trans- 
raal. This doc-trine, derived from the principle- of 
th. K'.man Dutch law and the analogy of the t'nit- 
itution. was new in 1 1 1.- Transvaal, 
directly contradicting a previous opinion given bv 
the chief .Justice in a similar ease in 1884, and it 
was regarded by President Krflger and by hr. 

-. his State Secretary, and Dr. Coster, the At- 

> -General, a* an encroachment on the p 
of the Volksraad, which had itself enacted the 
Grumitrrl in the same manner as all other laws, 
drafted a bill setting forth that the Y.,lk*- 
raad is the supreme power in the state, that its reso- 
lutions have the force of law. that it has power to 
alter the '/ruri'/i/w.that courts of justice are bound 
to respect and enforce whatever it has enacted or 
may enact, that the power of the court* to test laws 
or resolutions by the Grundwet has not existed and 
does not exist, and therefore enacting that exi 
and future laws and resolutions shall be acknowl- 
edged by courU of justice, which shall have no 

fuse to apply any law or resolution of the 
Yolk-mad on the ground that either in form orsub- 
stance it is contrary to the Grundteef ; further, pn- 

.:iu r a f..rm of oath for all future judges, by 
which they shall declare that they will riot an 
to themselves the testing power;' providing that a 



judge who does SO is guilty of malfeasance in ofliee; 

and empowering th< dent toask the pres- 

ent judges whether the\ deem it in accordance with 

their oath and duty to dispense justice according to 

_: and future la\\- and n-olutions ,,f the 

. to th.-inselves the 

testing power, and furthermore empowering him to 
di>!in>-lli from whom he ; 

ti\e or ansatisfactory answer <! no an-\\rr at all. 

The judge* addressed ft letter to tin- President in 
which they coll. d that the pro] 

measure was a violation , .1 the Independence* 
High Court, and urging him to postpone action un- 

til the on: -e->ioii of the Volksraad. In 

si.ite of their remonstrance the President pj 
the \'olk>raad to puss the hill immediately, arguing 
that Cecil Khodes ami other enemies of tfic K. -pub- 
lic had been kept at bay for years only by \ 

;. 'solution-, and that if tlie su|>remacy of the 
Yolk>raad were undermined the convention with 
Knu'land might be broken and then war would eii- 

The bill was pa-sed on l-'cb. 'J". and the ! 
dent put the procribcd interrogatories to th. 

demanding an ans\\.-r h 17. Sir 

Henry de N'illiers. Chief Justice of Cape Colony, 
went "to Pretoria and arranged a compromi 
which the judge- undertook for the present not to 

be coii-lilut ionality of laws and resolutions of 
t lie Yolksraad by the |>r>\ i-ioii- of the (i run din f ]\ 

the promise of the President that he would intro- 
duce without delay a measure providing th.. 



only be altered by special legi-lation 
in a special manner, similar to the provisions of the 
i trange l-'ree stati- Constitution, and that guarantees 
for the independence of the judiciary should be in- 
sert. -d in the (rnunlmf. The President requested 
the Yolksraad toaprnjint a committee to act in con- 
junction with t he (iovernment in draft ing propo-als 
for a revision of the Grundmf and a codifieati.n of 
all existing laws. 1 >ut the judges would not aei-ept 
this as a fulfillment of his promise, which v- 
draft one himself, with their a i-tance and as speed- 
ily as practicable. In deference to their remon- 
strance the President agreed that tin- revision of the 
firnnilin-f .should precede codification, which would 
be a task of two or three years. The committee of 
the Yolksraad invited the judges to appoint 
of their number to advi<e with other ex'; 
the procedure of revision. chief-Just ! K-.t/eand 
one of his colleagues declined the invitation, on t lie 
ground that the experts whom they were a-ked to 
confer with were t lie authors of the bill attacking 
the independence of the judiciary. JuL 

row ski. and Ksser were willing to give 
assistance to the commission. 
The ntlanders. It is estimated that tin 
of gold already discovered in the Tnu. 
kin L'700.000,000 of the metal, an. 1 still 
mines are located every month in the Lydeiiburg, 
Xoutpansi>erg. and Barberton di-ti : and 

iron exist in inexhaustible miantitie-. Tie 
may not c..mpete with the Welsh tor use on 

perhaps on freight -tcaim-ps in the 
Indian Ocean, but it is good enough for rail 
and iron foundries. The healthy climate and pro- 
ductive soil of the Traan-vaal "are suflicjent. with 
its extraordinary mineral resources, which include 
also silver, lead." copper, and other ba-er mii<- 
to attract a large immigration, to which gold mining 
has given only the first impetus, and make it in time 
the most populous state in South Africa. It- 
production has been of late years the chief support 
of Cape Colony and Natal as well a- of its own in- 
habitant. Tlie rievances,,f the fit landers on the 
litiTid are often at direct variance with the inl- 
and sentiments of the governments and people of 
the British colonies. For instance, to enable the 



B OOLOKT AND SOUTH APIt 






.grade niin<- to pay dividends the r it landers 

l railnd* and 

i iii on nunaamriiis of life, and 
hesedemait > lure ih. 

The ai;: 
Colon? and Natal. >n tin- other 

u imported jr. i 
nisU complain tut un.i 
t Uw respectable colored people from their 

i 'it landers 
I<UM Uw more 

1 thr |MU law* bjr 

i4er, teachenm* i. <l 









iii any 
r ,.n oomapondenoi In English, < rman, M .1 

< Well nt I Mi- 
ch all tho languages, M the new school Uw for 

i 

. : 

it- great 
haj fwin. 



< i' \ .!!!'.'.' III 



jiu 111 U-r 



:md of tlu- court- of Uw. 
mceofaUw passed in tl .rt .1 



i >r t iiis purpose in lovT in 

I'V th- SuiH-niit.-ii.i. lit ..f 



fction with a committee rep- 

PrCOCh. < rniaii 

ive tl; !i the 

that the whole scheme con- 

UWS a ft!,,- 

led to 



a\ 



in l\w primary grade*. In the middle 
i will continue to be the m-i 



till -Mill 






ea. 
i; a law 



ir times as 
h and Africander 
the nopuln' 



iiis 2JS68 
NH h 



rnmrnt .Iccided 
in 1HW. MteMWrfa| a 
which hml )> 

the CitUnilrri 
1 with tl 
he munici|l council are to 



rs. .8 tu 

ui MM .iv 



be burghers, and the 
casting vote. 



rgher*, and the burfomaaUr. who ha* the 

g vole, U appoint.*! mi 

and hae power i. mi|ienil the oparatioo of 



any reaolaUoii ijiimiil to be to conflict with toe 
final daeWoo reatln r 



Dotvrvmr'. i, --.:. . 

ell hajt power to make rt^uUiuxi* for ^. 

... ordarTmoral' - , : . . .. 

rka,obj. 
of thr 



working of stamp mill, and mine* on 

thadfe- 

nt of the Poppers, who charged mam- 
vote against the 

measure. Notwithstanding the decrease of reva- 
nue and the necessity of bi.r 
n.. .f n.. *. ; tr . , \j. i,.*.. t!.. \ . Dnnmd b : 

DiUandan and others raised a protest against the 
grant, .rgher fr.; 

-neaburghera who took up anna for the Ra- 
of the Jameson raid. The 
* motion f 

members, with a view t 
midair,,! ft.. A U 

tn-iu.-ini: x.-tmi: bv Ullot will ,.,r 
: . \ .. .- ' , 

shall be a cam J i .e presidency without first 

r > - : i . : : . _ ! ' . 

The commercial and financial crii* in J< hannea- 

burg, that was aggm t lander rrvoln- 

k' of 1M. waa rendered more 

v decline of mining 

shares in the market, and extended throughout the 
Tran- ravages of the rinderpest 

. The primary 

use waa overtrading and overstocking, such aa 
d precis i. -is in 1890. Tneaiceas- 

i\.- c,,n.|^tit!..n -f in p. rt. n, . i. .'.,. : i v 

.:t..l in acorn* 

'lUpee, wl tanks and 

mercantile houses of Cape Colony and Natal and 

-took*. The check given to importations 
and mining activity aff. finances of the 

Transvaal < 

appear, and even necessitating recourse to tempo- 
rarv loans, for exp< 
and vote* for the n rgber* impnnrmWq 

lerfM*t c.nstituted an aildttional drain 

on the treasury. There were 4j908jOOO tons of or* 

, on an average a little 

less than half an ounce of pure gold per ton. 
Though this yield was slighth 
former year*, it is not found that the ore of the 

than the surface outcropping*. The machinery 



ause 



smJM.000. an increase 



a power an 
'i per 



rer IBM. 



All the Transvaal mine*, gold and coal. 
at th- .-nd of 1806 a nominal n 

t. had been actual 
he mines and plant.* 
r;l oommtflM'm waa appointed to re- 

the measures of rel: 

uuirvd fn-m the (i This commission. 

. began it inveMipiiioni or ami 

.! the practical 

S n,-an.N-* ,.f th-- rttlamlem ll :i' V - . 

rre 183 gold mine* in 



mining 



There were 



the Tran^raal fn IHM. of whi gold 

of the total value of 8.608^81. while 1OI yielded 
no gold, roost of them U .te of derelop- 

ment and equipment, and onlv -j*. oompejiie* de- 
clare. total amowntb 

The high cost ..f d many of the 



116 



B COLONY AND Sol/Til AI-'KICA. 



mine* from paying dividends and caused some .to 
cease operations. The commission found that 
whatever had been the mistakes in the past, most 
;ues were controlled and engineered by 
financial and practical men. who devoted their 

energy, and knowledge to the interest of the 
mining induMrv. ami who had introduced the latest 
machinery ani mining appliances and the most 

. t methods and processes known to science. 
If the Government neglected to lighten the bur- 
dens of the mining industry and refused to co- 
operate in devising means to work lower-grade 
mine* at a profit, there was danger t hat loo 
which had cost from OOO.OOO > t..,., |U ,p 

and develop and averaged 10.000 a month in 
working expenses, would have to closedown, taking 
tho annual amount of 12,000.00" , of circula- 
tion. The encouragement of agriculture would 
have a beneficial effect on the industry by redu- 
cing the cost of living, but the granting 
sions hampered the industrial prosperitv of the 
colony. Tne question of labor was a vital one for 
the mines, for the cost of labor is f r. .m :.' 
e total cost of production. M 
from 18 to 80 a month, according to ability, and 
then wages are not excessive, considering the cost 
of living at the mines. In fact, they are only suffi- 
:ailv wants, and consequently it can 
not be expected that white laborers will establish 

permanent abode in the Republic unless their 
position is Ameliorated. The commijon recom- 
mended that labor contracts signed in Knrope be 
i as legal in the Transvaal, and that the 
OOSt of li\ .need for the white miners by 

removing all import duties from necessaries of life 
and transjM.rting thes*> to the mines at the cheapest 
possible rates. In respect to Kaffir labor, the in- 
dustry most draw its chief supply from the Portu- 
guese territory on the east coast, and the commis- 
sion suggested that fares to the mines on the 
Kafflrsper Railroad be reduced by two thirds, the 
difference to be recovered from the laborers on the 
return journey, and that premiums IK- paid to Kaf- 
fir chiefs fur the supply of laborers. The p; 

remcnt of the \Vitwatersrand mines is 70.000 
black laborers, and within three years 100,000 will 
be needed on account of the development of deep- 
level mines. It is recommended that the native 
commissioners receive extra pay for the purpose of 
visiting Kaffir chiefs j n the Transvaal to obtain 
lalwtrcrs (or them, and that laborers so obtained be 
conducted to the mines under supervision and 

1 in compounds on the way. The Minister of 
Mines has recommended a law comiH-llirig all idle 
natives lo work. The illicit sale of liquor to the 
native* at the mines constitutes a real i 
and a much stronger application of the li.junr law 
-'6 is required. It is also desirable that the 
number of licenses be gradually reduced. Transit 
duties are unfair and ought to be abolished. '> 
Iv th- Republic pays 600,000 to the neighboring 
British colonies. It is recommended th.v 
eminent negotiate to have these dutie* abolished, 
previously removing its own dutic* m, good- 
lined for the north. All im^ri duties on food 
staffs should be removed, as it i* imftossible to 
supply tho population of the Republic from the 

.'t of !.! agriculture. The price paid at 

\ plosives of all kind- 
as it might be, and the excess 
per case COM to enrich mdividua 
part resident in Europe, The commission r 
mends that the Monopoly be canceled, if it can be 
don,, legally. and that in the mean time ' 
ment avail its reserved right to ?aU j,,to 

vn hands the importation of dynamite and 
other explosives and supply them to the mines sub- 



je -t t<> a duty of not more than 20. per case: 
that the manufacture of < in the Republic 

be alloweti and protected b\ the >ame imp..|-t duty. 
and that the importation of di-tonat.-r> le free. 

(m the matter of railroad-, taking tin- i;ros- 
nue fn.in traOie at about "'<. a* in 

the commission advised the (iovernment to^rim- 
Mich a lowering of rates as will reduce the railroad 
earnings by 500,000, or 25 per cent., and i 
proceed to" the expropriation of th,- N. -iherlands 
<-oinpany if Mich reduction can be obtained on its 
line. The reduction oii-ht to be lar-e-t on tl , 
trallic. and the facilities for the deli\er\ .>f coal and 
1 -honld U- greatly Unproved on tho 
Hands line. The greatest facilities should, 
moreover, be given t<> the transport of all agricultu- 
ral produce at the I -.ami by ni.u'ht trains 
if re|uired. to the principal market's of t! 
public. 

To check theft* of pild ati<l amalgam, whi- ' 
found to be on the increase, the conuni->ion j-, 
mended a stringent law on the model of the illicit 
diamond law of Kimberley. The paxs law miu'lit 
be improved, but what is really required is i i 
should be applied more stringently, and it i 
gestexl that its execution be placed under th. 
t p'l of a local board on t he p>ld fields and 1 1 
ministration tran-fi-nvd from the .Mini-try of .Mm-^ 
to the Superintendent of Native*. The com mission 
recommended the appointment of a board or com- 
mi->ion in Johannesburg, consisting of ~> m< 
nominated by the (iovcrnnient and 4 deputed by 
the mine amociationfl ami merchants of the city. 

The people represent in: the mining it 
the Kami signed a petition urging expropriation of 
the Netherlands Railroad, abolition o| the <l\namite 
monopoly, vigorous administration of the liquor 
law, protection against gold thefts by a 
tective force, better enforcement of the pa 

and facilities for dealing \\ith native- 
badges and arresting d'.-eri.-rs. native 1... 
the procurement of a regtilar supplv of labor, and 
a reduction of customs duties in onh-r to cheapen 
the general cost of living. The Volk-raad declined 
to receive this petition, as it has a rule forbidding 
the acceptance of n.einorials coiii|iri*ing more than 
one subject. It has been computed that under 
favorable laws t lie mining industry might >;> 
per cent, in explosive gelatin and <l\nam; 
|>er cent, in coal, lo per cent in Iran-port. :, 
cent in native labor, and 87^ per cent, in 
labor, representing a total annual lossof ei.W 
The wages of white labor, including all emp 
from the manager down to t! 
of the nai ; fin on the average ::' 

of the total cost" ( ,f production : native lal 
cent.; explosives, jo JKT cent.: coal, s per 
stores, 19 per ral char--'*. r t per 

There are about 8,000 employees in the min 
ceivini: about l"J 1 per month." while the black .. 
ere, who outnumber the- white* eight or ten to 
cost 4 a month each, including pay and food. 
Dynamite, which an American Jinn offered to de- 
liver for 42. 7d. per case of 50 pound-, c,,^ fr<>m 
f." t Coal costs Ss. per ton at th- 

mouth, and 'J0. s./. in tlie gold fields, ab' 

distant. The Netherlands Railn-ad. with a 
capital of fl.H;.-,.(HKi.,-anie,l J 1 .:;::i.ood in IHOfl 
arnl | '1-ing expenses and the guar.. 

intere-t ..n jt- loan-. Of the nrofits the st?i' 

i I'.'il I.OOO a- it- -hare. The State can expro- 
priate the railroad after a year's notice, and the 
company bargained for an extension of the col 

.r- a the price of a reduction in 
tariffs. In September the Natal (iovernment re- 
moved mr.st of the transit duties, practical! \ 
dering Durban a free port. 



\i> SOITH API.. 



117 






.an Inqulrj. The |rliamen- 

for a year, and finally 

497. to !- r.'.i 

'an Republic by an armed force, 

tiion ..f i! 
' ..iiii^i!^ rt-iMirt t 



re the in.|.. 

>n league ami other 
.41** | .art 

none v ami ann* 

MOT on the border for t h- 

. 

*d show.. I tiuit tin- design 
(lair. Id* plead- 



was it 

HarriM, 



i the border. l-ut 

t.i thr turn tli 

i hit Tendon of the i-"ti\.-r-:iti.-ti. which was 
that I'r Harris li;i>l offered to make a confHriit ml 

10 had at once stopped him and re- 
vive any confidential Informal 

jtMKl, who had to do 

heae matters in th. '-towed 

th.it he was partly informal of tin- revolutionary 
^HfeSttiof thr('a|M- I'r, ; 
h officer* 
1 br Jameson ami K h. .!* into be- 

< iovrrnment was * 

tig the design <f <>\, r t) Pretoria 

nment and aim. Aim; th.- Trannraal. 
cmmrtr.1 ..nVrr- P8N r. ! ind before - rs ._ 

>ffloe to restore th. junior officer* to 
-ray, saying thnt hi- had guarantee*! 
Won*, d.i. j - . : inf.iriiii' i i'\ !>r JWM ii 
that the ei|iedition wan umlertaken with the knowl- 
edge and aswrnt ;--nnl niith.-riii. v < 

' thnt it witH ju, Sir .I.-ht, 
1. 11 the ooron> 
B were people in Kiitflnml who 

-<e namea Mr. Klnxlee refused 
' cablegram*, believi 

|M-rha|>o ' 

hrone, he anl. after hi*) depart utv, hin (xxinwl. 

i the 
committee exercise its p- 

rerious r^r Kihitl to Mr. rhamU-rla.. 

iirt wan alo awar 

was staled by one of the counsel 
reasons of Mate that 

v Ijabotichrrr. after 

bcini:chAlloi)c.-.i u \ .-i lu-it ai -1 IT Harrfa lo 

nid waaaccmnpanied 
>|ornti.ns in n 
tocka by its pronotem withdrew his accusatioos 









the stock broken on whose evidence be re- 

... 1 :'.-. -i -,- '. ' ', 

mSSSTt '' ' . . . . 

noritr r*|-rt. The import of n,r cuatmita ex- 

..;-.,. , f \ ' : i: . j; 
tltr further rxeeptlon ol 



to his absence In South Africa; but the com- 
the board, in firing to Mr. 
orney to do what be liked with- 
out consulting hie colleague* and ^"mmfttinr to 

not fulf: 

found that graVe 



;-' - 

to promote 



.(..hann^biirg. but thal.vhatrirr ju- 

uders may hare ha<i for art ion. there was none 

r of the 
h South >n|ny. and dinwtur of 

his position and those intereata to promote his 

an armed in*urm-tion against 

.. puJ.hr. and had employed the 

IM. 1 1.- serioosly emberressfd both the im- 

perial an-l colonial government n. and hb proceed- 

ureaion of a friendly state and 

the right 

thr 1 iiixi!.-.l th.- Traii-vaal without hb 

niithority. it uatt always a part . f t.- plan that 
those forces should be used in the Trannraal in sup- 
port of an iiiHirn-rtion. Such a | 
lwrkr.1 u|..n iiu-vital'ly invnlTed Mr. 
grare breaches of duty to those to whom be 
U^nrM, II- .i.-.-ired th Bifi 
I,.- com Mled h> rfc \> fr- ;.> :; aj .. i .:. 
ial ministry and from thcb*r 

any. and led his 
to believe that hb plans were approved by his so- 
nt. The commit tee expressed in conclusion en 
absolute and unqualified condemnation of tne raid 
plan- *hirh n.a.l,- .t |^iM,-. There- 
in 1 f>r the time being grate injury to Brit- 
Mi ir Soul- 
was shaken, race feeling embittered, and 
difficulties wen- 

IMplomatir IM-putrv-In Oetober. 1885. the 

on the Vaal river to oversee go- 

nation of arms, although the j r 
put fi>rward was that the Cat* railnd* were 
damaging other railroads lea' fo Trans- 

vaal. Sir Jacobun 

.il. den.Miiu^l thb as an unfriendly a> 

trade from the (ape port*. V I' 

lienerai. 
it a violation of the * 

m.nt pmtested on this 

J that if tK. excrp- 

dosing of the drift* 

a \ j-'l.-iti.-u . f !.. :.\' !.': 

ain tele- 






ET; 



graphed that the extension of the proclamation to 
colonial foods was almost an ad of bostffiftT, and 



< ,;- 

wa. determined t.. obtain a compliance 
with its demands, even if it should be necessary to 



NY AM' SOt'Tll AFKK'A. 



A warlike expedition into t ho Transvaal, the 

CCgt Of Wl. <M. \crnmellt Would 1)001- 

peeted to share. The Cape ministry acquiesced, 
aiming to bear half tin- total expense MM to fur- 
nish a fair contingent of the fighting force. The 
v . - M: i; . lea, heft red thai I.-- ooold 

lit tO 

support such at;n. In foapoaat to tha threi 
ingmeseage of Mr. ChnmU-rlain. the Transvaal 
Government opened the .In ft* <n Nov. 6, 1895, and 
announced tlmt they would not again be closed 
without consultation" with the lint. :uent. 

; roteeted in a subsequent communication that 
u had M r -uUU' the ports of entrance, 

offering to submit the quest ion to arbitration. The 
Cfcpe ministers requested th.it the assurances th.-y 
had given with n-fervnce to hostile action bo re- 
... . , ; : . i.-..,:. N,,r wn- it ever 

known how ready the Cape Government had been 

to go to war with tin- Transvaal until Mr. M.-rri- 
man on April 6, 1897. demanded the production of 
t !,.- |per* in the Cape Parliament in order to show 
that tin- Rhodes ministry promised on a paltry 
mutter of i arms an ultimatum 

of the hn|Hrial Government. 

When the British Minister for the Colonies, 
Joseph Chamberlain, finally proposed a parlia- 
mentary investigation of the Jameson raid and the 
mpanv he declared that the situ- 
ation in South Africa mid not improved, that I 
dent Krugvr. though he had stated that his desire 
was "to heal sores, to forget, and to forgive," still 
withheld ' d full and favorable consid- 

eration to the friendly representations of the Mrit- 
ish Government, and that recent laws of the Volks- 
raad were contrary to the London convention and 
wnild create, if they were enforced, a situation 
that would require "'all our prudence, all our im- 
partiality, and all our |ati< v The I'riti-i 
rrtan ilirmcd that the raid wasindissolubly 

Vied with the discontent in Johannesburg. 
which was founded on the grievances of the I'it- 
landers. and any inquiry into the origin of the raid 
would be a sham unless' it went carefullv into this 
Question of grievances and determined hove far 
these afforded a justification for that discontent 
and agitation in Johannesburg which made the 
raid possible. 

In consequence of the Jameson raid and the 
Johannesburg revolution the Yolksraad had pa--ed 
a law for the expulsion of any foreigner who by 
w..rd or writing excites to disobedience or trans- 
gression of the Taw or takes any steps dangerous to 
public peace and order. Another law empowered 
the President to prohibit the circulation of printed 
iblished matter the contents of which are in 
hi- judgment contrary to good morals or a danger 
to the peace and order in the Republic. There was 
also a law establishing a censorship over press 
telegrams. Another law required aliens traveling 
in th S.uth African Republic to take out pass- 
ports. An alien immigrants law, based more upon 
-rex-ailing in South Africa. 

rvotiired of aliens intending to settle in the Re- 
public that th-v should bring n certificate from 
their h- -me ant h ritiei : hat 1 1,,-y possessed the means 
or the ability to support themselves and would not 
become a burden uj-.i, the community. 

Mr. Chamberlain found in these- new laws viohi- 
"f the on .f 1884. The alien immi- 

grants law, ho wid. imjowl a new condition on 
the entrance of British MibjWt- into the Trai 
besides that of conforming to the laws of the Re- 
public, which alone WH- defined in the London 
convention, and this new condition it would be 
difficult for many of th, i* rfectly 

respectable immigrants to satisfy. The other alien 



:ipo^-d burdens upon aliens traveling or read- 
ing in the Republic in excess of t he coiulit ion laid 
The Slat.' Secretary, hr. 

-.contended that these were police laws, hut 
this Mr. Chamberlain would not admit. Tin 

in >t el hat the Government of the South 
African Republic would be grateful if the P.riiish 

:nment would propose some other practical 
measure for the exclusion of undesirable immi- 
grants. Eventually the immigrant In 
pealed without any admission that it was an in- 
'ii of i he convention, after an agreement with 
the governments of Natal and Cape Colony, in 
conformity with which the latter enacted in th,. 
summer a law restricting immigration. Mr. Cham- 
berlain, in the convs|,,,ndence. al: \ iola- 
tioiis of the convention. A t n at - utioii 
with the Netherlands, signed "n N"\. '.'. i s !'". had 
not been submitted to the I'.riti-h (iovernmcnt for 
until attention was railed to the omission 



the exchange of ratifications, The extradi- 
tion treaty with Portugal, signed on N'..\ . :;. is'.CJ. had 
not \ ibmilti-d for t : 

On S. >!. the S.utli African Rei.ublie, 

without waiting for the invitation of the British 
rnment. formally communicated to the Swiss 
Government its act of accession to ti 

ntion. The aliens expulsion law was like the 
immigration law. declared to be contrary to the con- 
vention. Like exec | it ion wa- taken t" t he pjv-- law. 
and when the l> Cril i<- " and " Star." t he Uitlandei 
papers, were suppressed, the Briti-h (i<>v. rnment 
demanded explanati 

The claim of the South African Republic upon 
the British South Africa Company for : 
account of Dr. .Iame-on\ raid amounted 
938, of which IMS77.938 represented ex; 
nected with putting rinnimuuln* in the field and 
compensation for the commandeered burirh- !-. and 
1,000,000 represented " moral or intellectual .lam- 
age." President Kriiger in-isteil .n the right of 
the South African Republic to submit to arbitral ion 
the question of indemnity and ot her matter- of mn- 
troversv. Mr. Chamberlain asserted in Parliament 
that arbitration on the convention was out of the 
question, such being unprecedented between a BU- 
/erain and a subordinate power. This fiv-h assump- 
tion of suzerainty, whicn was expunged from the 
convention of iss-J by the omission of the . 
contained in the convention of lv*l. rai-e.l a -torm 
of protests in Pretoria, ami drew from Pn-ident 
r an explicit denial that the relation of su- 
ity sj ill ^ulisi^ted. 

Treaty nith the Oran-c Tree state. 1 
of the menacing attitude of the Briti-h (; 
ment. President Kri'i^eri, in P.loemfoiitcin 

a defensive alliance between the South Africa 
public and the i Irani:'' Kn-e Slate and the prelimi- 
nary arran^'cinents for a closer political union be- 
tween I he republics One article of t ho 
treaty provides that the burghers of each stal 
to have the franchise in the other. If either 
i- attacked the oth- U) come to its .. 
ance with its full fighting f.-rc... \vhi<-h wonl-i 
a combined army of about H.OIMI men I.etween the 
ages <f eighteen and fifty, the Tran-vaal c.,ntrib- 
nting 'JT.(KK) and the (i: 

This treaty \va< ratified by the two Yolk-: 
Each state* undertakes to help the other win i 
its independence is threatened either from without 
or from within. Interstate laws about f>,,t,,/,<tn</'> 
and other subjects connected with the alliance shall 
be passed by the legislatures of hoth countri' 
federal council shall IHJ created, consisting of 10 
delegates, half of them nominated by the Pre-id-nt 
of the Ora- ^tate and half by the Pi-esident 

of the South African Republic, and this council is 



SOITII API: 






-v year, a! M Bloemfontein and 

,t. especially the mutual protection, the com- 

' 

. two .tain, and objection* thai may 

HIM. n.ut ion* tending to favor 

.* two countries, and 

qneatioM at the respective government* 



a* politician or statesman can be, nothing 
been prove*!, and. m mr opinion, there i* noth 



or a statesman can be, nothing ha 

If SJM 

ulland. In aeeordanct 

% arranged between li and 

vaal government* on 1* 
ItdM M M IBM ',-. \ .,.. h 



| : : 

- .' . 



hall alwa 
ion*. The* de 
gate* are 

. re|ctivr \olksraads fi 
bjtetoftl 

union I- 

i ..- Preparation*, At thr 
Chamberlain wa* di<tnandin n 

I t l*MM.lt 

i 



illee, was Anally placed under the 

u.ln.n... ; rv. | '<<,... - .':. .' , 



lime that 



t placed by the convention of 1MB 
ernment c 

% Wil_ Ht-^ tmm 4t juif i ** I l. * J ~ . - i 

I . j . i . . 1 . : : 

Tran. aal. and the native* retain their right 

to govern Ihesisslvss after their laws and custom*, 

three years they mn*t pay a but tai t.. 

the Boar Oo*tnisjaf)t IPO other tales borne by the 

he Tranvaal. 



M of llri' 

*U^ !*. ; i , i 

] . unless u was 10 inumiuaie ine i resiueni aim 
taad in t!,,- n ho immigration bill. 

as a 

that Hn(ih supremacy 
he sum of 900.000 was put into the mili- 

nred that their *tr 

largely augmented during the spring, and 
ioned near the fro ie re- 

' .- er and 

r<-e of iiiij.. ri.! tronnefn 
Afri.-u i 8,240 men. V 

Transvaal <io\. rnment proceeded with 

toria, and 
Krupp llrld ami fortress gun- 

usands of rifles, and millions of 

. the red -n of 

Knurllsh miliiu: 

of n,:(N in, -it. iix-liidinc the already 
existing Cape mounted rlflea, numbering !.l |( " 

1 into r, 
and service is to be compulsory on all w 

v years of age. Th. 
. d with heavy guns, and a burgher 
r.-x-rv.- ..f -.MNM. nan ii ., i,- brmed 

\lfnxl Miln.-r arm 
umiwioner f.-r S-.tth Africa. 

ionol 

Brit- 
bb colonies. The o. 

nent showed that a forward ; 

MipiMirt. On Mav 1? the lint'- 



full 



UN ^ilrr 1 

Krftger ord-T.-.i tin- r. !-<* o| A i > i , - , i 
i jail, who had ! 

'lii-h \va. ; 
Inson when thrv laid down th.tr ;\r:\:-. hut was 

It it* report he - 
ugh Mr. Rhodes was in about as gnat a fault 



and other white settlers can obtain 
burgher right*. The sale of intoxicant* to 
ives to forbidden, Swailand is 

miles in extent, with a native 
etimatcdUtwe*n 40000 and TO^OOaivfTAO white 
tattler*. The people are closely akin to the Zulus. 
and ipcakadifr. 
Ngw.. i>unu. the |iaramount chief, 

-.000 men. The local revenue for I*M 
was CM in... : 140,630. 

Brlii^hs,,,,ti, Urica( 

Kl l ..l,Mal l a M ,r,,v,.M:-. l ,!. bjEsjaj || .: 

- .' '-. . '! .-'. '..'-'.... 

> areas in both Mashonaland and 

,-leland. and iiiniimt rahle claims : 
lil.-d and shaft* have been sunk at I'm tali. SeJnv 
l>tir\. Muluway. lati. and other 

s. The whole n k 'i.|d taken out from 

nil 1H97 has teen le** than 6.000 
ounces, worth aU.ut 

d. l.ut the cost of transportation has been 

hitherto. The railroad from Beira was 

eonplfltodto M*~\ Eatsi n, ti, bagudsw< ' >: 

vas expected to reach Salisbury by the middle 

of 1806. The railmail from Cape Colony through 

iimaland to Iluluwayo was opened on Nov. 4. 

1807. Coal ha* been found near Salisbury, abosjl 

60 mile* west of Buluwayo. and in I'- , huanalaud. 

The agricultural resource* of the country are 

l.-nt. ami wat. r i abundant. Hut afniculture must 

d< t- r.d t.' -, th, .; .. | :...:.' f !>., fc - : 

lottfT, I n .upht ami locust* have affected 
agriculture her. frtca. 

and tl dttea*ea that 

Atth tin- raising of horses, ca: 

rers make the low country al- 

,i.l,- for e elevated 

plateaus are cool and healthful There are MJBOO 

4.000 feet or over, n 

above the sea. Com pan ie* have been formed to farm 

Khode*. who has brought 

.e country, and ha* large 

investments into railroads and other proper! v. has 
given much attention to the development of agri- 
rulture and stock br- The rinderpest ha* al- 

most tlterminated the cattle 

rthe rappreeMon of the rebellion of t ho M*. 
tahele and Mashonas that began when Jameson^ 
rai.l into the Transvaal left the country without 
mill!. > ion. I^-nl (J rev. the Administrator 

Jameson, ami hi* n -w tff .f 
officials decided on the policv of native admit 

.tu re. The Mat a I -rle chief*, 85 in 

number, were summoned to Buluwayo in the begin- 

-1T7. to hear how the country 

should henceforward be ruled. Instead of five dto- 






Al SolTH AFIIlrA. 



tricta, under Lobengula, there w velve, 

.1. -h .-f which would be placed chief, who 

would be I .aid by the Government and U> held re- 

.' good conduct ..ft!..- distn 
Mtmissioner and aw is tan t would tw sta- 
tioned in each district, and over nil would I- the 
native coinmimionrr in Hub i the 

Matabelcland is aU.ut I.^MUH. 
verme population ,,f a b over 1 

f the chief* rh.M-n were friendlier, and 
had taken part in the n U-lli-.n. 
The parliamentary riff committee failed 

:Hrt on the administration .-f t- South 

uffgest any alterations in 
KhodeaiaT leaving the nmtirr to 
bedsit -iiU-rUin. who called into 

ronwltation the director* and officers of the Booth 

rtin. who was 

n-ioned to investigate alTair- in Kh 
a report so damaging that the board of the 
Chartered Company asked tune t,. put in an an 

answer was given in a report by Karl G 
which in no way removed the gravamen of the 
:-. Sir Kichard Martin reported that c.un- 
r undoubtedh . .Matabelcland. 

if not 'in Mashonaland. The native oommiasiooen 
pnMMirvd such labor for the various requirementa 

.f the Government, mining rompanies. and pi 

ftO obtain it through the imln- 
fMU. if they could, and. failing in this, using force. 
As regards' the rattle question. Sir Richard Martin 
was.' . -ti that the fatal mistake made by 

mpany in claiming all cattle as the pr- 

of the king 'inune.liat.-ly after the war, and the un- 

'iat mu>t have existed in the native mind 

regarding the proprietorship of the cattle previous 

distribution, together with the irritation 

canard by the fre-p.-nt drafts mad.- by the native 

! finally the unsatisfactory division, could 

not fail to product widespread discontent and dis- 

Many who were entitled by native; law to 

cattle were left without, though others rc< 

han their share. In new regulations is-ned 
in 1885 the company deprived natives of a part of 
that had 'been given to them in the first 
The company had, contrary to the charter, 
granted a monopoly of the tnealie trade to a single 
r. The causes of the insurrection Sir Richard 
Martin believed to have been the fact that the Mata- 
had never been thoroughly subdued in con- 
junction with labor and cattle regulation- and the 
rindcr|M**t and forcible slaughter of cattle, while 
the withdrawal of the police by Dr. Jameson afford- 
ed t he opportunity. At the close of the war of 1893 
scarcely any arms were surrendered to the Govern- 
ment: most ..f th.-m were buried by the natives with 
a view to utilizing them again in* the endeavor to 
reassert their independence as soon as a favorable 
opportunity presented iteelf. After the war . 
certain of the chiefs agreed to supply labor, but 
soon ceased to do so, and the Government, finding 

:T. introduced the practice of 
thf natives and carrying them on to labor in the 
mines, which t.. t!,.- Matabele. a wild and unbroken 
people, seemed nothing less than slavery. The na- 
tive police were guilty of many acts of cruelty and 
extortion. The officials were in some cases too 
xperieneed for th- important posU 
held, and men not calculated to inspire the 
natives with respect for themselves or the Oovern- 
repre*ented. A large sex-lion of t|,.. 
Matabele i I at oppo natives, wboae 

fj playel an important part throughout th< 
rebellion, were not dealt with at all in 1803, and 
>f 1898 might be considered, so far 
as they were concerned, a continuation of the war 
rather than a rebellion. 



The company agreed in isn-l to return to the 

. ;! MilVicient for their needs, but tin 
never done. Instead of this t he stalT of nat i\ e coiu- 
and |Nili< d for the purp- 

ut the system of compulsor\ labor. 
and 'brand' - l.-n^ini: t" the n'atives, 1 . 

forcing natives into the >er\ ice of the 

\vhit.-N or compelling the chiefs to furnish lab 
Whenever a native commi i..ncr went to one of the 
tii'l'inn* ami said that a certain number <>l men 

required at a g|\ni place, the chief \\a- ' 

jiire the men to go. and i 

their homes and compelled to go and to \\.. 
wages in the fixing <>f \\hirh they had no \ 

The chiefs \vho took part in t'he n-ln-llion of 
were thoroughly conquered, and not likely . \ 
contend against Maxim guns again. Not onls -lid 

, -e heavily in men killed, wounded, and taken 

I -ut their kraals were burned and i 
all their grain and cattle carried off or 
so that they were left on the Verge of 
and their people only saved from famine 1 
bounty of their victors. 

In Mashonaland the r. com- 

pletcly subdued. The police i.atn.lled the country, 

ling those who attacked friendlier or \\ 

In- end of .lanuar; 

and burned the kraal of the chief S.-ka. W!IOM- i 
lied to inaccessible caves. In t he beginning : 
more active ofHTations were uiidi-rtaU.-n. Shai 

,-hold, which the Matabele had alwa\s failed 
to take in their raids airainst the Ma-h-'iuis. was 



captured by C.il. il- . When the rebels 

were cleared from the plains the tn>,.|,s ), ;i d to hunt 
them out of the caves in the hills, whence they de- 
srendcd to lift cattle and destroy rrop>. The t 
continental telegraph wii rn d..\vn I 

c.HiV. rted into bullets. The troops establish. 

Ions and built forts round the hills, as was ,I,,MC in 
Matabeleland. and demolished the caves \\ it h cxplo- 
On.Iuly 10 Chicumba's kraal, on the I'livani 
river was captured, ami the remaining rebels lied 
from this district. In the vicinity of l-'..rt Charter 
lighting still went on. The Matabele al Marandelhi 
ro8e,but were soon su|>j>ressed. Sir Richard Martin 
took command of operations against Ma-hingombi, 
whose kraal was taken bv a combinc.l movement of 
police and hussars on July 'J."i. The Hartley di-i ri-t 
was cleared and the rebels fnkkul northward \<>- 
\\ard the Xambesj. It was supposed that the S 
beli-. though generally ijuiet tnemselves, incited the 
M ashonas to rise. After some mori light- 

ing the rebellion exhausted itself early in September, 
when most of the reln-l chiefs offered to surrender, 
and all were evidently anxious for peace. They 
were given to understand t fiat they would be t n 
leniently if they surrendered promptly and gave up 
their guns. 

Portiiirnese possessions. The Portuguese pos- 
sessions in Africa south of the c<|iiatr are reduced 
by tin- A;;. arrangement of .Tun- 11, 

1^*1. t- Angola and lleiiguela. "ii the v 
with Ambrix. Mossamedes. and Portuguese r 
having a total estimated area of -I^T.-VK) - 
milesand 2.000.000 inhabitants, and Port 
Africa, comprising the provinces <,f Mo/ambijue 
and I ics. which have an estii 

area of 261.7<x> square miles liw \ a population of 
1.500,000. In Angola, which had in 1895 a rev 

'i:t4,800 milreis, and expei, ',;? milreis. 

the imports amount t. 'J.^T'MiOO milrei- and the 
exports to 3,250.000 inilrei-. Then- an- IMI miles 
of railrrls in operation, and 'J:{0 miles ni"i 
partly built. The length of telegraph liru 
miles. The boundary between Angola an 
British sphere in Central Africa is the w 
limit of the Barotse kingdom. This kingdom is 









1 in th.- Hriu-h sphere, and it* boundary. 
nal agreement that ha* 
itended till 

\ i rica iiarta from a i 

utenection wit 
! i ee east war* I t ti.- 

( loi.-iiu.ir. (,!, i, || i Qofji ithwai '. 



I It 



a plateau -.ml.-.' 
than follow* down ' 

;.T ,,f (( 

roe* iii a traij;ht In., to the northeastrrn 

f i he .south African He- 

^^p, --of Lourenco 

><U inland to |*ke NyaMa, being : 
nan Kat Africa by the river Kovtima, 
/umlm. hut the 

Afn.-aii proterto. <ya**a- 

take* in thecajctorh and 
Uem shores of i*-u ami 

MoUMIlllO de A ll.il - 

1805 was 

^^^d the exports to 87,122. At (^uilimnn- the 


180.570; c\ 

Marques, which 
<>pean population of l.Tlio. tin- imports 


4*689,213. ipal im|x)rta are oottonit. 

id wine. The exports a i -Mil 

Man; 

year* the district* of Manica and Sofala. The rail- 

rans- 

vaal < in 

an. I -J'."i niili-n in all. The 
" from 
i* open f 

^raj.h liu- 

JiiUmrrandLcM 

I'ramivaal. 

-In Man h an , was sent 

Vimarallos, 

k- later five 

<<a*nlaml The rev. 






: ic scene of action with wh 
intl (nun M<zaint>i<|tu\ II 

.; Marqua.aml art 
IM*|V .f tnx>pd*nffroualTinaU 

a on UM ZMabtd oadartbi : f 

! 'nrtafnate gunlnat . IDAWA 
. and al*o caitun<l two cannon. Ot> 

inh.> de AII>u M . 

a*aland. n 

J>oN iik-nin at 

tinjr 
' 
: killed and all the other 



< III Mix M^ in hu annual reritw of 
,rd nolkMM 

nU of the vtr UM liqiM- 
*nL Iloiaui and bmr. 

rtant ,-rk the a 
notlUBf but a little more eonfuti.*, ov 

J ft ft Ut,i. ,:??- 

Mneoaal value. The aotonns of chrm^ 
lending every jmr in new direction*. 1 

t.ed principally by the deUm 
umea, the nisntursmant of oooetaiits. and by more 



.- ,.. | . M ftteUt : - PM | " '." r | 

l>a* M-.-I... ,enew 

was getting to pure at to be useless, studenta arv 
coming ln tradition* of Gay IAMUUC anl 

II. r'!.. I.!;,:.- . . ' , 

( .e want, of mankind. Thtt*. 



ulge has tetUd various depo. 




in 0-13 of a gramme per ton. It is not only 
i* so widely disseminated, but also, as 
Mr. Hartley has hown. the rare earths and mrtahv 
In 03 .iiiT.'-r.-nt Iron ore/ he found al 
rubidium, 

iiromina, and iodine combine with 

will not <io M, . 

Tapors. Many retiog r 

of which have not yet been *umci 
to make them of more than t- hm ., 

< h. mi. ..I Hi 

anl V i German Association of Natu- 

raUataand i ' I, vsicista, on the relation* of theoretical 

>try and research to national induMr 
cluiietl a review of the mctamorphost* of the theory 
.: t\|-* into that of the valence of the 
ultimately gave rise to the chem- 
istry of the benzol derivative*. The practical and 
economical re?- nit- of these theoretical doctrine* 
were manifested in ti.. r>.- . f t)u- coeJ- tar indus- 
tries, which have <-xervi*ed an immen*e influence 
and havecontr. 

.-ieiie and medicine. The long atriea of coal- 
tar or aniline colors, * the introduction on a large 
and cheap scale of carbolic and salic/lic adds, and 
the ever-increasing array of ynttx 
an- 1 ..ther remedial agent*, made 
and triumphant way to all countries, and the chem- 



i. sj Indastn ej ri > i .1.; -... .. . 

ami prt* 'ne of the 

n,o.t remarkable ih.ng.^ in tl,i ,.;,/. n .*. th.t 
laboratories of the manufacturit 
and of the great color works 
the chemical and rlintcal rt-< , 
in this rn.i- aft. r M-ientiflc and practical achiere- 
meat, and had im|>oilant |rts in the progrem of 
.-.io- ami pniu*t ion as applied to 
tain tar> and therapeutical science* and art*. More 
recently the discovery and employment of 
therapy have introduced an additional fart 



thorapy have 
the 

The 



of modern chen 



.. 

r-- , . 



Moh aiT^oto^raphy. s^armaking and niSZ 
tanning, and brewing. A* a norel and prosf 
branch of applied science, electrochemistry it be- 
ng more and more prominent. 
Dilations tending to assigi 
properties to particular atoms or 



122 



CIIMMISTKY. 



ome support from observations by Prof. cl.v.s,.,, of 
certain hydroxymethylen. M, which he de- 

Kri it being all >i r . ng monobasic adds, The; 
can all be accurately estimated l.\ with 

normal alkali in aqueous alcoholic solution. Th.-y 
y. even in tin* roM. in aqueous solu- 



dissolve freely 
tions of alkali 



liU-ratinc a 

Among mbfUneet composed of carbon, hydrogen, 
ami oxygen only, and not containing a carboxyl 



group, they Appear to be the first that approach 
the monocarboiylic acids (except forum a. i-li m 
Strength ; and they even surpass some . .f t h,-m. 

tau-l.t that the alco- 



even surpa 
n generally t 
of sugar by 



!e it has been 

holic fermentation of sugar by yeast was intimately 
associated with and dependent on the living n 
<>f the yeast cell, -in.- investigators have l>. 
that. notwithstanding the apparent iin|N.s,sibilitv >f 
separating an alcoholic ferment from its orpmism. 
such a body nevertheless exists, and that alcoholic 
n i- thus after all. only a special case 

iumry enrcnie action, although n- of ; 
iar complexity. These views receive confirmation 
from the researches of Dr. E. Bochner. By pound- 
log up pure yeast with quartz .-and and adding a 
certain amount of water, thi- author was able to 
squeeze out. under a pressure of between 400 and 
000 atmospheres, a liqui<l which, wlu>n filtered, pre- 
sented an opalescent appearance and an agreeable 
yeastlike odor. Care was taken to exclude all or- 
ganisms from the liquid, and it was found, under 
such conditions. al>le to excite alcoholic fermenta- 

M solutions of suitable sugars. The fermenta- 

process was not inhibited by the addition of 

chloroform. even up to the saturation point, but a 

rapid precipitation of albuminous substances from 

the liquid was causal thereby. 

Beginning in the " American chemical Journal " 
a review of progress in t n- chemist ry of t he carbohy- 
drates during 1890, W. E. Stone says that activity 
in that field is unabated, and it is' becoming more 
and more evident to the student that the carbo- 
hydrates present opportunities for the study and 
illu*t ration of chemical theories in no way exceeded 
by their very great practical and technical impor- 
tance, The continued study and development of 
new reactions among them has been so fruitful that 
they may now be fairly regarded as among tin 
most reactive of the general classes of carbon com- 
pounds. A large n ii m her of characteristic reac 
nave been well studied, involving the general prin- 
ciples of polvnicri/.ation. condensation, oxidation, 
reduction, ether, and ester formations, etc. Con- 
trary to the former view that the carbohydrates 
xtremely unstable and sensitive compounds, 
it now apjH'ars that they are capable of undergoing 
th- most manifold changes, as regards both their 
chemical features and their physical prop* 
The sugars offer the best-known examples for illus- 
trating the principles of stereo-chemistry, while the 
latest researches indicate that ragar molecQli 
unstable systems in which a vnri.-ty of inter molecu- 
lar transformations may be induced. 

In some of his experiments on the formation and 
transformation of mil id Inidips Prof. Ostwald used 

.pat hie trituratives,and d.-termined th> 
tiviiy in a physical chemical matter. In them he 
applied the well-known property jossessed by crys- 
talline bodi<~ of determining the crystallization of 
solutions of their own HI lit ion 

called M overcooled " when brought in contact with 
them. Seeking to discover how small a part Me of 
the crystal substance would be sufficient to deter- 
mine crystallization, he. in order to obtain 
minn .ne particles, triturated tin- crystals 

with powdered quartz or with milk SULMT. The 
proportion'* of the triturated substance to the in- 
different vehicle in the several trituratives are di- 



minished by tenths from -^ in the first trit unit ion 
to nrpgrrtoflBBO i ''"' tenth. Crystalli/ation \\ :i -, 
induced win M no highrr than the ninth trituration 
(TTJoWdJTOOo) Was U> ral siiliMane.-s like 

salol, would work with this trituration only when 
freshly prepared; when older, the third trituratioD 
(-raW) would still Induce crystallisation, but not the 
i he fourth (nrfarA Only a sin I ion to this 

nil law was found iii the case .t borax. \\hieh 
induced crystalli/.ation H- far ;i- tin- seventeenih 
trituration. Tin- result seemed so astonish in;; t<> 

Prof. Ostwald that he most carefully made another 
series of tr hidi the ninth tritu, 

(nrdfloSoono) WHS Mill active, whilr the higher tritu- 
ratl- : H far I" 

the ninth t rit urat j..n. but Prof. Ostwald % a c\'p.-ri- 
ments are in favor of the act ivity of minute medical 
doses, for when the i nnooWqo part of a grain 
licient to priNluce si. rrsull.s a> the solidifi- 

cation of a solution l>y the formation of rr\ 
we can hardly say that" the ninth trituration 
tains no more" of the active sul^tai 

A series of researches have been carried on f.,r 
six yojir- l.y .Mr. A. I-'.. Tuttou into the relation that 
may exist between the chemical composil 
Substances and the nature of the crystal- which 
they are observed to form. The aulho'r sought 68- 
.\ t" determine exactly the differences pre- 
sented by certain well-dclined series of i-omorphoiis 
salts. The investigation was one calling for the 
r. ful methods. Certain series con- 
taining in their different members the alkali metals 
pot a iu m. rubidium, and c.-rsium, were eho-i-n a- 1 he 

lal objects of the study. The result of the in- 
restigation has been to show thai all the morpho- 
]o-jc;ti properties of each of the isoiu.rphou- 

exhiliit progressive variations that follow the order 
of progression of the atomic weights of the alkali 
metals which the salts contain. Hence it may In- 
said that th.-e variations are functions of the atomic 
weight of the alkali metals. Of course, the author 

_rht is only one of the nun. 

properties of an element, and is employed simply a- 
the most convenient reference constant that could 
be chosen - fundamentally the dill- 

in the essential nature of the atoms of different 
elements, and not because of any virtue in atomic 
weight verse. r.xpre-<ion i- Driven to the principle 
dedooea in the words. "The difference in the 
nature of the el.-ini-nts of the same family group 
which is manifest ed in their varying atomic wi 
is also expressed in the similarly regulai 
of the characters of an Isomorpho f the 

salts of which these elements are the interchange- 
able constituents." 

I'rof. G. Linck had already i-alled attention : 
fact that the characteristics ,,f crystals tbi 
their geometric and optical 'id in 

direct relation to the atomic or molecular w- 
contained in them. This i< most clearly shown in 
the cut ni by which is meant e 

milarly, but differing onlf 

in tliat they each contain a 'different element, 
thoiiL'h the elements are yet similar a^-onlini: '" 
the periodic system of Mendeleeff. If such a 
series is arranged acr-ordiiiL' t" increasing in- 
Iar r,r atomic weight, then the -erics, for all charac- 
teH-tics of the crystal, remains unchanged. The 
author has designated the fundamental law i.f 
phenomena a- entropy." Tables computed 
from data embracing the *vstcrn to whicli tin 
tal b tfl axial relations, the specific gr. 

and tin- atomic weight lead to the com-ln-ion- that 
the actual volumes of the various chemical corn- 
is if formed into equivalent crystals stand in 
a very Dimple relation to each other: the weights 
of these equivalent volumes stand in the same P-U- 



manr. 






h other M ihi; molecular 

iN.mio weight*; the weights of 
rolumesnlwu 

--M- -!ni..J 111 a verjr iinbl r* 

i-h ..ih.-r a< flu.;; |0 '.'. U - 
if tual xnlume, M the MM li 
aNwhirh I.,. 

tio or isomorphie art, not so. since thry 
osses* A larger or smaller moieoator 

1 t*m KAIII- 
- th, Itriltth A* 

Of Mpposing the exiei*4Me of an unli- 



ical chamsK one of which brings abou' 
datiuo. while the other forms what u callrd 

that -a I 

th* Mine quant 

r*y put* forward the uew that ag- 



.a. i. 



ved that innn 



.11 tin- 

hrlliim. The 
.ti-i in 



Manganese; oxygen. Mil|hur. < hroimum ; 

'mi-- ntehl f l" IB I helium of In': . 
mpo*ed < 

lUmsay and hi* awUtant was 

n. 11 WM aw. 
obably U> f..iin.i ,,1 helium. 

Trill CH-. '\ rX.illllUllu' !.',.- L'li"- fr-'MJ 

MI by UiffuM .'h poitrat 

r.-Milt furlh.-r than r 180 
of lu-iiuii. 

' which w.i .. r hi liuin 

of put U, I. 

. far Irs* til-uinl.iii'-f than h Iniin. ami it 

ulty toseporai- 
- with argon in .Irtrrmiiir 

-i- r rmaii 



dared by I be action of limestone upon the salt an*. 

..nflrtnallor, .-f thi* virw that wl.il.- 

Mthi -..,!,!. Bj im lillWa - ' , : .: - ! -'- 

UM m*XS -r- nh .-:. 

(hrnilrairhylrx Mr r ,. ... 

on molecular lrt*ejfranttttTTTf. dcmoo*trail that on 

. a UMf 
II MOUMII. having obUioed one of these diamonds 



had been completely black 
Urdu 

of potassium chlorate and 
r..inMjl|.huricadda 
potassium nit n- 

. n-k layer was very slow. Oraphitie 
was produced, which at an increased ten 

rographiUe acid, and this was easily 
dafirmd i-> Rim a. Id Heiw UM rai stj ' 
bon that coated the diamond was graphite. Tbr 
ratun- at which the transformation of the 
(limn -ok place must have been 

kr* had already proved that 
iilai inuin ami in-lium could be fused in hi* t 
but t -un- obtained in the bombardment 

was mrn-h higher, since the transformation of dia- 
mond into graphite requires the high temperaturr 
of t he electric an-. The higher the teaperatvre to 



M th h. -1111111 tin- M-pnration woa 

ill* til-' -j,, 



higher the 

to,- 

found by comparison of the density of the In his comparative observation* on the behavior 
e portions that the separation, if any took of oxygen nn.l. r the influence of the silent dis- 
charge . > when ml united with water 
M carefully ir ShensCone 
t. contrary to the Materoent* of previous in- 
vestigators, that oxygen Is most freely converted 
tone wh- :: -dried oxygen 
vields only a very minute percentage of ozone. 
i obtained also show that the oaone 
in ozonii* - far more stable in the pres- 
ence of water 'vapor than in it* silence that is 
to s*y. the change by which oaone is convened 
xygen i* very greatly retarded by the prts> 
,,,, ,f , ; , ..:. \\i,n .,''. i ; ' : I 
bromine, and inline, dried by very thor* 
with prepared ' ' 



f two 
>f two pimx of the ileiudtic* 

580. "Hut although thin , \|,lanation is the 
'. there exist* another 

the densities of whirh are so near earh 

'nw- 
. tensities. It urern* t 

rral 
ary 

ales. that all tho m< , g* 

NDOfenecn n -ut. !!,; 

' any nt- 

at a 0r|*rntioM <>f thi- kind of a gas regarded 
nogeneou* irt-. Hu- 

iments show that thi* mi* rves to be 

- we most 



eracted instantly 

.-.. ^ , 



ecu liar I v . 

-.; f N ' 



i with 
nine the phi- 



presented to the action of mercury prepared 
for the purpose ami thoroughly dried, the nutil 
an.l the halogvr CM 

and nip.. rile 

mitt, >,! to the tilent discharge of el, 
undergo condensation. The abnormal expansion 
of chlorine, which has been described by atmml oh- 
server*, appear* to then 

pretence of imj htorine. The reeatu 

le at Bonn, in which chlorine 
ct|nded under the influence of the violet and 
chemical ra\. *r* n>ganled by the author as having 
almost certainly been affected by the presence of 
tnotatm in the chlor 

In hb studies of the phenomena of snpenatura- 
tion and supercooling. William < Kt wakl found that 
mperature range below the melting point in 
prodixAioaofcTT*t*J*afi*apoe- 



CHKMISTRY. 



sible is limited, the liquid being in stable equilib- 
rium except toward a ready formed crystal. To 
tins he gives the name meta*tal>l<. At 

lower temperatures no nuclei are necessary, and the 
crystals form spontaneously. He concludes that 
when a system piam from any given oondit. 
a more stable one it will not pass int.. the state 
which under the circumstances is the most M 
but int.. that which is nearest t. th.- .-ru-mal state, 
.-iiu by Zeltnsky with two hydrocarbons 
obtained by rsdttotfoa from hi-xnmrth>:- 

one by means of line ami hydrochloric a. id. and 
the other by zinc and hvdn.du- acid prove that 
the former is the true hexamethylene, while the 
second is identical with methyljH-ntamcthylene. 
iiexamethrlene ring, therefore, under the in- 
fluence of hydriodio add at 28o r. changes into a 
more stable i.-- i nature of this 

ijs agrees with , . ." ac- 

whteh the jentamethylene ring is more 
stable than any other. 

Kxperiments ,-n the relative transparency of the 
alkali metals to the RBntgen rays, recorded by I'r -f. 
ivangoni indicate lithium as the most trans- 
IMUVIII metal; but iU transparency <!.., -x not increase 
with the thickness. An anomaly exhibited in the 
greater transparency of sodium 'relative to potas- 
sium suggests that the transparency for thes. 
is a function of atomic weight as we'll as of density. 

Liquid sidjthur at 440 C. absorbs hydrogen sul- 
phide, and gives it out on solidifying. This, M. A. 
II. IVIabon observes, can hardly be a true case of a 
solution of a gas in a liquid, for ft is found that the 
amount absorbed increases with the temperature, 
and is given out only on solidifying, while no gas is 
given out by the solution in liquid sulphur, even 
into a vacuum. 

V v ^ i. uires. In his work on gadolinite 
and samarskite earths, Delafontaine came to the 
lied in 1878 and 1880, that the 
yellow oxide erbia discovered by Mi minder in 1843 
contained two earths, which he called f rfn'n and. 
philimna. The individuality of philippia was de- 
nied oy two English chemists; but M. Marignac 
mentioned it in a paper on the samarskite earths in 
1880, and Mr. \V. Crookcs. who first rejected it, has 
mentioned it amone some of his fractional products 
of yttria. The author has since made an invcstiga- 
tioii of the fergusonite earths, which, though in- 
complete, enables him, as he believes, to show that 
the characteristics of philippiutn are such as to d< - 
serve the attention of those who are diwii in- the 
periodic law and the necessary modificati..' 
MendeleelTs classification of elements. Philippiutn 
has been found in gadolinite. samarskite, and the 
Texas mineral described as fergusonite. It is more 
closely allied to cerium and terbium than to any 
other of the yttrium and cerium metals. Its equiva- 
lent, the color of its subnitrates and that of the 
philippic salts, and the solubility of its formiate, 
separate it from terbium. These characteristics and 
the solution of potaasiom-phflippo sulphate in po- 
tassium-sulphate solutions distinguish it from the 
two c M. Brauner and M. S.-hnt/.-nt. 

It ap|Kar* in two sets of compounds, the phili; 
and the philippic, corresponding to a white n< -id 
and an orange oxide. The salts of the first series 
an- aolofiesm, ndtf - iMe, p simlly erystallin \v.-il. 
and correspond to the lanthanum and yttrium salts. 
Philippic oxide has a deep orange- nl color. Al- 
though philippiutn shows a very close resemblance 
nu in and cerium, the constitution of its com- 
pounds remains to be established by crystallography 
or otherwise. 

O. O. Boucher, of Ulverston. England, has pub- 
lished his reasons for sup posing that a new element 
or new elements other than the substances usu- 



ally found mav exist in ca<t-in.n and blast-furnace 

i lie sulislaiice in question obtained 

from cast iron is a black powder, slightly soluble in 
cold irochloric and sulphuric acids, and 

very little ,i.lc on boiling in those acids. 

It i soluble in dilute and strong nitric and. and 
.Me in aqii.i i leaied in a cur- 

rent d into a yellow 

. Its properties are further d.-eribeil 'm the 
antli The substance in boiler du-t is 

similar to this in every re>pect but one. It ha- the 
same aspect and form'- an ..\idc similar in a| 
ance, which produces the same chemical changes 
with tin- reagents e\p, rnm-nted upon. -\ccpt \\iih 
the bichloride of tin. It i- pr.-ent in boikrdus! in 
so minute quantities as to l>< mon- dillicult to sepa- 
rate than in thecas. .dchi-misis 
have pointed out similarities in properties and 

ttoM of this inbstaiioe M described by Mr. i.oucher 

with those of certain other substances whose j-res- 
ence in cast iron is common, and are IP 
to accept the hypothesis of a new element. 

The di-eoVery of a IleW seljrs ,,f rompolU; 

very great Interest i- announced by MM. ('on-tam 
and A. von Han en. It was known th.v 
troly/ing the alkaline carbonates, M a ('(>j, we ob- 
tain hydrogen and the hydrate of the constituent 
base at the cathode, and at the anode oxygen and 
carbonic acid, which recmnbines with a part of the 
base to form bicarbonate. The authors ha 

I that if we electroly/e a saturated solution of 
carbonate of potash and gradually lower the tem- 
perature, the disengagement of oxygen gradually 
diminis|i(>s at the anode, and finally ceases about 
lo c. : and further, instead of a crystalline W- 

carlM.nate being formed, we have a bluish ani(r- 
phous jKiwder. shown by anal\sis to , 
KaC^Oajthis is |.rr<-;irl"Uiate of pota mm. In 
explanation of its formation it is assumed that 
the carbonate of potassium in sain rated solution 
first becomes dissociated into ions K and 1. 
when electrolysis intervenes the two ions !'<>, 
unite to form" the body !<,('.,(>,. The ph. ; 
non does not occur in dilute solutions, as tli- 
b'.nate of potassium splits up into the io: 
and CO,. The carbonate obtained in the manner 
described above should be quickly thn.wn on a fil- 
ter and dried over phosphoric anhydride. From 
certain reaotioni de-crib-d in their paper tin- au- 
thors conclude that the new lody js in reality the 
neutral carbonate of a higher oxide, peroxide of 

potassium. It besides produces ill the presence of 

acids, like the higher alkaline oxides and the alka- 
line earths, peroxide of hydrogen. 

L. I'runier ob^rves that in the study of the 
preparation of ordinary ether by means of -\i\- 
phuric acid and alcohol most workers have omitted 

to take ailV Iiotiee of tile presence of Slllphollic 

and their derivatives. This group of 1 todies is, 
however, to be found in notable (juant it ies in <-,,m- 
mercial ethers. It is also found in considerable 
proportions in the oils that have been n-ed in the 
rectification of the raw product. Ily direct experi- 
ment it is possible to prove the formation of A 
sulphonic derivatives, especially toward tin end "f 
the operation. To separate the derivative- actually 
formed by the action of sulphuric acid, it sufli 

nlphonio acjrl with dilute sulphuric acid to 
1 10 ('.. then add a little alcohol. P.y tin's Ml , 
small quantity of ordinary ether is formed, an' 1 
eral sulphonic derivativ- - :ng volatilities, 

some of which even distill over with the ether. 
They are formed in greatest abundance when the 
temJKrature exceeds 140 C., and, above all, if undi- 
luted sulphuric acid is used. 

allic rubidium, as observed in the experi- 
ments of A. W. Titherley, behaves like the other 



CHEMISTRY. 






alkali metal* toward ammonia, displacing one atom 
Though not so energetic as in the case of lithium, 

at to between SUO* and 

'mi ajal 

il n. 

partly dissolve- in a deep-blue - ,,.,,., i,. 

f ammonia. HuhidaiftHt crystal) ijrs in 

III Miiderompox 

f amiiiotiin. With wi. r 
ninmoiiia and 

behe> 
rganic substances is very similar to that 

compounds was observed by Mr. Titherfey invaria- 

iu> -limn, re- 

ttionia. while the ^--. 

rwanl n- 

itim-nt with 



tai 



a on 

.; a w r 



I.:- -I taMfl 

t;. I, -.f pod 



, Sodiu 



tox 

\ 



M liritrht oi 

i ! \ . r ' - "i i i ' i - \* ! : 



| r. | MM l.\ II . . 

mid with 
ith orpanii- an i idea are 

nitrate, 

re x 

* and the dirti- 
iin compounds 

appen with alkyl io<: hr author 

ides thnt ' ttid -"iiuin ntoma, reapao- 

nitrfu'fii. and thnt 
an- to U- rt'preamtad aa 



illiam 

-llllll! < 

N.-l with <MHliutn 
The 
d with 
Is haviin; t 

N air almost t roua. ap|rrnt IT 

ilatea. iMift. and I- 

at 140 a 
ratlin- than thnt at which the nuhatanca 



>! \ : 



iieiblea of 

I, r platinum. 

iropen ire 
nxie at at |r 

iminntiia -traxine : N.ll. 

' ,. ammonium nitridr: ntid N,ll. 

All tlu-M* MiUt.-u, 
ammonia an- .-f impnmti\elv NOanl !> 

ur knowledge of most of them to due to Theo- 



dorC-orUus. In MM Cortias bagaa A iariac of TO- 
aaarefcat on amulo-c uU. m the coorat of which he 
obtained sulphate of bydraxine ^fvt other aalla. 
torn attibMniBiii . . -.:.. . -..- - ' , 
nrnffbaasa, Tbe hydraU 

," f, .,::..- .. . . . .. 



and b a oolofiavfumbur liquid, wttiek boife at 1 
destroys oork and India-rubber, and is a j 

ing agent ai. 
> ac- Bruyn isolated free hydraxine by urmiaem which 



hare been described in the - Ann 
This substance ia one of U, 



t;., aejd rtfc 



r:,V,,. . < 

moiiium salta, forms two aeries of salt* . 
aid has important condensations with aldehydes 
Othei MUM* i ; prej , i m 

PMMMMLT1 -.. & fSm 
nl^l hy < urtioa fe a colorleai liquid 
w ith an untiearabfe odor, boiling at IT ('.. capabfe 
MI h alcohol and water, and is frightfully 

. : ... !. - . > . -. -. 

bloric acid, except that they are 

and mi. M... M. - the 

most .. tl . H -ride, 

crrrstailine substaace vl 
like gun cotton, burning quietly oa 
flan* -ding on detonation or i 

lysis of a mitt r sulphide 

and - nde in an atmusph< 

using plat um. Theo- 

: in th- liquid a dark-gray powder 

.!. a'|ua repa and in ammonia. Melting 

thin with nlUlin.- rnrl-'iint.. a MI hetance resulted 



r..hl..ric acid. 
tale With 

was thu- in!. new element, tu w 

author pivr tin- nat: .m. A corresnood- 

ing loss of sulphur nnd also of chlorine 

in a less degree, the author infer* that 
formed by the decomposition of one of these sub- 
stances. 

In a paper on "The Chemistry of Methvlene,** read 
in tl 
cage. * obtained in studies of 

! containing drad-carbon. The 
has obtained a series of renr unstable 



has obtained a series or 

. he regards as acetrlidene derir.t 

ar. in it - properties a remarkable nemhlancs 
rietable phosphorus." It sbioea in the dark. 






regetabk plsejpkofm 1 

burns on exposure to the air. 
poison in the same way as 

Naphthalrnetetrn 
pound to naphthalene tetrachk 
has been 
Orrtdorff nnd (\ H. Merer by treating 

it- n ^tance. melt infr at* 1. 

mpound could be obtained. The 
molecular weight was deduced only indirrctlr. and 
thi. and by analysis the composition of the 
substance was found to be (',,H.Hr,. 

Purr c- has been prepared 

Mot wan by heating pure iron for throe min- 
utes in a carbon crucible with a current of 000 am- 
pirce, at 000 rolta. and coolinj: a* rai 
bf taking the mass from the furnace and pourinc 
water. The inpi a cnrstal- 






..turr. and contains! fn m 3 to 4 per cent. 

nhined caH^n. but no graphite. Prom this 

the carbide was sepratod in brilliant crystals of 

v the composition FeC. Water has no action 

substance, even at ut hydro- 



1*6 



;:v. 



chloric acid gives a mixture of hydrogen and 
in,- thane, 

lUtance described by O. de rhaln. 
f roiijwr. having the composition < n-Si,, has 
found in further experiments to be a mixture 

. copper silicide, an 

aiiimrentlv homogeneous pure crystals. A silicide 

.as also been obtained by the author. 

The ohlorobromides of tin arc formed b> M. A. 

Season br the action of hydr.-g, n btomkil U|N.U 

Dannie chloride, or b\ the act ion ,.f hydrogen upon 

nu hydrous stannous chloride in carbon tetrachloride 

Milufiiui. the latter method giving tin- U-st yield. 

Mr^nndSnCIUr. are thus isola 

' :.. 

It i> gray, very hriti 

n h air. .-in.! is readily attacked 
md aqua roria, 

. preparation of alkali cobaltates Isdssoribsd 

II. .Mefonnell nii-i K. & I lanes, who show 

that rotiall form- an oxide, CoO., an acid, H ,('<(>,, 

and a series of alkali salts of the type of potassium 

I ..-.-.. K. >,. 

>v Processes. The physical properties of a 
large nuinlicr of mineral and organic compounds of 
lbi..rme indicated theoretically that the liquefaction 
of that substance could be effected only at a very 
low temperature. Experiment! for t he pr< -duct ion of 
that result were made in May by M. Moissan and 
Dewar at the Royal Institution, which pos- 
sesses unrivaled appliances for the production of 

s,- eold. Liquid oxygen, of which several litres 
were required, was used as t he refrigerant. The ap- 
parat us having been cooled down t<> tin i. -mperature 
of quietly boiling liquid oxygen ( 1*:'. C>. the cur- 
f Baoffns was passed through it without be- 
coming liquefied, but at this low temperature the 
element had lost its chemical activity, and no longer 
attacked the glass. A vacuum having been made 
above the oxygen, a liniiid was seen, as soon as 
rluillitin took place, collecting in the glass enve- 
Ioje. while gas no longer escaped from the appa- 
ratus. Stopping with the finger the tube by which 
the gas had been escaping, so as to prevent air from 
entering, the glass bulb soon became full of a clear 
yellow liquid of the same color as fluorine gas when 
examined in a stratum one metre thick possessed 
of great mobility. According to this experiment, 
fluorine becomes liquid at 185 C. As soon as 
the little apparatus was removed from the liquid 
oxygen the temperature rose and the yellow liquid 
began to boil with an abundant disengagement of 
gas, having all the energetic re.-r- 1 i-n- <>f tl i..rin". 
Advantage was taken of the experiments to study 
some of the reactions of fluorine on bodies kept at 

nely low temperatures. Silicon, boron, carbon, 
sulphur, phosphorus, and reduced iron did not be- 
come incandescent, and fluorine did not displace 
M iodides. Its chemical energy was, how- 
ever, still great enough to decompose benzene and 
essence of t uq *-nt in? wit h incandescence as soon as 

temperature rose to 180 C. It thus seems 
that the powerful afllnitv of fluorine for hydrogen 
is the hut to disappear. When a current offlnorUM 
gas was passed through liquid oxygen, a flocculent 

precipitate was rapidlv forme*], which quickly 
bottom. When separated, it was 

1 to possess the property of deflagrating with 

ice as soon as the temperature rose. 
In a subsequent paper ("Chemical News," O< 
1897) the authors (Moisaan and Dewar) express the 
conclusions that fluorine gas is easily liquefied at 
the temperature of boiling atmospheric air. The 
boiling i*.int of liquid fluorine i- IN; c. it j 8 
soluble in all proportions in liquid oxygen and in 
liquid air. It does not solidify at 21J r. Its 

ty is M4, its capillarity i's less than that of 



liquid oxygen. It has no absorption spectrum, and 
1 inally. at -'.MO I', it has no 
dry oxygen, water, or mercury, but ii re- 
act*, with incandescence on hydrogen 'and oil of 

1 :;rp< : 

A modification of M. Moissan's apparatus for 
lluorine. introduced by M. M.-l.ms \\ill 
probably render it pu**iblc to include tl, 
t ion of tli. in the course of ordinary lec- 

ture experiment-, and may even lead to it- eeo'nom- 
ical production on a large scale, if any induM rial 
application of it should be found desirable. The 

larger than M. M<>; 

platinum apparatus, is charged in the usuai 
and is thru cMiinectrd with the pu>iti\e terminal of 
a battery, the two elect r- made the 

live pole. Fluorine is th : at th.- internal 

surface of the apparatus, and H thin, nonconduct- 
ing If ;.per fluoride is deported upon it. 
.ipparatus. alter this preliminary treatment, is 
employed in the same way as MoissaiTs platinum 
apparatus, but may be simply cooled by ice and salt. 

'1 he pre-ence of the nonconducting layer of copper 

fluoride prevents the passage of electricity from the 
electrode to the side of t he vessel, and thus a 

the consequent loss of fluorine, SO t hat the yield in 

th? new modification of the apparatus is much 
T than in the original form. 

It is observed by L. ( Journit sch that the action 
of electrolysis on the salts of the fatty acids nearly 
always gives rise to the formation of alcohol-, ethers 
acids, etc., in quantities variable according to the 
conditions of the experiment, lodoform is now 
prepared elect rolyt icaily by substitution, by \ H 
the current through a solution of iodide of potas- 
sium in alcohol or aqueous acetone, and neutrali/.- 
ing the excess of potash formed by carbonic acid : 
the iodine ami the potash formed oj the action oi 
the current react with the solvent and form 
talsof pure iodoform. The nitrified dcrivati 
the aromatic series seem best for studying t 
duction by electrolysis. In 1882 Kendall patented 
the manufacture of aniline and toluidine by tl 
t in of the electric current on mixtures of nitro- 
ben/.ine and nit rotoluen? with concentrated sul- 
phuric acid : but the return was bad. and the process 
was of no practical value. Twelve years later the 
subject was again taken up, and it was shown that 
aniline was formed even in acid solution. The 
platinum electrodes were strongly attacked in the 
experiments on carbonate of nmmonia. and a com- 
plicated plat i no-am motiiacal base was formed. 

In the chrome tannage process, patented ' 
W. Alder, the chrome solution is prepared by dis- 
solving potassium or sodium bicarbonate in ai 
cess of sulphuric acid diluted with two volun 
water, reducing the chromium salt by the addition 
of sugar or alcohol : then neutralizing and precipi- 
tating chromium hydrate and "chromium oxyar- 
bonate" by the addition of sodium carbonate, 
dissolving the precipitates without filtering 1 
addition of hydrochloric acid to the mixture. The 
resulting liquor is sup| o-ed to contain chromium 
chloride, chromium sulphate, sodium and i 
sium sulp- urn chloride, and either for- 

mates or acetates of these metal-. The patented 
process of Huiro Schweitzer consists in the reduc- 
tion on the animal fil>er of bichromate of pota-li 
by means of hydroxylamine compounds. Sulpho- 
acids of hydroxylamine are produced, whereby the 
use i\ permitted of neutral, weakly acid, or weakly 
alkaline solutions for the second bath is permitted. 
In the one-bath processes of Robert Wairner and .1. 
.1. Maier chrome alum, saltpeter, muriatic acj.i. 
and whiting, in proportions which are speci fieri, arc- 
mixed with water. 

at interest was manifested at the Toronto 



BHOBT 



1-7 






n ins 



I'.ru 



In tin- n,.-ll,-l char- 
: U*tcf 

.i a lutir horio t^ wbfehemi 



tests that are 
tests for several inetala, 



these metals are treated with a - 

\ potassium thiooyanate. Tbe films eon- 

f ou.i.-ttn.i -i,:|.h:.i. . parti^ r -1 :. ifjd 

affonlareadym- 

i metal in tbe field. 
rar has devised an apparatu* f. r 

f any K a in air that is not 
at a!- 

air to U- . \.-in, n,.. | IH OOOisd m a tuU< 
with ilimin- 

r the ll|li: of thr 

in the condensing tube ami ih- 

tin- I.M* I-MIIII;: from thr Km-'- w. il at 
in-, a li'im-l was obtained 



liquid 

; rTiit to 
It u- 






ne jiart |NT 
seem, further, 

1 benzil as one 
< products of the action 

M. If the H. -I ion is COIltiiiii.-.l the 
.i|>|N>ar HI 

lu>t and acetic 
that tin- author has 


.tit nit of bentil are 

tfial aceli. _-ht or 

M Of 

.n- <>f th. oily com- 
The 

sut hor describes a met h.-l l.v which he proposes to 
fltul rely slight ; forms 

solid com pou n<l. 
i rally iomerie with solid 

luck'* ei:. 

: until they an- unif 

i ami an- (tarn at a 

i he dning oc- 

- about seventy hours. Sometimes tbe allni- 
.iml allow- Tbe 

- b sometimes bastened by the addir. 
some chemical. Thr impurit i.-< rtss in the froth or 

ohumen b drawn off ami 
volks are utirrcd through sieves ami 

Salt borax, acetic acid, ammonia, bonde 

lori.le. arc u*ed in r 
1 escribed in the I'niied 

lone, now 
me so ea> 

- Vlerbeura for the quantitative 



the ssparauon o , 

lane prestnu tbe advantage ova? ulphurette 

rsucb uar, in thai it ;u-l,Ua ; 
thai an U fin washed v. 

not easily become ^gHintd afnl ness 
rssbsd pradpilata is finally dV 
i. is fll. 

ignited and weighed as oxide. 

Mi/ -ij ! .!.. - ttk| V A] -\! I - 

-. :. ,, . .,, . 

.and weighing 
before and aft 

In practice the best results have been 
with . straight narafln oil. with a high 
at thr oil may be so freed 

of it will br 

ried off with the moisture in the substance to be 
the whole operation may be 
completed in t tea. 

The use of coke U suggestel t>\ II U < .arkeas 
lOdent malrrialihan sand for the removal 
rrom certain olsssii of w a t . r-. The 
nents made in Prorincetown, 






removal of iron from a water which doss not yield 
uple aeration and filtration Lesrb M. Baft- 
recommends the use of iron and alum. 

<ng crystals of haloid salts of 
potassium ami sodium D| purely chemical means, 

- : . tafa 
if. 



through thr ardon ,.f the vaiwr of 
n|-.n th.ru. ha- - i. f' UI..1 I.N ... .. 
nwlily deveI..|Mi| by hratm^ in a lov tuU-. at.. I i% 

employed. 

at.l p.tiijiium bromide and iodide an 
ored < : potassium chloride dark heliotrope, 

and sodium chloride yellow to brown. Tbe color 
appears to permeate the whole crystal, and i- 
manent in t !,.- air and also in water so long as the 
crystal is undissolved. The solution is colorless 
and gives a colorless residue. On healing tbe color 

'TnTTndigo prism, used for tbe detection of no- 
tassium b\ the flame test, is 

>s given bv lithium, etronliura. 
calcium, and barium compounds, a* well as those of 
potassium salts. An intr 

wever. opaque to the red rays of 
lithium. tn>ntium. calnuro. and barium, while it 

-j-ar.-nt to those of potassium salts. 
In th. Seyfert process for making artificial silk 
. ..t ton yarn, the cotton i treated with a cold 
austic soda, and then dried on a 
uder strong tension. The yarn is 
or aft.-rwanl thoroughly washed and dried. The 
new artificial silk to Terr strong and nonmlam- 



mable; ami it 
jun- lulu-- 

(lermoehamical method to 






: ' .:.- 



of which the equivalent of an add or 
when the com- 



a lw- may 
j.niml i- of i 

\t..i.,., \\, uh tv-The result* of Wdetermfaja- 

- atomic weight of tungsten from the in- 

oxide, made by W. I.. Hanlin. nhow a maximum de- 



TiaUonofoneandahalfn 
The a .res that a discussion of tin 

suits, ith a vi-w ,.f arnvnif; at the true atomic 
irtton. vould be muless. that to take the 
of a lory, and 

that there seems to be no reason why one result 

any ofber. It 

to added that nothing definite was cjtabUsned in 
regard to the occlusion of hydrogen by tbe metal.. 
The results obtained by cooling in a 



CHEMISTRY. 



practically the same as those reached when the 
metAl was cooled in hydrogen. It was shown IM 
the observation* tlmt tannfcen attacked the vessels 
in win- h the determinations were made, that the 
oxidation of t hi- tungsten was either slightly 

r that a small portion was carried mechanic- 
ally by the wa 1 in the and 
that the supposed trioxide of tungsten contains ni- 
trogen, and probably hydrogen. " lu x it%w of the9e 
facts and of the fact tlmt HKNWthM WOdetoimi- 
nations hare been made of this oxide and nothing 
nblished. it it evident that thr in 



rmining the ntiunic mass 
iflfstM must be regarded as unsatisfact. 
The atosmiewvighl of tellurium has been identic- 
ally determinetl at 127'rt by llrauner, working with 
lenient in combination with metals; Masumi 
-ii:-. u-mg ^M-cimen- occurring in native sul- 
phur of high iiurity. except for the presence of tel- 
lurium and sole nium ; ami by Standenmaier. wnrk- 
v an entirely different inethiMl from Brainier, 
of tellurium in .Japan in associa- 
um in native sulphur is noticed by 
!uka>ige as a fact of great significance in set- 
the place of this substance in a natural classi- 
n <>f the elements, showing, as it does, so 
close a habitude existing between the three ele- 



S*ott remarks tip.,n the unsatisfactory nature 
>f the experimental evidence on which toe deter- 
minati->ns of the atomic weight of carbon 

us determinations of the expansion pro- 
: by the absorption of carbonic dioxide by p.it- 
ash solutions have bean employed. When this and 
other sources of error have oeen allowed for, the re- 
.Ititecl values of the atomic weight of carbon are 
6 from the combustion of carbon and 1 
from the conversion of the monoxide into the di- 
cing on products strictly pure and 

is free as possible from error. M. 

Wyrofiboloff and A. \' rneuil find an atomic weight 

rium. of whatever origin, very close upon 

Considering the indirect character of the 

method employed, this figure can be considered 

only as approximative to about o-2 Of 

The values Ni = 58-09 and Co = 58-93 have been 
obtained for the atomic weights of nickel and co- 
balt from analyses of the very carefully dried and 
purified bromides of those metals. The separate 
determinations are represented as having UL 
admirably among themselves. 

l"-ing the process of the oxidation of the double 
ammonium oxalatc. I'rof. llrauner has obtain 
the atomic weight of thorin > = 16), a 

unrulier con-iderablv lower than th.it obtained l.v 

In their n-\ isj,,n ,f the atomic weight of magne- 
sium. T. W. Itiehurds and H. (J. Parker, with four 
series of determinations, get results in their final 
nit agree surprisingly with Muri- 
gnac's value obtained from work upon m.i_ 

and sulphate. They make the value <)= Hi, 
Mg. = 24*962. 

Joseph Gillingham Hibbs. in his estimates of the 
:ght of nitrogen, finds as the mean of the 
values given by potassium and sodium nitrates 14-- 
0003. 

The atomic weight of arsenic isd-termin. 1 by the 
HUM observer. 11*1111: v. lij 1* peon :.; ride method 

L 74-9158. 

(Chemical Analysis. In the residual and sec- 
ondary products resulting in the manufacture of 
r raffinose. by crystallizing with the sugar 
and modifying its form and increasing the ] 

on, has long caused serious and unexplainable 
errors. Numerous methods have been proposed for 



iOQ of this substance, of several of which 
U.I i \V. II. Haird have found a combi- 

nation that has proved -ueees>ful. From the re- 
sult* Of its application the authors conclude that 
iMilinose occurs in appreciable quantities m the 
juice of n m beet. Certain peculiarities 

in the crystalli/.at ion of mix: LOrOM and 

rallintjse are pointed out in the paper of the authors, 
\\ho find, when examining crystals under the mi- 
croscope, that frequently solutions containing ap- 
piirently but a verv small amount of ralVmo>e will 
letely crystalii/e into f.n-m<> that can hardly 
IK- distinguished from pure ra:' 1 liis modili- 

cation ,,f crystalline forms xreins to afford a ivady 
nii-an- of detecting the presence of small amount! 
of ra ill nose. 

A ! lent mineral ferment for the de- 

struction . matter in tnxological n 

18 described by A. \'illi-r- as produced by the aid 
of salts of mail. L'he material toilet! 

i- i.laced in a lla^k with dilute hydrochloric acid. 
Add a few drops of a solution of a mangane- 
and a little nitric acid, which must be renew. 
il become- used up. The mixture must be gently 
heat.-d. The ga-es pn.du vboiiic acid and 

nearly pure nitrogen, and no disagreeable odors are 
evolved. Such materials as liver, lungs, el. 

\ed in a few minute*; mn-cular liber takes 
about an hour, and a fatty mass, seeming to contain 
products of substitution, remains ivsjsijng the ox- 
idi/ing aciion ,,f the mixture. 

The adoption of albumen in several induct r 
a clarifier has brought a number of different brands 
into the market. Some of these can be used with 

Confidence, but others are carelessly made, ale: 

adulterated. Some samples have i.een found by I'. 
Carles to contain from IM ' <-nt. of insolu- 

ble coagulated matter, having no clarifying ] 
gum. dextrine, and gelatin ar- d us adul- 

terants. The solution of albumen in water should 
be transparent if free from coagulated par 1 
When treated with tannin solution, bitartrate ..f 
potash, and grenatine. pure albumen solution should 
show no change. If the grenatine gives a precipi- 
1'inin is in ex-ess. and that the albu- 
men is Adulterated with some inert body 
i.v.-rheated in making. If, however, the" tannin 

a precipitate in the test tub.', it proves the 

presence of gelatin in the sample. 

In samples of firedamp examined by M. II. I..- 
Chatelier for the determination of its chemical 
composition, the incombustil*: .,ried from 

:{! per cent, to 44'4 per cent, in volume, and con- 
tained from per cent, to \ per cent, of carbonic 
acid, per cent, to 0*9 per cent, of oxygen, a: 

- per cent, of i, Nitrogen is 

invariably present in <juantiti. 
percent, to as much as :: it In al! 

the nitrogen contained argon, vary ing in propor- 
tions from ii- 74 percent, to :t-2N per cent, of the to- 
tal nitrogen and argon together. It was concluded 
that argon in fire damp is not derived from the 

but is only probably present in fossil air of the 
niferoiis 'period, cither absorbed direct 
carried in by water. 

In a study of the verv volatile portions of j 
leiim obtained by distilling the crude product dur- 

ne cold winter months the different hyd: 
bons were identified by converting them into their 
chlorine substitution " products an object which 
was effected by bringing the vapor of the hydro- 
carbon produ- - with chlorine. It was 
found that the petroleum contained no normal bu- 

but iso-butane; that in isolating the octanes a 
long series of distillations had to be carried on to 

u pure products, the octanes not beginning to 
accumulate with any degree of purity until the 






LSQ 



i tat ion. 

Hat ions in 

in th.- u .'.mu- 

;tt-l by cooling 

i.Mi.ii.- mat ! reeogniasd with certainty 

Katlrr aa 

*-ribr a m,th 

I rumnounds with n i 



i tiotllenl r-*ulu with thl* 
:iim f-.r II 

.ilani-i are r 

Mpplication ; an.l Hint H,. r. a- i may 

u hal.'u'ri. 

1.1'* III. tl; 

.t.. l with oopper ammo- 
ue HparmUd carbon is collected 

*.m fUtrr. whrrr it i* washed soooeasively 

1 u. a 

is heated over a Hun*, u 

^raplui 
flu- in.n III illlu 

<i.-i.l. aii-l .1.!. in, nun- the separmtt.: 

MM. BtltiMlol attd 

<IeeompOsitlon of vu-ai- un.hr tin- inllu- 
ids, and e|N-4-inll\ with j.r- .in- ' 
vt-n- |artly nn<: 

1 oartly in |N-II flasks at the l-iiii.- 

lalions were ma 

tlMktd flheOOMi Henides glucoH 

with It tulose, galactose, 

nd malt. M-. Thr priin-i|nil n a. -ti- n a|.|^-ars t. U- 
^^Krmation of In. 
form 

f coal in whilr wim>> ar. 
thi|niihed fn>m those of caramel i tin- pr- ^-rssof 

l,\ thr furl that thr 

Il.r UMJal with 

tfu! 






haraetrii 
>!...,,, wart ban fiMiiul that 

ancea 

tit thr |N T 

1 fmm t! . ex- 

n thf I.:, Ihr author li.l Dot 

'. proeew a vital . nUtanci 

ointain.-.l in an al< 1 t 

r. thouirh lew mark 

ldn lost 

:tl pjirt i if the lia-ti-rial plat* 

^'. Illlilrr ' 

'mditionf. fr an itxl* (In The a- 

iient*** an-, mi -on In 
; urpurin " and - rhln>jih\ll." Tli- 
*e* in thin H^- in a vital >-. ami thr ' 
'1 bappan>nt: 

' thr 

tmriil of Acn.ult- 
what way th hutnu- of **il- infltieiiOH 
n conten* .'. rrnfv* hav.- 

i on .iN 

(wnvntacr of mtnp-n Imth in thr 
^laml in thr >t raw than that grown in other 
oil. The inrream wa largely in amide nitrogen, 
TOL. xxxvii. 9 A 



while the percentage in proteids was not greet ly 
augmented, and u tltrrrf.<rv not to intervMting 

The experiment* were snggesud by the ob- 
servation of urge increase.- in the nilrcm in 

.... . - 

ilrawn tliat at l-at a |rt of the iineei of nit 
h they contain hi assimilated diren i 







the MtMl \*n*uUu* of nitrofvn in 



!' 

Thuma* lajc. <*r that n^ultant frmn the baie 

. 

' 



,.r a* a f. mliavr to 

IM> or phoatthale n- k. an<l a* Miptrjor to all in- 
luble nVMDtelM. It- %alur a. a fmili*rr i. in- 
tnail if it i exfiuinl t. the wralhrr rrtrral year* 

f |. h<ph<.ric< arid pnent and "0 iu<*>. 

Ookbnitth on the inAuanoe of varyinf onanthiat of 
n I mi. plie digestion of blood fibrin the 

v eatt by 



alum. . \. n win n it n i-n-M-M in very MiaJl qae> 

u under t rt 

ditii*n. twoloaveaof brt-a j md. oo 

alum l.aku,- i-.w.i-r ai.<: 

tartar -:.. ^etion was retarded 

(ainuiK alum. While re- 

tarda !.!.- with 

Niric acid, mi.l f.-nnaliii. th- rffcrt 
wau ^i^'ht i..in|.nri-d uuh that produced when 
alum wa* unetl. 

lie action of water of tan- 

- of purity uj-.n leatl |.i|*-*. I". Antony 

ui,.i that tj.. u r rratet tolvcnt 

. wa Hith ili-t and more w ben mt- 

i with air. whil.- a -rathji with carbon dioxide 

r-tanl. .1 tin action one half. \\ t. r . . t.taimnpcal- 

. nun .-r -.-liuiu -ulpliate hatl alxKit half 

of pure air. and its. action wa* retarded when 
wasprwent. A?rat 
other ha i 

lime. whl< h It hoot 

it wan on! irth that -f |-unr vatrr. 

-alt a l-o had little a< t > car- 

if wa prt-srnt, and n-in. 

her wit*. Tbe 
i;*//.lta t hiiint-a Itali- 

ana." are KHiiewhat at vahaiK^r with tbe p-nr rally 
.1 ; M : - 

Mptl. | M ,'.> 

roerriallv known when diafolred in water a 

nialr in. !." an .i.-ri-,l \.\ IT Winter 

. l*rt in 10.000 wf- 

M-rvr milk. -up. and Mnular articlen for 
a conaWerahle time : ainl thi* fart Micte*ted that it 



-.lution ralleil formalin d n.4 pi 

^\ in open dibea, M it 

ha* thr |Miliar |>ro|>rty f cbanmng by wlymeri- 

rlew 



-infrrtant. It has been fountl. bow- 
.n a mint ion of 
ceJcium rhlohdr and anrrwanl bealwl ui 
sore, practically dry font 

A comp*rnti\r trial tindrr similar condition* with 
iilphiinii ari'l. miploMiii; th.- : .-thod cnmmonlj 
i^nlbetinfr with Milphurtxm acid. la,<ing 
nineteen hour*, gave the remits : no p-owth under 
either disinfectant of diphtheria ludlu*. and no 
growth of typhoid bacillus and anthrax bacillus on- 



130 



der formic aldehyde, while the growth of both ba- 
cilli under -ulphurou> arid was good. After the 

:i.elits the fon:.Se-aldrli\de r.-.-m CKHlld : 
with I'Ut little inconxelllcn, e lit a \iT\ short 

while an hour was required to make the -ul- 
phur -'in habitable. l>r. Hlyili coin 

formic aldehyde tfrvutly MI|HTIT to Ulphuioai acid 
as a disinfr 

In the investigation ..f thr In 1m 
towanl chemical reagent. ul and IV 

nig. a definite number of organs [>osed 

f a solution ,.f the disinfectant font 
definite mm-: the disinfectant was then completely 
,n.l the niimhrr of organiMiis si ill 

..-nt iras determined Th 
the anthrax bacillus were n-ed in most of tli< 
periments. The different salts of a metal lessees- 
ing a specifically |* haraeter. as. for in- 

stance, those of" mercury. \\vrr found to be 

iaJly deadly. Other thin. .-ual. thos,. 

salts motet fully susceptible of electrical dissociation 

art' the in. A solution of men-uric chloride 

contains many more mercuric ion- than a mercurie- 

iution of the same concent ration, ami is 

COfres|ondin;iy more deadly. The disinfecting 

idoo Of merOCtnC chloride is tin-ally 

diminished by the addition of -...Hum chloride, a 

fact of importance in view of the frequent addition 

of salt to mercuric-chloride solutions to increase 

-olubility. Similar results are obtained with 
silver salts. The disinfecting |>ower of solutions of 
bins or of acids depend-. <>n the wh-.]e. ..11 their 
Strength that is to sav. on their decree of elec- 
trohtic dissociation. The specific action of the 
anion and of the in. <1 molecule is. how- 

ever, not to be neglected. Silver nitrate shows t lie 
greatest disinfecting power when di .-he 1 in -Vi- 
per-cent, alcohol and mercuric chloride in 'Jo-per- 
cent, alcohol. Solutions of these salts in absolute 
alcohol are practically without effect on anthrax 
-p. ret 

In a discussion on "The Teaching of Chemistry." 
in the International ('onjrr.-^ mi Technical Kduea- 
tion.at London, Ir. OttoN. Witt. of Herlin, said that 

ddnotadmitany fundamental difference, in the. 
methods of research of pure and applied chemistry, 
consequently he could not admit the necessity of a 
difference of instruction for the two. A well-or- 
ganized instruction in pure chemical science would 
be the best |>rej>aration of any voting cheini-t for 
his future career. Schools for producing special- 
ists are not wanted; specialism comes as a matter 
of course in later life. Chemists are needed who 
embr -Hence as a whole, and who are in- 
capable of separating practice from theory or th y 

from p ra- 
in their experiments on the direct union of car- 
bon and hydrogen Mes-rs. I',.. tie ami Jordan found 
that at a temperature of !.,( HI ('.or tliereaUmts 
carbon unites directl v with hydro^-n to form meth- 
ane, while no acetylene or other un-at united hy- 
drooarboo is found at this temperature: that when 
the electric arc i- prorl need between carUm termi- 
nals in an atmosphere of hydrogen methane and 
acetone are to be found. On c<,ntinuini; th- 
sage of the arc a state of equilibrium between hy- 
dnMpBO, met bane, and aoetyleoeifl final lyestablisheaj 
and that the same state of c.juilibriu m is pr.Hlu<-e,l 
when the el. -trie arc is passed in an atmosphere of 
either methane or acctvlene under similar con- 
ditions. 

fractional distillation of pentane from Amer- 

fN-trol'Mim. S. Vountr and (J. L. Thomas have 
obtained pure normal and iso-pentane. the tailing 
points of which under normal pressure are :;<;:{ and 
87-95 F. respectively. The critical data of normal 
pentane (temperature, pressure, and volume) as 



found by Mr. Yoiin- are 17'2 . 2.V100 millimetres 
and -J-;lu:{ cubic centimetre-: the thermal and other 
i:ned lead to the conclusion that in the 
liquid state and at the critical temperature tlu\ 
molecule- ,,f pentane are simple ones, a- 111 the 
gMtOQI -tale. 

M. I'., rthel.-t has found that sulphuric acid ab- 
sorbs hyd: I'letely at . 'I even iii 
the cold, hurin- two month eilt. of the 
hydroi:en present was absorbed, with pro.biet ion of 
unt of sulphur dioxide. Tliis 
t ;.ik,- p]a< ! \\ it h the diluted acid. 
A t hermocheinieal study -h..\\- that the dilution of 
the ., g the thermal si.mi of the r, a. ti-n. 

1 nve-i i-;il i"ii^ by Prof. !'. 1 1. M on-r. of t lie 1', 
In-t it ut ion. on sonic of the die mica 1 -u I "stances in ihe 
trunks of trees show that other substances b- 
stardiare stored up in large quantities as r- 
f 1 material in the w inter, to be convert. <1 into 

III the -|.' 

The invi-siipitioii ..f the formation of organM 
bases by jilants of the orchid family, b.-^un l>> M. 
dc VVildemann, has been continued and e\i 
by l>r. M. de Ir..o-. Of the KM species of orchids 
examined nine . led a- producing alkaloids, 

in all their pai t-. and ot In . The 

function of these alkaloids is believed to I 

fe!i-i\e. 

The useful products obtained from -ai-i 

utiliiation processes of di-j.o-ai are emp]..\. 

'liliLT to \V. I . < ...'':_ ... 

i- u -cd chiefly in the maim fad ur<- of ^}\ 
and candle -lock, but makes only ;. 
Three methods of extraction are in u-c : I'.y -i.-am. 
by means of sulphuric* acid, and by the i. 
naphtha. Tankage is ii.M*d by manufacture 
fertilisers. 

The results of studies of the pre-eiic.- of tin in 
canned <;o.><ls by .1. K. K. Cowan confirm th 
jirevious invent i gators of t he subject. Tin wa- found 

caiicxamincil.in quantities oi 

<iO to 1'tO milligramme* |.-r kilogramme, (irant- 
inu'that this tin is present in a form that can be 
a-ied upon in the human system, and considering 
the lar:re consumption of canned i, r oods, it seem- to 
follow that tin is less toxic than ha- been sup: 
and that it can not be a cumulative p..i-on. The 
pre- in . .f l.-ad wa- not detected ill any in-talice. 

M. < '. l-'riedel. remarking upon the analy-i- "f 
some fatty matter found in an lyLTvptian toinli at 
. \b\do-. consisting chiefly of palmitic and si 
oxide, and doiibtle-s the 'tallow of beef or mutton, 
observed in the French Academy of Sciences that it 
was intere-tint: to find that the fatty acid-, and e\eii 
their irlyrocerides, have been capable of pn 
tion for thousand- of years. Amoiii: the subsl 
found in the small vases were pulveri/ed lead sul- 
phide mixed writ ha quantity of fatty matter, evident- 
ly a cosmetic* ii-ed as antimony sulphide is still em- 
ploved in the I 

The sanitation of the manufacture of imr 
with white pho-phoriis i- regarded by M. M 
as a problem simj.le mid easy ,,f solution. The 
met hod of sanitation contemplated bv the author 
e-n-i-ts of two orders of means bnse<l on ti 
factors of injiin. whieh are ph<.-phori-m and n- 
cro-js. To phosphorism he would r>ppose tli- 
tilationof the work by artificial means, powerful 
enough to withdraw the" poisonous emanations from 
the workers. To nccro-js he would oppose the 
principle* of selection; that of recruitment and 
maintenance from the hands of persons entirely 
from any injury of the mouth or the jaws 
which mi;:lit 'furnish an opening for the ch- 
mi-chief. 

While the carbides obtained from the- alkaline 
earths acting with water produce acetylene, some 



(HIM. 



131 



rbtdes. like those of aluminum and 
*. tbuae of 

Ul. i.uiu ami titanium, u 
linary temperature*. 
uranium carbide. C.l',, flu, 

lo any marked exlmi in tl* 
mical and physical pw| 

1 aaa, it gi ves it h water 



,. or im-*-. uniy the gaasous oompounda 

sen completely r tarn. 

..' author ascribes the prat- 
<ry reaction da* 

I on the power of tl. \tde of ura- 

itaom|MMe water, and that ..f t !,.-.. 
liatsnoe of a little calcium carbide aa an im- 

scope of th.- work of hr I.. Marchlewski OO 

a* a green 
aosBposmd capable of dy< Dggraen, Itisi t,bo 



author *\ 

i t V\ . i plaint-tits With It 

i extra* the green parts 

illtii ha- not y t lit-ii 

lilonph\; 
mical literal ure COIIM.*!* prolal)\ 

stnmU i-h 



Mil. 
II !ll! II.- k. I'llVllo- 

.lkhr-, i :,. t h,- 

f rli!iro|i)iyll. Tin- 

il tnim.-lifir.l clilorn|ili\ll 'ran*- 

alkalies into nlkacli)or<>pliyll. aixi 
00 trralm< .<]* in thu ptfajeno of nl< 

^^Bl an livllotaoiiin. On 

M with nlknli.s'jit n lu-h 
'.un |>hyilo|Mr|>li\ rinr. Ka-li of 

I in full in tin- I..M-k. with tin- nii-tli- 

I 1 at ! n. it^ |-r- 

- spcctroecopio lMhavii>r. ami ita fls- 
on i.n-l., 

that tho alkali 

letaU, tine, aluminium. . l>i- 

r leea. 

with it ilirr, 1 1\. Ir-'M. < 
nil krl. ititmlt. mantnim v '! pint- 

11 th othrr haml. form ili-tlnit.- >il: 
In Ins inviMiirjtt I.-M-. of t>n> \ 

itfnlntion of milk. hr. I . Fra*.-r 11 
small u'lolnilrs. MS u,-|| a 
.-..ntnin fnt in ilin^l. ami " 

Milk that was 
!\ to iN.ihm; |M>int pavo tin- best reanlls 

tyli-no in an ordinary flsn* 
int. com* 

hr lra.t ' niliiiotililf p- 

fotiml in tin- j-r.-i- 
ami air. tl 
'i was pnxlmiil in the authr' < \\- r-.< 

iir wan nine linn-* that of ace- 

< II 1 1 I. A n-puhlio in S uth Amorira. 

iftrr Fun.jx'an parlianifiitarr 
r than tho *v*t<Mn of r 
- 

ng* t- the na- 

^lWS.Con9iMint; of a SMIAI ami a House 
of DoputieA The Senate has one third as many 



as the House of Deputies, in which each 
province is represented by as many memben as 
there are multiple* of 30.000 in the nan 



population, with one additional member for a fr*c 
over 15.0UO. Henators serve six and Dapatiaa 
three yrarx Kvery ad.. tun who can 



read ami w rttr ha* a vote. The 
omisaliout 1 m 



u,, ,. .pulaiion. The Rrasi- 



l.rlnlrti for fl%.- >.ar. ! an , i- fa. 

i l,e Prml/l 



85. 1896. b Fsdattm Erm/un/. The 

mi 1 as follows: 
Kaaattai 

.r ljS l Af! 

Finance. I 
M ' A . \|, !;t , M ); 

,Mry ami 
\r4 and Populat Ua.-The a 






-,..-. miles. The population at the fae- 

, . . _-;,,.... .. . .... l>: 





. Thell 

u is eneoaraiErd by the 
iiim-nt. which appropriated 897jMO pasos for 

th.- | 

is small. I mU-nng from Jan. 1. 1D84. to 

July HI, is.:,. !. consisting of Italian*, 

..ni.h.and a f. 

Tin- in.ii.t.r of marriages in 1805 was 14,779; of 
aths, 92.197; excess of birth*. 



km is furnished free by the Gov- 
ernment. TUC university aad professional schools 

ha.l l.l'.H. leges 

in !:,. Then- weit- in that y.-ar U48 pri- 

teacber*. 114.565 enrolled 

pnpus. anl U.lNiI in average attendance. 



Th- reTcnne in 1894 was 8S.4S6.000 
pesos. For 
pesos 
and f naiad at 91.010.000 



and the c\|>>nd it urea 78.482,000 
895 a revenue of 77.354.000 



was counted on, 



and expenditure at 864)89.000 perns (1 pesos = 913 
. For l*i>7 the estimate of revenue is 79400,- 
000 f >coe. J.5CW.OOO pesos come from im- 

I" it (I ut nit, 88,600,000 pesos from export duties oa 
nitnr <H> peri from railroads. 1..VJQ.OOO 



KS 



. ~ 



pesos f - duty on iodine, at 

pesos fn.m nuv. llaneous sources. The expeadi- 

at.nl at 79.1.U.97I pesos. 

of !.!.. J".'ia.:i40 peosar for public woriu and 
imlu.tr>. 1H.OS5.0HS peau* 
pesoM for 
] in 
ft.M6.963 pesos for marine. ai> 

,-n affair*, worship, and coloniation. The for- 

IM5. amounte.1 t., i'13^39.760. 

Thi-re wan an internal debt, including municipal 

".oba. 



i8.OBa.on pesos ror nnance. ujtfM.4M 
war. 9^48.000 pesos for justice and pab- 



hearing 5 prr ornt. interest, was rai^l in 

in Julv. !!. to l.iiil.l railn<U and public works. 

The Arm j and Nat y.-Th.- law 

lUoi -h of the regular army al 9.000 man, 

onranirri in 9 infn lry. and 5 artillery 

ami a i>n of rmrm.^r*. Tbe militia 

rvn/.>.l in 1H96, and erery able 

(Lilian Itctwren the a- of twenty and forty is 

I in the National (tiiar: 
a rear fhu nt-vm- H>tne military training. 

Thr Chilian nary consists of 4 ironclads, 5 pro- 
tccrl rnii^rx an efflrient torpetlo flotilla, and U 
mail emigre and gunboats. The lato*t acressiona 
are the powerful fir*t-cla cnaffen - Kwneralda," 
launched in 1896, and - Coogreaw." built in ~ 



L82 



CHILI. 



There were 2 second-class cruisers buildinp in 1897. 

The U-lted cruiser u Esmeralda " has a coal cajpa- 

f only 550 tons, but is enrfned for a s|* 

oti and has as formidable a battery 

r twice her sue. The new neconci-olaw < 

,:nl " President. 

to,** built in Ft . meni ..f 2,080 

IOM and* mad of 19 knots, The uianeo 

...tda," built in Kit-land !- replace the vessel 

.m- whieh wa> Mink in tin- rivil war, has 

'.a' in. n' -in- 1 a 8|XMMl < 

knot.-. jwdo fleet comprises 4 new destroy- 

.-.mstrurtal in Kngland. 5 first-class a 
third -clo>, torpedo boats, and some smaller ones 

MSB. 

( .m nir rre and Production. About half the 

population i> Mi|.|H,rted by agriculture. The wheat 

000 cattle mill ?.( N (0.000 sheep are raised annually. 
Chili is an important mining country, producing 
400,000 quintals of copper. 160.000 qointak f >il- 
rer, 500 kilogrammes of p-id. and 10.000.000 tott 
of coal every year, with manganese ntnl minor 
products. Most important of all is the nitrate in- 
dustry. The nil rat fields nnl-ra. -JIIL' s !.l?7 ln-- 
Ure** are estimated to cont a i >.MM ,,uin- 

tals of nitrate. The product was 1,082,285 quintals 
in 1*!4. The total value of imports in 1894 was 
54,483.616 pesos: of exports, 78,040,490 pen* <f 
the former sum 12.058,185 pesos represent article- 
of food, l".i:;s.328 pesos raw materials for manu- 
-. JM.~Mi.441 |csos machinery. 7,:W2.?J1 pesos 
manufa- ' !.<U1 pesos domestic ar- 

.'9,268 pesos railroad materials. l.s!)!M17 
pesos articles of clot him: and personal adornment. 
$98320 pesos wines aim beverages, 801,311 pesos 
objects of art and taste, 686,222 pesos drugs, I 

llaneous mere-hand i- ^'.'.171 

pesos specie and bank notes. The exports of ni- 
trate were : pesos in value ; iodine, 3,332,- 
780pesos; other minerals, 13.265,987 pesos; wheat, 
3,302.014 pesos ; other agricultural produce, ~< 
082 pesos; manufa* .'-':. pesos: miseella- 
neous merchandise, --sos: specie, 529,068 
pesos ; foreign exports, 707,361 pesos. I hit i.-s were 
imposed on 34,007,263 pesos worth of tin- import- 
ant! 48,060,293 pesos of exports. Of the exports of 
nitrate 39 per cent, goes to (in-many. 17 per cent. 
to France, 13 per cent, to the United State*, 11 per 
-at Britain. 11 per cent, to Belgium, and 
9 per cent, to other countries. 

The division of the foreign trade among foreign 
countries in 1894 is shown in the following table, 
giving the value of imports and exports in pesos: 



mmm 



<,:.., Britain 
Germany.... 

,/' ; "** 



: m 

Ai 

L. 



Republic 



-MM BD9 






MUJM 

uaojm 

BB6341 
l40gM 



lines 13,080.833 pesos. There \\.-r, i::r, miles 

of new railroads in process of COIM ruction in is..,.-,. 

The raph lino had a total 

lenirth of .M;: mile-, on .Ian. 1. lsi.~i. \\ it h s.:t:w 
mile> of win-. Tlie nuinin-r "f di>patche> ii 
a> 1 .n i UMM. K'ailroa.l ami telegraph comi . 

had 4,-,<MHml- ,pi, lines. 

The , M ,stal traHic of IS'.M coinprivrd 

:.:'.: : - !'.M::'.l | ------ ; 



-.3.35.M12 



i. '>,?.;-, 
l,47MM 



178,489 

11 7. M:, 



Nariifation. The number of vessels in the for- 
rade entered at ( 'hilian ports during 1894 was 
.'.'369,860 tons; the numlK-r cleared was 
1,681, of 2,555.540 tons. The tonnage entered in 
the coasting trade aggregated 6,254,836. The com- 
mercial marine on .Ian. 1. 1 Mir,. comprised 146 sail- 
reaaftb,of 75,711 tons, and 42 steamers, of 29,- 
!'::! torn 

Communications. Tho railroa'K of Chili in 
1894 had a total length of 1,782 miles of which the 
Government owned 686 miles, and 600 miles will re- 
vert to the Government, The capital expend- 
Govern ment lines was 64,459,179 pesos, and on 



Political :ind I iiKineial Mlairs. At ll, 
^inni: neral improvement was notice- 

iinn-n-ial situation, and a return of 
confidence that had IN-CH \\ ant iliu' Hlice tin 
Illtiol II (rf I he paper II 

had a lavoraMe inll , , iall\ on the f- 

community, although some of the "landowners had 
I'cen .llip-d to sacrifice their proprrty. Tl 
tlement <.f all the remaining Kn^'li-h clann- ;ni-m k ' 
out of the revolution removed a son- ..lion 

lioth to the waiting claimants and to tl, 
who felt nnnoyed that t \MIIL' lh. 

tlllies to the fa\oral'le c<,liditiolis of the l 

should demand "in| >-n-al in from the ( i< >\ i mneiit 
which no Chilian could claim for like injuries 
: fjue-tion of frontiers with the Ar^entn 
jul)lic made marked progress toward an amieal.le 
-ettl.-ment. By the treaty of April. isjMi. ai 

pUte arising IretWeeli the Comm i--loh.-i- eh-a-.-.l in 

marking the boundary line wa 
the < t hiecn of England for arbitration. Altlioii.u'h 
the people of each country held tenaeioii-ly to their 
different interpretation- of the old boundary i 
they were di.sposrd to rely on t he a ward of juris! s 
ratfier than appeal, as they were wont, to the arbit- 
rament of war to bear out t heir pretensions. The 
new war ships arrived from Kn::land made Chili 
onre more the chief naval power of South Ai: 
Both export* and imports had been incn-ar-inu'. and 
considerable fun-iu'ii capital was brought into the 
country. Thi< rec.,very. ho\\r\rr. \\a- of short 
duration. Before a third of the \ear had j 
stagnation in business ami contraction !' credits 
ensued, and the Government had to face a probable 
deficit. The owners of the nitrate mines had 
shipping for three month-, on ae.-ount of the low 
pri<-e in Europe, which was due partly to overpro- 
duction and partly to a decrease in consumption, 
the place of nitrate- beini: taken in Kurope and 
the United Slat.- by artificial manure-. A- tin- 
export duty on nitrates has furnished half th> 
nue of the Chilian (Jovernment. it created embar- 
rassment when this source of income w.i- , ,,t off 
altogether. To aid in discovering new outlet 
thi- product, the (iovernmeiit remitted the duty on 

- sent to China and .lapan. sent sp- 
to the Tnited Stat<-s. ami promised to spend x i 
a year or more in making it- u-efulm known in 
tr-h market-. A m-\v eommercial treaty wa< con- 
cluded with Brazil in May. P.y th<- conversion law- 
all bank notes were to lie withdrawn before ti 
of the year. As a serious restriction of the 
lating medium was feared, the .Mini-ter of Kinanee 
proposed to Congress to allow banks to 

OSl di-|oHJis with the (Jovernment of '." 
t-nt. of their face value in gold and s( > per cent, in 
b<, nds, while the Government should under! 

m any of these notes on demand in jr"ld. 
When Congress was opened on June 1 the 1 
dent of the republic said that th unplo 

funds to meet the estimated deficit of $6,0<i' 
The budget for I*'.)* -ho wed a prospective sur|'In. 
expenditure being cut down by $3,000,(KH t 
100,000, while revenue wa- calculated at $?!' 
000, an increase of $:*,700.0(H). The cum n. 
version was already practically completed, t h 



Ml ol nt 






The Uulu had 
M.-HI from $24,- 
U-r. I-'.M;. i,, half that a: 

WM attributed U> want -f pi- 
MpMstaftl :-n" - >-. f 

uuMrof tf I \ . 



'aUlM'r of fiartiea, the DC 

ung our. It j.n.i 

all. 
.--I faith 

rnclomrea, 

f.i.l III ". i. . f ; '. i r ' * -.\ i . HH 

: thr 

UN. Wit- I.! 

. :.! *>f the year. ' 



innintaiii 
ii ati'i i ational indii-triea. 

.-a-li-rii A 
in tho collected regulations of 






Mil N \ 



- based on th. i;..\, M.J 
Ktii|MT H Mipmne pa- 

ternal authority. The art- of thr * < 

art. Th 
Miicil. 'I 

and 2 Main h . 

ehosen from v wat-h 

f thr 
1 nfiicius. Suln't'ilmat. .I 

:ill .Itl-tirr. ali'l thr Admiralty, 
MS a rhiiiiMit* and a Maiichu pn siding 

arned mandarins with a Chinese and a 

and thr censors ar -1 n,.liM.lually 

Emperor on any mil.Iic mutt 
be ire*ent at all meeting* MI. nt 

board*. 'I Uim 

'l,1873,soii of Prince Hum. tl 

who succeedctl hi- 
,!.. on .la; 



|i-r 



v of 






aunt and 
:. till 






.-T 

r thr pr -\mcea of 
in the table above. Thr 
' in.-hur:a. hitting an 

10 square miles and aUi. 

1.SHH.- 
JOO Jtrjuar nd thr | M ipii' 

8,000,000; TiU-t. w:?h ati area .f ..M>NI ,..,-. 

,-*ria, with an area of 147/XiO square miles 

and thin.'**) inhabitant^: and Chines I 



:- 







:; 




i- tl. .ddhista and Taoism are 

- , : !- - ... , 

\ .-.!..-. . : . 

h. thr 

aborigines, who pra*ii^r nature wonhip. The Ho- 









European pn, 
Dumber of Pr 

\. < -A .:..' 

|aj - - ; - i. ' . 



II 

Vi0 native prieatlL Tht 
MS in 1887 was esti- 
r^lucation is very genern 
lerary Unguagr and r 

.t b assiduously cultivated 
rary da^ for appointment* t*. 
pulilir . ili.t- are bestowed on those who pa- 
- for litrrary degrem. " 
. pirant.H to ofll , and hOBOffl ha\.- |M> 
1 in math. -mat!- - a* well as in the 
nese language, litrraturr. and law*. There are 
many school* in hi 1. thr Wentern languages and 
sciences are taught. In the foreign college h 
kin. which is suppm Imperial Oovern- 

Kuro|M>an and American professors tearh 
^gifah, Russian. Fn -n. h. <>*rnuui. mathematics, 
astronotnv. m.-tcorology. physk*, chemistrv. anal- 
and physiology. The Government has also 
and n*N the 

training of officers in modern warfare. The nnm- 
U r of f. r.igners residing in the open treaty : 



8fl Japanese, 461 

r- - r - : : ' !'. 

Austrian*. 71 Belgians* 





BritUi nMeett\ U80 U pi SS i n 9U 
Germana, 805 Portugt 

- i;:i - 

.nd 140 of 
I in,.!..* -venue is mainly collected bv 

ml authorities. The ImpW 

n.. t . alN uj. n thrm to transmit to IVkm the sur- 
plus o\rr thrir <>n rv.ji 
a rvi|iiiition for a la Mim from 

at^l on the collections for paM years. In na- 
extraonlinary ontributions are 
to famine or poverty the 
revenue of a province is insufficient for ita own 

Hal (iov< r mils the 

utrilnition. and snmetim 
out of it- own trva> 

more than a thinl of 'the surplus revenue of the 
provinces i actually paid over by the official* to 

\ makes the present imperial 

ue 804I7V.OOO taeU. equal to fflij888l l OOOL The 
land tax yields a lit hich 

much lew than the amount actually 
collected, which itself is capable of a large expan- 
sion. Estimating 800,000,000 acres under cultiva- 
tion, and an average tax of two third* of a tael per 
acre, the Government receive* only 124 per cent, of 
the amount collrctcd. The salt tax. y iclding some- 



134 



CHINA. 



thing over 13.500,000 taels, has been slightly in- 
creased since the war and could be much further 

.i Mil. The officials and middlemen coin 
with the iii<>in>|Mly ; . y one 

that they M-nd to 'IVkin. Th ed in kind 

known as tnb -uld >i.-ld 1 ,<MH),000 taels 

more if greedy officials did not c<.ntrol the 
portation. 000 taels. 

The r _rr.wn opium is 2.000,000 

taels, two fifths as much as is derived from half the 
quantity im ported from India. The Imperial cus- 

. ii Id nearly 22,000.000 tacl*. From the 
the Imperial (J. 18,000,000 

taeU. audit i* constantly demanding larger remit- 
tance* from the provincial auth- .using 
them to iiicrruM- the aggravating restrictions on in- 

,1 trade. Three or four different sets of offi- 
cials collect taxe* from the same goods, and some- 
time* even compete with each other. Fnglish iner- 



suggest that their G.-vi-rnim-nt refuse to 
accede to the n-\ 1-1- -n <>f the tariff desired by ( 'hina. 
except on condition that all the taxes on trade be 
consolidated, which the IVkin authorities might be 
induced to agree to. since they could thereby derive 
a much lav . ie from tlie internal coini: 

exceeding as it does tenfold the foreign com 
of the empire. The total expenditure is taken to 
be the same as the revenue in amount. The chief 
items are 36.250,000 taels for the general provincial 
administration and 1J),000,000 ta.-l- for the admin- 
on of the metropolis, including the exiwnses 
of the Manchu garri-on and of the imperial I. 
hold. No attempt is made to adjust taxation or 
expenditure by mean- of an annual budget, either 
provincial OT imperial After the demands of IV- 
kin are satisfied the provincial authorities are left 
to dispose of the rest of the revenue in their own 
way, the auditing of their accounts in Pekin being 
a mere formality. None of the provinces, in fact, 
furnishes reports of expenditures, of the revenue 
collected by the provincial authorities, including 
all except "the imperial customs, about two thirds 
are applied to the civil and military expenditure of 
the provinces. The sums actually paid by the tax- 
payers are believed to be at least three times as 
much as ultimately reaches the public treasury, the 
extravagat of collection costing as much 

as the net revenue, and the irregular perquisites re- 
tained by the officials ab-orbing as much more. 
The gross revenue for !*!)<;, as returned by the 
Board of Kevenue. is much ! than the abo\ 
timate. amounting to 73,300,000 taels, or about 
12.000.000. made up as follows: Imperial maritime 
ms, 15,500,000 taels ; grain and land taxes, 
10,800,000 taels; salt gnbdlr. 12,200.000 taels: or- 
dinary taxes on home produce. 2,600,000 ta>l-: 
: "0.000 taels; various license fees. 3,500,- 
000 taels; miscellaneous duties, 15,300,000 taels. 
The imperial customs collected amounted to 22,- 
000,000 tael-. from which must be deducted the cost 
of collection, about 10 percent., and the amount of 
opium Kkin. etc., paid to provincial authorities. 

maritime customs, under European adminis- 
tration, make annual reports. The receipts for 
1W5 21,385,389 haikwan taels (1 

haikwnn tael=81 cent*), of which 6.039.582 taels 
were import di, x port duties. 1.216.- 

361 taels dutie- collected from the coasting trade 
in foreign merchandise, 478317 taels tonnage dues, 
520,927 taels transit dues, and 4.104.145 taels the 
commuted liktn tax on foreign opium. 

The debt of the Imp-rial Government previous 
to the war with Japan consisted of a loan of 627,- 
675 contracted in 1874. one of 1.004,276 borrowed 
in 1878, silver loans of ! l ..VVi.000 and 2.250.000 
raised in 1884 and 1886, a German 1 r.o.OOO 

borrowed in 1887, and a loan of 1,635,000 in silver 



raised in 1894; total outstanding on Dec. 31, 

il. !:,!. In l^.i:, a gold 1, . .coo u ;i s 

raised, and about I-J.JHKMHMI more \\civ ad\. 
b\ foreign houses and 5,000,000 raised by don 
loans. The Japanese indemnities amount to aliout 

"MHKMI. making the pre-ent indcbtcdili 
the Imperial Government 

Japanese war indemnity was Axed at v 

kuping taels d kuping tiiel ; ..;id :;o.(K)0,. 

000 t;, vert demanded for the evacu 

of the I.iaotung peninsula. To meet t h. -. 'liliga- 

tions the (io\erntnent coniracteil a new forl^H 

loan of the nominal amount . 

at 5 |>er cent., ami in March. IS'.H'I. an An::! 

man loan 

total foreign debt now out-landing is about JJ^I 

KK). 

('I. 1 fn.ni tl 

000, and up to 1SH7 had paid ' 
a balance remaining in London ol ' 
ficieiit to pay the installments due in IS'.)?. (>fthe 
4,000,000 a'pplied to other pu: 
been expended in the purchase of shi|.> ami 
and 750.000 was depo-itcd in the Uus-.-n 
Hank a- a guarantee that China will fulfill theol.li- 
g.-itioii- umiertaken in connection \\ith the Sii 
Uailroad thnnigh Chinese territory. The sum still 
due Japan i- l'16.450,4!>0. being the e.juival. 
100,000,000 taels at the agreed rale of Merln 
change, though the sterling value of that sum ;ifi. r 
.lap.m adopted the gold standard fell t.. L 
-Japan de^iren t hat the liquidation should be efl 
at once, being in need of gi.ld.and China \va- a: 
to dear ofT the indebtedness by raising a new loan 
of 16,000,000, becac OOOoi interot ah 

paid on the part of the indemnity still due v. 
refunded if t he whole is paid before M 
in-trad of dragging almig the payments till 
For the projected loan China ha- oib-rrd ;i- -'curity 
the unhypothecated remainder of the imj.ei-ial cus- 
toms revenue, which is U(H).(KH) per annum, and 
the guarantee of the Hoard of Revenue. The total 
foreign indebtedness of the Chinese Government is 
about 38,500.000. In September a contracl 
made with a British syndicate for a loan of 
000,000 to pay the Japanese indemnity, whi. > 
taken at !U. and for other loan- for the "const ruction 
of railroads. The indemnity loan is secured on the 
customs, the II Lin, and the salt revenue. Th- 
of foreign control of the ///,-/;< was acki 
but the Chinese Government refused to admit 
extension of foreign administration to the collec- 
tion of tiffin taxes, as advocated by Sir liobert Hart, 
chief of the imperial cu-toms and support- 
the British minister. The Hriti-h and other 
ernments have agreed in principle to t 1 
of the tariff fixed in 1S5S by the treaty of Tient-in. 
The fall in the price of silver has greatly im : 
the burden of the foreign debt of China, payable in 
gold, and the amount of the debt ha- been enor- 
mously swelled by the addition of the war indem- 
nity to .Japan. The ( 'hine-e (Jovernment ha- 

fore asked to be permitted to double the | i 
tariff rates. T> . -AMU- to the flu-t i. 

in market prices, fall considerably short of ' 
per-cent. ad m/orem ba-i- upon which the tariff of 
1858 was framed, and probably do not n 
an average more than 3$- or Sf-per-crnt. tul >" 
Three quarters of the present custom- reveniK 
been mortgaged to secure loans to meet 1 1 
indemnity and other expenses connected with the 
dwastrou- conflict with Japan, and before th< 
demnity can be cleared off the remaining portion 
of the revenue now collected from foreign trade 
must be pledged. 

I he \riny.The military forces of the Ci 
Km j. ire have two separate organizations. The Army 



CHINA. 



136 



ht tanner* w recruited from 

K'0|. a >.. I 

tutfjr Jo 

ue** army. nul UN! 
.iicial goveniifn 

f Hllttil lli'li |- 

IV km and $5 



incss, Mongolia, an<> 

-MI), i...-!. MI weapons and 

i visions of w h i r h are commanded 

and p>< . ha 

: K'lh of .V;-. .*real- 

ipline. 
: nneec. war j.lai 

have been obtain. .1 M . far beyond the 
1rnioii of the stu- ' war. 

baitJe hi|". formerly belonging 

lO tin- IK r 

i .du an. I \\ 
: wiihJa|*an. Th- iui\itl forces are 

I* the 

-. built in 

: cruuwr* to be built at Stettin. 'II 

IS of ai i -at. 6 

1 1888 and 1800.2 arn 

Ighai wjii;i<lr< n <"\.-\~' 

run boats, 6 floating bir 

rU. A - being 

and : 



^^^s* 1 frigate. 
1 trnn- 

It in 



mil 1 trpedo boat. '1 



1 .IT Hjmulroiis number 80 
t- Koona flaw. 



are 
.1 great vn- 

il mill tl 

iilli-t. i-i-rn. barley, ami 
fn'U n- un'Wii in ih- 

in th- -M-uth. w In r- nvgw 

tcadiitrici 

from 
:IIIL'. nn 

li- -1 in S 



008 taefe, The value of tc* n ported in 1886 was 
81440JH83 taeU : of raw silk and silk goods. 50,6*?.- 

raw bmid, -.41'; 

jffalo hides. 



The lot f tm a. 

aavtagoVi fr.iii I HI m 

The amount, in hatktn 
ith on 180ft was a* fol 










II 



A. CO|I|MT 111 inct. which have 
- .r'^. .1 in Vuiinnn. have bean developeil 
-lapanene metal lui^iitta. 

ADI) ,-M- . >4 ..2H taeK Ink IDC the 

i in t 1 ' rhinn. Aihli: nlue 

ii i; from that of the im- 
Mr %-altie of the 
.ml that of tl- 
160.006.75.1 taeln. T 

I'piuin. of ih,- total \ .-;. . f SH.lMjBOOtaala; 
i manufArtutv*, M.074.1V| laeN : mw o tt.n. 
T .'3.240 taeU : metaK 
400 taels ; coal. 8.M.275 t *eU : krn 
M7 taeb ; aeawted and fishery product*. 5. 135.- 



Prom the sum of the imports are to be < 
BjMOJSfttacb .' , . n.. l.\n,^ th- t- <: i,t 

The Imports from 
.-n. \nlurd at 8J806JB8 taeb, and rii- 

".694 taeb. are incnidail hi 
the figures for Jatn. 

>n 1806 reached the total of 
888.600.0(MlhaikHai: 

-rlin^\n! .VO.OOO. apaJnM i.'. 

(NMMNtf) IH.-N in Mii|rts.esp<rt.- h\n 

000 n. 

creased Ui and amounted to 

i lit- trad.- of al. 
'.11 < (T UN 0.000 fa. 

1 hi- d !. trade with < 
while trad.- with .laj an <i-reaed by o 
tael*. 

ea, mhih increj 
than 
showed a further Urge decline, owing not .- 

rmosa, b tnand 

thn i L-l.' ui < hina. The tra: 

porta- 

!bestfaigs and cotton flan- 

-tees prevailing in the Tnited 

iinng the summer. American cot- 

iimale of 

n. -rt' and Manchuria. Indian > am im- 

port* have risen from 818,000 picub in 1880 to 

.fnese yarns rasa 
r 101X000 picnls. 

arkablr increase in the imports of 
a a 

:irk tea. due tO 

rmosa shipments and to 
ronghont Chteft, The ex- 

f-.rt of brii k and tablet ia showed an 

black tea to India 

like* I>M> increa*ed. a* thev have Meadilv dot 
ten year*. There wa* a decline f 22JMM) picub in 
attributable t.. large pr 

rlain change* in fa-hii n. and 
to an intermission of the American demand during 
the presidential campaign. 

The foreign merchant * who established thenv 
seta* in the treaty port* are being gradually 
crowded out bv the Chinese, and hil- the import 
trade ha* contihuou*ly increased the native traders 
are monopolizing in an increasing degree the ad- 



186 



CHINA. 



vantages obtained under th< in-atie*. The i 
merchants are subjected to official exactions that 
are protected from by tn-atn->. I "it the 

i.N .f the mandarins an- limited to what t In- 
trade can bear, for if they an- t- onerou- it (Muses 

foreign hands ami "tin- sour.. 
closed. '1'he n. t -i.'ints obtain their goods 

houses in I 

in >hanghai t|,,- fnrri-n nn| '"<" iniiig 

more and morv the c<>ininisioii agents of the Chi- 
nese importers who supply the manufarturin_ 
ten of the West, Thus half tin- rot ton im|Hrtsare 
obtained in tin- wax. anl the Chinese take ti. 
of exchange a> !! a- of the market. Of the im- 
ports other than cott. n ami wooh-n goods three 
fourth* arrive in Shanghai on Chinese account. 

The |IO|K-H rai-cd li> the terms obtained b\ the 
treaty of (trace with Jajmn. increasing the manu- 
facturing and l ratling privileges of foreigner! in 
China, have not been realized. Tin- cotton mills 
and silk filatures that have been established in the 

iNrhtod of Shanghai are liable, according t<> 
the interpretation put u|*>n the Shinionoseki r 
liy the Chinese (io\erii!in*iit. to be impeded by the 
old likin duties on the manu- 

red products as well as excess duties 

on the raw materials. The treaty distinctly pro- 
vided that PHH!S thus manufactured by machinery 
shall, for all purposes of internal taxation, stand on 
the same footing as imported ;;""<K enjoying the 
same exempt ions in respect of inland transit and 
internal di. ge& and exactions of all kinds. 

and also in respect of warehi-ii-ini: and storage 
facilities in the interior of China/' as import,.! 
merchandise that has paid 2$ per cent., half the 
customs dutv. in lieu of transit duties. The T-ung- 
li-Yamen, disregarding the treaty stipulation fixing 
the maximum duty at *JA per cent.. proposed that 

Hxls manufactured fn these steam factories at 
the treaty ports by foreigners shall pay a duty of 
10 per cent., 2$ per cent more than the total duties 
on imported goods, including ~ pi cent import 
duty. This 2$ per cent . the mini-ters thought ought 
to be adde<l to counterbalance the charges of lighter- 
age, freight, insurance. coolie hire. etc.. that imported 
goods have to bear. Japan was willing, in return 
for land concessions at certain of the treaty ports 
to agree to an interpretation of this clause of the 

. that will |K?rmit the Chinese to tax the prod- 

of factories as they desire, for the Japanese 
have tviM-ntcd securing for Kurojicans tin- right to 
establish cotton mills to compete with their own in 
their Iwst market, with the advantage of abundant 
cotton at their doors and cheaper labor than in 
Japan. The Ifeung-U-Yameo subeequently decided 
to levy on the manufactured goods only the same 
rate of duty that is paid on imjH.rt-. without inter- 
fering. however, with the likin imposed on raw ma- 
terial. It is feared that an excessive gp.we! 



will \H- placed UJMIII raw cotton sent tot hese mills in 

order to maintain the monopoly hitherto enjoyed by 

miexe mills, in favor of which the prohibit ion 

against the im|K.rtaHii of spindles was formerly 

Chinese Government The ootton- 

itpiniiing factories compete at pn-.-ni only with the 

mill* of Ja|n and Bombay, taming out the coarser 

kind j'.ut 'here i- no reason i 

that thi- will continue t- be the cas.-. or that the 

manufacturing industry of China will l>e confined 

t'd not embrace weaving, or to 

i rather than to wool or silk. Tho-e inter- 

in the**' undertaking! hojM- from the den 

tization t silver in Japan that China will become 

one of the principal manufacturing < oimtriesof the 

world. It is computed that a Chinese laborer does 

about half the work of the British operative at one 

fourth of his wages, and that the wages now paid 



in Shanghai are higher than what the operatives 
iiToni t.. take and hence will not rise. \\1. 
the hand> i- likely to increase 
.ibly In tin 

The Chinese (iovernmeiit is negotiating for tlie 
right of foreigi-. 

toms duties to enable it to meet ii> obligations due 
in Kuro|K-. which ha\e became heavier in j.i 
lion to the fall in silver. In default of Mich an ar- 
rangement it mut increase the export dm 

Main the niolie\ t.. meet ihe h.a\\ lia- 
bilities roi .i.road! although son.- 
specific dutie-. li\el , - \\ere higher. . 
crushing burden on si>mc ! the mo>t imp. .riant 

. The most lla 

instance i>> the export duly <>n tea. lixed li\ the 
Tientsin treaty of ls.V< at 2| taeU per nicul, the 
eijuivalrnt at "that tune i nt. <i<l nu 

but now a duty of 'JO per cent., while the 
taxes are at 1- The t,.i ; ,i 

.'II (.11 tea before It li-a\es the port 

is in inanv ' le^ than so p< r crnl. 

.veal ly a--isli-il the conipet it ion of Indian and 
n tcji- in (iieat llritain. whidi took only :<7,- 
"Ml pounds of China teas in ls. against' !,- 
000,000 pound- in lss|. and t hat of .Ia|.atiese 

.n the American market. The trade ii, 
silk, of which China no longer en joys the monopoly, 
is also crippled, though in a less degree, by ti 
cessive export duty. 

The commutation of the ///./// duties, by \\hich 
the payment to the maritime custom-., with the 
foreign import duty of half its amount addii 
exen ; from all barrier duties in the inte- 

rior, has in a greater or less degree been evaded by 
the local authorities. They no longer levy likin 
duties as such on merchandise accompanied b\ the 
tran>it pass, but they exact their equivalent under 
the names of excise' and art mi duti.-. !< : 
oil, for example, ha- t.. pay in Canton a municipal 
tax amounting to nearly 40 per cent, mf vai 
The commutation of the likin on foreign opium 
under the Chifu convention of 1886 ha- been strict- 
ly observed by the provincial authorise- b, 
(Jreat Britain reserved the right to revoke that 
convention in case of any evasion of it- provi- 
-ions. and in that event the I'ekin g-. \ernment. 
would lose the large revenue that comes from the 
commuted likin on opium. Other merchandi- 
been practically taxed at the inland barrier- the 
same as before, although the 2$ pxr cent, du- 
empting it under the Tientsin convention from 
likin charges has been paid at the port of entry. 
The Central (o.vermnent ha- not exerted it- author- 
ity to check the-e treaty eva-jons. and ha- 
iisposx'd to do so since it- demand- on th- 
vincial trea-uries have increased. Thc-e abuses 
have : 'est in the Kwang provii 

the ollicial- have simply ignored tran-il i 
when in the h;md- of native nie|-e|ianl- an-: 

and destination duties 
from s, Finally, the |',riti-h mini- 1 

I'ekin, Sir Claude Macdoiiald. liejng de-iiou- 
moving ob-tructi"ii- to I'.riti-li trade in this part of 
China in order to meet the competition thrcr 
by the French ToiH|iiin liailmad. peremptorily 
challenged the Chinese Governmenl to require the 
authorities of Kwaiiginng ami Kwang-i to ol 
the international engagement-. Accordingly _ a 
proclamation was issued in January. 1^!>7. forbid- 
ding officials to collect barrier duties in any form 
from goods provided with tran-it passes or any 

-tination dutie- except such a- n. 
imfto-ed on similar gootls which have paid ///./// in 
transit. 

The ports of Mangchow and Sooehow. which 
were to l- thrown open to foreign trade by the 



rillXA. 






f..-n.-d. Th- maini f "- * ft: .- : M 

*u in,,- r 

|ir||. but 

|on had yet to be gone through with a* to what 
i opened and with. a 

I under what regulation* wa* natt- 
lion to be allowed in forn, 

lat o|-i,.-d to l.-ii.n. a* far a 

r wav i the nompsnsalioii 

in at lir ,!...- in l-li:, of 

-Mill, .if till- 

AH engagement M..I.- 
r id wa aligned to her by 
iWt Itritttin und. r (!.. liurnmh (r 

* i.thi-r i-.w.-r without ih- 
h Government. Itv u,. 
'..juries acces* 

aMrrn jart of Yunnan, the southern 
province, of Kwan^i. and 
hi western part ..f Kwangtung. but tin- |r 
irr .-|- M"l la fon Igl :.:!.. ;. . i.iih r- .i. i,. . 
i, mile* bevund th.- 

' r t he open- 

e^missioa to extend tlnirT- n|uin liaifmad 

o, the capital of Viiunnii. \>\ war of 

Cvmngst French engineers will I*- allowed to 



ton^ entered and cleared during 1895. Of the total 
.V..\>M..nv .re British; 13.014, of 5,220,121 tons, 

lv?l.r.!M t.,.,.. .ln|- 
Bese;ami an. 

niminlrutioiis. 1 I intrrnal commrroe of 
Inr^e. although roads, canals, 
and natural water ways affonl all the mea; 

\crpt the railroad originally luiilt 

ii the 

id now .Mended i" Ti.-nuin and 

>,, nd :n !. din ctioii of Shan ll.r.-K .-IT.. Ta 

inn of the Northern Itailnwtd from Tientsin 

i the summer - 

Belgian syndicate, -npportrd \>\ the French ami 
n return fr a I loan 

i.QOO.OOO sterling, running nim-tv yearn ami 
taken at 90 j*-r a concession for the 

unk line fr.m IVkin to llan- 
railmad. to be 

.lc. ill le: 

.1!-. ld for this concession, 
aid not obtain th. <yndicate 

wan to havr a hanl in the construe 

railroad system of 2.000 mile- and 

to receive a 5-pcr-cent. commission on all material 

.tl. of the material half is to U- s U ,,pl,,,l 

<ina and the other half o\ tenders from 

abro her protected railroads were a con- 

A line to Canton. :. 
vhow and Iliiiik'i how. and the 
Northeni Railroad to Kinn and 
len. Tl nan. ami American 

rote-ted n il arrangement an in- 

Mio*t-favorcd-nal ion rights, and conse 
monoiM.lv clauses were 



and (nrman <'.-i).iiali-ti would not Mitral in 
"d system of ratlmads because they were 
'indrr thr omtn>l '. .- Chinrv official, while 
Sheng-Tajen. tl ' Mineral of Kail* 

d it difficult to nil-- ia.OOQ.000 la. 
native capital that he promised. The obstacle- 



r andrailruod<^iitruiiiut.exrefiltherWll- 
a* puapuned. The llanchurian 
ratlruad fr.", the Un^n ctatioti of the Tranebaikal 
. r:an lUiiruad. throawh 
Kulanchen. and Ningtu. in ManchttiE! 
.rSMithlM.unlU.lr.^.willhate 
* will be 
It deflecU the Sil- 
nearly 400 miles southward intu thr frmi/ui 

has been began on a railroad fr4n Shanghai 

ion. in addition to the dinVsjHy of nsS 
r. met with a serious obstacle in the unwill- 
. .if f land to grant the right of 

W B> . 



. . , 

Nankin viceroy 
imperial auihoril 



' - - 

: . .' 

. nforring ealee of land el 



- ....... 



7. 



ru - ....... ' 

fr-.i, .-h-.m .i,d Nankin, and at a 

fulurv ilatr iUrtm... u.i,<, throogh 

llonan. both n 
those of the Belgian contract. 






The Imperial Government has telegraph lines 
meeting the capital with all the ports and the 

th the Russian 

system in Manchuria and with the Hntfh Indian 
n at Manwyne, on the border of Yunnan and 
Hnrinah. 

The post carU and runners of the imperial postal 
system luth. rt prevailing have been insufficient, 
*'. that pr i \.-iie messengers have been employe* I fr. - 
<iuentl\. and th- Customs Department has 

maintained in the winter months a special * 
betwe-n IN km and the seaports. The Government 
issued an edict on Man-h -Ji. IHtM. to .-\i*nd this 
service into a national post office of the Kuropean 
t\|N. \\tii< h will lie under the din- 
spector General of i u-t.-ms, The Swiss Govetn- 
ment received notice that C'hina intends to Join 
the postal t. 

eluded with China l.y Count Cassini. the BiBSJM 

omatlep. to the 

nt the privilege of building a 

ulroad from some < 
in the Amur province, thence 
he provincial capital of Tritaihar 
and to Petune, in Kir in. ami thence southeastward 
d tapital of Kmn; also to make a 
prolongation from the Russian |--rt of Vladtvoatok 
.n. hun. u. Kirin province, and thence to the 
al of Kmn. The object of con- 
:, -.: | -'.. Rnssiaii Raili atl witl the raib ai P/l 
tent ; three eaMern provinces, 

Fengtten. Kmn. and Heilun k M hiang, is state 
be not .Hdy that of facilitating the transport of 



form in w 
BBSJ - 






im.ires. but also the M rr ngthetiinir, 
ofti, defcnaw and seacoaeta, The prin- 

leges conceded to Ku^ia am said to be a 

-yaJ support at the cK*p of the war belt 
< hma and Japan and at . 
tion of Liaottm? and iU dependenciea. The rail- 
road* are to he l-mlt \.\ Kusaia at h. r own expense, 
and are to rrmain umler i of Roesta for 

thirtv year*, st the end of which China, if ** die- 
posed, mar purchaee the railroads rolling stork, 
and machine shorn. If China finds difficult v in 
extending the existing railroad from Shan-Haj- 



CHINA. 



Kwan t. Moukden. tin- provincial capital of Feng- 

6 t tin- capital of Kirin pn-\ 
Kussia is authorized to pro\ide fund- and under- 

_- the Chinese n 

fr-.in Kirin to Moukden. Ncwchwang. etc.. ami 
China may redeem this railroad at tin* end of ten 
years. Tbfl railroad to U- built bv China from 
Shall-! K'aiping. Chin- 

Lushunkow, or Port Arthur, ami theme 
to Talienwan. shall follow Ru lan railroad regula- 
tions ' faeililal.- . mmeivial illtcK 
between the two empires. In the settled di-tn.-t- 
.ml military olhYials will protect the 
railnwtds built in Clun. .' territory i. but 
in barren and siwirscly inhabited 'distn 
shall be QoWM to place cavalry and infantry 
euanU at the , Miportant The 
nation of mine* in Kirin and 

dang will IK- removed. Should China 
require to reorganize and train on tin- Western sys- 
tem the territorial army of the three eastern 
inoes, Russia will furnish qualified milit., 
>n ti. 'man oflieers in the 

Liang Kiang provinces. Russia has never possessed 
aaeap- r! in A-ia that i- free from ice and op.-n all 
the year round. If. therefore, military operations 
should suddenly an-e in Asia. China is willing, in 
.able the Russian fleets in tin- eastern 
seas and the Pacific to move about freely and at 
plea-iire. to lease temporarily t-> Ru ia 'the port 
of Km-chow. in the provin.-e of Shan-Tung, the 
jeriod of the lease being limited to fifteen year.-, at 
the end of which China shall buy all the liar 
godowns. machine shops, and dorks built by Rn-- 
sia. But should there be no danger of military 
operation- .all not immediately enter intii 

possession of the port, in order to 'obviate the 
chance of exciting the jealousy or suspicions of 
other powers. As the Liaotung ports of Lushun- 
kow. or Port Arthur, and Talienwan an- important 
strategical points, it shall be incumbent on China 
to f'.ri if v them properly, and Ru ia shall lend all 
necessary assistance in helping to protect them, and 
shall not jwrmit any other power to encroach upon 
them. China, on her part, binds herself never to 
cede them to another country; but if Ru ia 
should find herself involved in a war, China con- 
sents to allow nporarily to concentrate 
her land and naval forces within the-e ports. 

terms of this treaty were modified in vari- 
ous particulars, but not to the detriment of Russia's 
position in northern China. The u the 

outcome of negotiations begun with Li-IIiing-Chang 
in Pekin. and continued by him with Priii--. 
banoff in St. Petersburg." The Eastern Chinese 
Railroad Company was organ ixed with it- chief 
office rshiirg. having a Chinese official 

for pre-idcnt. but Russian directors and a vice- 
president in real control, who is appointed by the 
Russian Minister of Finance. None but Roman 
Chinese subjects can acquire shares in this 
company. The company has received the -auction 
of tne Chinese Government to construct telegraph 
lines from the Liaotnng peninsula to Hcianip*.. on 
nine-*, frontier, and from Aiyun to the east- 
ern v r m inns. 

* A Brio-Chinese Agreement. The open- 
ing of the Went river was only part of the compen- 
sation exacted bv Great Britain for the violation of 
the provisions of t he convention of March 1. 
whereby England renounce*! in fa\.,r of china 
the suzerain rights over the -tate- of MiiatiL'-I.em 
and Kiaiu which she had laid claim a- 

successor to the King of A\a. on condition that 
China should not. without a previous agreement 
with England, cede any |ortion of thes*. territories 
to any other nation. < hina did, on June 20, 1805. 



cede to France a large part of Kiam:-llun: to ih,> 
east of Mekong, [noonildermtion of Greai H\\ 

consentin_ all objei-tions to this c, 

Chin:.. . _ne. I an additional agree- 

ment, grant mi: territorial and commercial conees- 

llntain. and the rat ilicat ion- 
exchanged on .lune ". The territory eeded 
the border of Hurmah and Yunnan. The bm.- 
line from the Mcking to the point where r 
strike- the Sahvc.-n remains unchanged: but, in- 
Stesxl of following the Ilitilin-ij <if tin- Salweeti 

leralile dl 
the northea-t, leaving to Iturmah the Shan -i 

00 miles 

in .-\treine length and '2't miles in extreme bn-adih. 
Mid the IK. ri hern terinina- 
tii>n of the frontier there are threi- -mallei- < . 

. the -mallc-t <.f which i- a triaiiL'ular 
between the Nam-Wan and the Nam-.Mak. \\L 
recognixed in the agreement a- Clnne-e leri 
but is ceded t., England on a |erpetual lea.- 
rent to be determined at some future tin:' i 
ditioiitothe Manuuieaiid San-i route- for 
land trade, which alone were -auctioned in tin 
veiitioii of is'.ll. any oilier route- that in.- 
found desirable in the interest of trade \\ 
opened on the same terms as tho-e. Mnglan 
tains permi-sion to appoint a con-nl at cither Mo- 
mein or Shunning-hoo, and one al-o al 
I'.rit i-h subjects and per-oiis under Hriti-h |i- 
tion may establish themselves and tra-;. 
places on the same terms a^ at treaty port-. The 
Chine-e (iovernmeiii '-on-ider whet h< 

conditions of trade justify the construction of 
railroads in Yunnan, and in' the event of their 
struct ion n .mnect them with the Mu: 

lines. The significance of this stipulation i-that if 
the Freiieh penetrate Yunnan with their railroad, 
Kngland will insist on its being connected with the 

n of Biirmah. 

' l.eniiiiii sei/urc of Kiaorhow. The Chinese 
(iovernment made plan- to establish and fortify a 
naval station in the May of Kiaoehow, imme.; 
south of the Shan-Tung promontory, which com- 
mands the southern approach to thedtilf of Chili. 
A strong naval base at this point \\.-. 

-ary to the safety of china's contemplated 
naval armaments. This is the poinl mentioned in 
the published version of the -eeret treaty will. 
8)'a which is to be occupied by Ru ian f-'f 
the protection of China's capital in the event of 
fre-h hostilities breaking out in the far I 
Chinese (Jovernment granted pcrmi ion for the 
temporary u-e of the bay as a winter station 1 

an licet in the Pacific. In the beginningol 

ub. r. (id-many landed sailors and man 
Kiaochow. and subsequently -tore- and material 

brought, as if a permanent occupation 

intended. The ostensible purpose of the 

was to in-i-t on redress for the murder of tw< 
man mi<siomu 

\ttackson Missionaries. Whereas the i: 
diate effect of the war with .lapan was to occ 
fr.-h outbreak- of popular rage against in: 
aries as repre-.-ntative- of the outer barb; 
from whom the .Jjipane-c had learned the art "f 
war. a de-ire frra nearer aojiiaintance with \\' 
in-titutiotis and -ci n to be manifested by 

.,f the 1,'frrtiti. and the attitude of the provin- 
cial oflicial- towanl the mi--i'.narie- in many i 
became more friendly and respectful. The 

of famine, political disturbances, and tl,< 
tat ion of secret societies in various parts of the em- 
pire, fresh revival-* of antiforeign feeling traceable 
to the war or diplomatic disputes, and the renewed 
circulation of the stereotyped slanders against the 

naries caused outbreaks to occur in various 



riiki-TI \\ KNIH-: VVOB. 



rill: 






luring 1807. In January shots were fired 

.<*iunary. was raurdrrr.1 at 
in a region where r> 
The uric* saw the maru- 
'anieaded the UM k il.-.r. ami 
'..ni entrance 
*n ihr b* 
*rn.i kiii.-.i if.,- missionary uh 

-n.. Inn fan. 
a j.lunu. r ,, u .e after 

1 IllUflhtlilig hi' I. 
not* occurrnl at I. -haii-Tung 

lest roving ll 

:!. and 4oan- 

tall rcigncr* ki!imj -ing dnMmi was r- 

Vmerican* Mini Kuru|Nan* were acctnad of 
..tit (In- country fir conquest In 
Ji-h mission nt Woocben was de- 

lie mi":- -n was *ved 
til. 

Mill Ihnr 

licy assert, inese wen 

mg their con vr: .ng torturvn, and burning 

iilaeand I :..ught in th.- gorge 

.m- ui. t> Chunking and 

mtr\ 111 ihi-i-iiM. Thr riven were 

ukiwihn* '.-rers, 

N Illlill-Ul. 

. voltnl a. 
,.ii an<l I 

north niul m>t of it towns \\ n half 1. |..-|. 
bn-t.. 
Obo ctarviiur people . K! in 

I .1. '1111111, Is for f'-nl 

wrrt- fullgllt U ' 

...U nn.l -nil, .-Hi 

I.-. I or w..nn.|i-.|. inM-rsxitatni^ tli. 
'i tr.H,p> from I'lninkiaiig. Small- 
pox brcati 

mil near the >, a. ,*< tin- black plague broke 

< ilKls'l I \N I MH \\oi; | \|| I l Ml 

i i n ni 

run Kmlravor llull.-tin" of Sept 1 

1.7HI; Int. r. n.,ii.,!. 



in Germany, with, in all. 7,919 sorietim outside of 
ul. had SjB* sociMie*. The 
daotoatioiss most Urv in the a> 

ae 9999, in it.. 

.. . - i< 

bytrriaiM. IU 

thoditU. Tha 

, and it was animated that the sat* 
given an equal amount for other 






.\ - 

tiinp JHXM. 

Ir iiumUr of ndetiea, 51^64; of roemberm. 

rnntioiml ' of tbcrn mcietie* 

i\ Sn Krniu-iMii. Cl.. .In!. 
*l ail<lrv* of r 11 the ao- 

*mll it fultilH. 

that .VMM i .'tic- Im.i 

. in nil count ric.4. ilurin. . nnl thr 

lirr wn.i r witli a tm inl-p-hip 

Mtimatnl .briilc*tJ..^ 

-ralen.JI.92-. ,-rr in 1 

ifn. < in thr We* 
. -Vl in China, 52 in African 



Mar; a 



|>rkrr from In.lia. Ja| n. AIU! Autraiia. Prac- 
tical i|ur*ttoim of H..-H...U !,.! . rk en 
r.lli" 

.. mrrting mm given up to mother*. 

I mlllr. rrr hrl 
that liaiu't^ 

would give broJ. 
al and geogtrnphieal rrpmrntaimn to 

lll:is||\N xuiMI-IS. Tbe dortriM of 
r*t piMinlgaled by Mrx 

th.- S riptunr*. man's rinfulneaa. the Atonement, re- 

i|.-iii|.ti..n thr..iit;h ih.- M.; f 
giveneai of ini, .--.. u hold* an a .i 
that ' -nival ion d*montrat?d by Jew i* 

tbepowtrol tnith ox, -mil rmr. in. icknn, and 
(irath ; an.l it i-\a< t fn>m it* a-lhrrvnt* a promiat 
that in iml to be in thrm which was in 

healing svttem baswi upon the theory that all t* 
miml. without whi.h n.att. r is unn-al and nonex- 
istent. The mwirty hat enjoyed a very rapid in- 
crease within the past few year*, which, according 
to one of iut writers, has been moat remarkable since 
tin- creation of j.r.-a. lung in 1800. Previou* to 
that time. fr twmt v-nmc veara, srrroons were de- 

- thow usual in 
lu-r iirnomination<t ; hut within the past Ihrre 

reaponaive liturgy, and exposition of tne Scrip! ur. 
rva<lrrs arr cimnrctcd with each aocietv and 
^ uf throughout. lW-i,lr* thr 'Bibki, 
^ienceaml llralth" and the 
to thr Scriptures" arc recogniied as autbont 

hraler and 
healers 

In 1VJ thr ( hn*( t. had in 

300 sociHiea meeting reirulariy 
hin institutions and M dav 



to tr cripures arc recognie as auto 
uember may be a hra 
miavionan. l-nt th.-re are also profatifcmal 






Ift!oo 



worship. 90 

l>en*aric ami n-a.ling rooms. They had at the end 

: .-hurt-be*. 114* other regulaHv 

staff* and 

40.000 members m the Unhed - h 64 pub- 

lading rooms, Mtuatc*! mainly in the largrr 
. These figures show an increase during the 
cliartere,! churches 5C- 

hat the whole 
nnmU-r of adherent fnite^l States and 

Canada i not lem than 250.000, and that the num- 
f attendants ha.< (ImiMnl within the past 
Ten churches were built or ac- 
quired in the I'nited StAtea. one in Tntvxjto. Cana- 
C and one in Ixwidon. Kngiand. dunnr th year; 
i sn.l a < hristiaa Science Hall have been 

v has also 

had marked crowth 
France, ami Norwav. 



in 



. 
Rnftaad. Germany, Italy. 



140 



COLOMBIA. 



Mil nM HI \.arepublu- in Smith Am. : 
Senate is composed of 27 men. n each < It- 

part i .il for six years b\ indirect suffrage. 

The House of Representative* is composed 
members, elected by direct rote of tin- i-ooplc for 
four years, Anv male eiti/.en years old 

and able to read and write, or having an in.-. 
500 pesos or real property worth 1.500 |icsos. :- 
titled to Tote, The acting President after the 
death of President Nun.-/ ..n S-pt. 18. 1894, was 
Vice-President ..... who re-.-ned h, 

trmittr, 1896. handim; over the executive authority 
Inn f..r the remainder ..f the t.-rni 
7.1898. The Cabinet in the bcgin- 
ninc nf 1H97 was composed as folio w- : Kinisterol 
Foreign Affairs (J. Bolffuin : Minister of ('in: 
rnmunna' ions, I '. 1 Minister ol 

!iui-terof Public In-tructiou. -I. M. 
Carraaonilla : Minister of Finance. Ponce I^eon. 

.1 .in<l Population. | ..f the repnh- 

uated to l)e 518,938 square mile-.. The 

imputation wa> : in 1H5 at 4.000.000. in- 

chiding 15O.OOO uncix ili/< d In.ii.in-. Fducalion is 

free in the primary sehooK of which there were 

. with 89,000 pupils in average attendance. 

Government maintains 1") normal 

schools with 800 students, ami a university, with 

1.600. while 1,000 more attended the universities of 

the dejwirtli 

I i nances. The customs yield nearly two thirds 
of the revenue, which was intimated in the budget 
for the period 1895-*96at 26.226,300 pesos, while the 
diturewas expected t<> amount to j(;.:!(i:.i!U 
pesos. The estimates for the biennial period end- 
ing June 30. 1898, make the revenue 38,224,000 
j . 

The conn -lid a ted internal debt on June 30, 1896, 
amounted to 5,633,046 pesos, and there was a float - 
f 1.892,110 pesos. The paper money in 
riri-ulation amounted to 30,8*1. diing 

the total currency obligations of the Government 
:;-..>;,-,. ix peg i, The for.-iuMi debt OODSistfl "f a 
loan <>f ':i.'.n:;..->00 raised in Fn-land in is?:; an.l 
arrears of intere-t on iliis. bringing tin- "';>! up to 
3,514.442 on Dec. 31, 1896. An arrangement for 
the settlement of the debt was made w it li the I'M it - 
ish creditors, subject to the approval of the Colom- 
bian Congress. 

After the conversion of 1873 the coupons were 
paid till 1879, and since tin -n the bonds have been 
in default. Compromises made with the foreign 
bondholders in 1881 and 1884 were not ratified by 
ongress. Another on. n gotiatcd in 1890 was 
rejected by the bondholders. . nd the (Jovernment 
would not even consider any arrangement until in 
1898 a provisional agreement was made, according 
to which the Colombian Government undertook to 
nay the full principal and 43 JMT cent, of the de- 
faulted interest, giving new bonds bearing 1| per 
cent interest for the first thn em. 

for the next, and after six years *2i per cent., with 
a sinking fund that would extinguish the debt in 
thirty-six yean. 

The (Vfriiti claim for the value of estates and 
stores destroyed by Government troops in 1885 on 
suspicion that the owner, an Italian subject, wa- 
abetting the revolution then in progress, was re- 
ferred to President Cleveland, who awarded the 
claimant 60,000 sterling and a guarantee against 
debts accruing from the loss of hi- business. This 
guarantee the < ; .mbjan Government refu- 
give, asserting that the matter was not Mibmittcd 
for arbitrati'.n. 

my. The army on the neare footing is fixed 
at 5,300 officers and men. In case of war 

ubian fit to bear arms can be called into the 
service. 



and Production. Thci 

mino in < ( of which :{.M8 are alluvial ,. r 

ciuartz gold mine-, in Antio^uia. In Caiu-a an<l 
Tolima. \s i 05 --f the mine- are >ituaied. >ilver 

i- found a-soeiated with p'Kl and other metals. The 

average annual product of the precious me;. 
$4.(MNMMN>. There are :t(l emerald inino. 11 f,, r 
cinnabar. ? manganese mines, ami other- for the 
production ,,f nipper, platinum, lead, ijuirl^ 
oal. and -all. The Mu/o mine produce- . 
"IMI worth of i-nn-ralds annual!). Th. 
mines at XiiNMiuira.'lN'loiiging to th.- (iovenn 
almost supply the need- of th-- c<iui-tr\. \'< I i"|,.|iiu 
and coal an- found in several departments. Tin- 
iron mi I at I 1 : 

into wrought iron. raiN. and ma hinei \ 

. :i-i\ely. 1 i 

the -oil iii many part- i- \ery fertile. The' iuij 
incut of facilities for tran-porta: ion would f :- 
eidarge the opportunities for com mi i n -ul- 

turnl I'l-o-luce. CnJTce <.f line ipiality i- 
and its cult i\at ion is extending rapidly, other 
products are tobacco. Qtcao, su 

rubber, and d\e\Voo<l-. Th. K .it tie, 

hoi-e-. mill. -.'and a-<e-. and B, 

and hogs in the country according to ollieial e-ti- 

mat.-<. The total \alue of the import- in 1S!") was 

1 L526 . and of the ex p.. rl- i 

principal artide-of import are fo<l. drini 

and iron and sled good-. The export 

ind du-t. cotr,-, . |M-aiiuJ<. -ilver ore, caca. 
ton. dye-tulT-, live animals, tobacco, rubber. 

and Umber. 

N.IN iiralion. The number of \. 
the port of r,arran.|iiilla in l^.i.". w:i 

tons, and cleare.l -j:s. ,,f :;!].' 

chant marine c..nsi-ted of ~t .-ailing vesseN. ,,f ]j:,7 

tons, and 1 steamer, of l 

that call at the port- of Colombia every month. b"> 

are British, 9 American, 4 German, 3 French. 1 

Spanish, and 1 Italian. 

roinmnnication-. I n w< re ::!' mi 
railroad in operation in Js'.MJ. The telegraph- 
a len-th of (J.s::.") mil.-. The internal |.o-tal tralli.- 
in 1W8 was 902,410 letters and po>tal cards. m.VM 1 
-amples and paper-, am. 
an.l packets, while 842,440 letters and -.MMJ.ITI j 
and packet- were mailed for foreign conn' 

The Panama (anal. The new canal com: 
formed in Paris in 1*!1 to complete the ten-lock 
canal ri-ing to a maximum altitude of ]'.',:', feel, in 
the place of the sea-level canal originally planned 
by Ferdinand de I.es-eps. made fair |.r 
the limited caj.ital at it- di-po-al, onl\ 
francs, of which not more than half was available 
for work on the canal. The cut t iii! r < in the ( i, 
and Km perador sections ha\- a nii.ed definit. 
iiortioiis. At the ix>ginning of ls'.7 tin-re 
laboren at work, recruited iii Jamaica and Trini- 
dad, in Sierra Leone, and in the |.n,\ in.-.-- of Colom- 
bia. The pp-ent work i- mainly experimental, iu- 
tended to nrove that a lock canal is fea-il.le. About 
1,500,000,000 francs have b.-.-n i-xpemlcd since the 
scheme was first launched in 1**1. The net r- 
of the Panama Railroad, which is owned alim 
tirely by the canal company, increa-cd fn-m > 

(KMI in i's!r to 5<:}!K;.(KMi j tl I'SJH;. The profit- ,,f four 
years have been applied to the purchase of three 

mers. The trafi'n- from the I'a'-ilic t 
Atlantic has decrea- _ to small crops and 

the competition of tramp steamers, bul in t!,> 
po-ite direct!. .n. through arrangements with the 
-hip companie-. t her-- ha- been a larire increase 
of traffic. The Government receives $250,000 a 
from the railroad. 

The commission of engineer- reported in 1890 that 
to complete the canal, with a width of 1WJ feet at 









and ha. th. w.uld cost UUO.. 

^Hftli all' 
MDSfl 

i 

^^was rmuinol in INtM the engineers surveying 

* ('Ian ff ! 

.. .f |.r- 

(han 

, 

Mjpplv Wa 

reservoirs, which *.i! 
Chagres river. The work 
OB or on nH has < 

than that <*. < oninltahrd 
inaiiap-n rato 

,.. . . '.-..-. i' .*..-..: 

it emi.lm 

ions extend 16 miles 
Colon ami 4 null-* inland from Panama, and 

not been uml.-rrnt.-.l 

anal will bs completed within 
HI years stipulated on the renewal of the oon* 

I In. ilr.ndinil!. 



i 1880 .t u., 

. nt 

:.un-. 





AUornej-Geneml. i 

\ ljutnnt fffiior.. 

IL Mont, Republican ; K.^.n'-. ol lh< l .,.--. 
hf Andenon, Charles ft 



1..:,. !...- :' .. 

BMfafaMrj 



Ju.i 

-r 11 ftlMl J 

Kin *. The n-| 







tfti bonded an 

*. .. - i : 



Ilirlhr 



IM.19t.ft 

- - 



. 



to f 1 JIQgmi 

fun.l 



ivmamed unexpended. The *; 
iti fn.ro special funds aggregated * 



The total valuation .,f the counties amount 
-Ho. The railroad*. 

he vahiatK*. *31.716ji?. 
liid.-'i in this summary. 

Th, f.- of theSecretarvof 

iim.-nnt.-.l to 244341.92. of which $tMJQO.- 

t : i;. 

< harltlpH and < . 1 1 < -I loaik The report of the 
M in- w that there were 

tn I.M.. i. N..\. :W. 1H96. convict* to the number of 
607, an excess - ' . number two years pre- 

viously : luit tit.- daily average count was increased 
d cost of maintenance for the term 
was $169.571U4. making about 864 cents a da 

This is the lowest percaptta since 
h,- hu-h, - ,*n 76* cents in lWl->tt. 

Darins! the past two years $8V8U has been ex- 
jx-ndi-d for iinprovements and repairs. 

.? Iturna V:-ta the 
f prisoners, Nov. 80, 1(96. was 1O2. 
-- ..\.-r t!.-- at -.. i-loseof the pre- 
viou> the 188 prisoners who have been 

i*n.l.-d during the past two years, 81 report rego- 
rorming.and have good place*: ft re- 
f--r a time and then stopped: 18 never re- 
te.1 : and 5 have been returned for violating 
ir paroles. The co*t of maintenance for t) 
r was nearly $A5jOOO. 

ram daily alten<Unce at the Industrial 
.N.I f..r<iirU wan* 54. ami the 

Home for Dependent 
1HM. and 10 have been adopts 

'he areraaw number of inmate* at the Soldiers* 
u in 18M wan 102. Th. 



an- 
l for 



M. 

matrl riMt of maintenance for 1*1*7-1*$ is f^OuOpOl 
Im|>rtvrmrntji costing about $14.000 have bean 
made vithin the past two years. 

>e that rV|^rtc.l to the Bmrd of 

ties and Corrections cared for an average of 

848 poor persons at their poor farm*, at an expense 

of 148.264741. Other relief cost these counties 

counties shows the 



148 



COLORADO. 



total number of prisoners in county jails in 1805 to 
have been 3.530. of whom 235 were females. The 
inn mii-nance of county jniU haa cost $86,87 
maintonance of the 

salaries of jailers and guards has cost > 
average cost per capita, $25*55. One l.u 
and flftr-twoof the prisoner* were un-i 
am ./ aft, 

The Boanl of Pm 1 ''>'.}'* applica- 

dunng t- .Md recom- 

meii'l.-d "l f<>r (Minion. 6 for conditional |ardon, 15 
i. nmi 4 for rc-pite. 

Jllnliiir. The report of the director of the mint 
^fl6 gives the product of z\*\ "f Colorado M 
721.830 fine ounces, valued at $14.91 l.(KM). The 
Ymlueof ti |,185 t 2W. This 

is about on.- thinl of the output of the pr* 
metals in the count ry. 

The receipts of gold bullion at tin- Dearer branch 
mint show a large increase of production during 
tin- first nine months of 1897 over the correspond - 
1*!M!. The aggregate in IsiMi was 
$3.138.4:W.16: in 1SH7 it was $8.888,088.. The 
it what is estimated as a little over 
half the State's production of the yellow metal. be- 
cause only 'J out of the 7 smelters send tiicir bars to 
thi* institution. 

ii- increase in the cold output," says a Colora- 
do journal, "i- .md comes from all the 
mining camps of UK bring in 

An estimate of the output of 1897, made in July 
and based on the figures for the tir-t H\ months of 
t IP- year, was as follows: Cripple Creek (Kl ! 
$14.000.000: Ciilpin Count y. $11.000,000: San Mi- 
gnel OoillltY. $8,000,000; Clear Cn-k County, $1,- 
500.000: Lake County < 1.,-adv ille). $1,000.000: San 
Juan County (Silverton). $, r )<K),0(H): Boulder Coun- 
ty, $500.000: On ray County. $400.000: Summit 
County, $250.000: Park County. $250,000. 

The recent introduction of processes for treating 
low-grade ore promises greatly to increase the out- 
put of the B 

Leadvillc is to have a reservoir on the Lake Fork 
branch of Arkansas river, where 2.000 acres have 
been bought for the purpose. The plan is to main- 
tain the reservoir for storage, conduct the water 
through pipes to the foot of the little gulch leading 
up to Leadvillc, and there build a power house. 
This will furnish electric power to the mines of the 
whole dist 

The product of lead for 1896 was valued at 
i id that of copper at $802,697. 

<.o|,|- Mining Convention. The first Interna- 
tional Gold-Mining Convention met in Denver. July 
7, 8, and 9. IN objects were "t.. secure such na- 
tioiutl legislation as may be calculated to promote 
the business interests and development of r 
sources of tin- mining industry in North and South 
America; to bring together "mining men and in- 
vertotx: to increase reciprocal trade among them; 
~<:uas such questions as are naturally suggested 
i objects; to cultivate acquaintance, fraternal 
g, and hearty co-operation among the various 
mining, commercial, and laln.r bodies represented, 
and especially to take under advisement the impor- 
tance of the creation by Congress of a department 
to be known as the Department of Mine- and .Min- 
ing, thus securing a Cabinet officer to represent an 
interest which bffects more than one third of the 

people of the I 

L. Bradford Prince was president of the conven- 
tion. The name of the , n was changed 
to The International Minim: Congress, ani 
Lake City was chosen as t lace of meet inc. 
Papers were rend on the treatment of ores, the 
history of various mining camps, and geological 



formations of mining districts. A resolution 
adopted urging Congress to ..pen to minim; 

in California. \ 
o : but a simila- 
iing 'lie gilsonite lands of t'lah \\a- laid <.u 

Me, 

uas appointed to take steps for the 
establishmeiii ,.f a National Department of .Mines 
and Mining, with a Cabinet olliecr at its head, and 
one to drall a mend tin -nN to t he mining | a \\ - \\ hieli 

Congress will be asked to pass, 

Decision. A decision gi\.n by the Supreme 
Court in May in a . ado, in\o|\ 

(M.nirover-y over th :' tunnel-site 

and subseijueiit f veins along the line of 

the tunnel site or on ii- trrrii 

tention that a tunnel-site l<K-ai<.r ha- the n-di to 
the possession . hat ero^, 

line of the tunnel within :{.(MK( f, , t from it- 
which was not discovered when the tunnel \\ . 
caled: provided, thai the tunnel-site own. i-s have 
prosex'uted the work on the tunnel with dilii 
And the discovery of a lode or vein from tip 
face after the location of the tunnel will n. 
prive the owner -f the tunnel of any j 
\ein: provided, further, that he has dili^ 
prosecnte(l his work on the tunnel. The d - 
also settles the right of the O\\H.T of such tunnel to 
locate 1,500 feet along the vein, and this |, . 
may IM- made part ially upon one side of the point of 
discovery of the tunnel, or entirely upon one side. 

Undines.,. -The Denver Clearing-House A- 

tion issued an ollicial statement in October-si, 
the increase in business for six weeks of 1 
pared with the corresponding period of the pi 
ing year, indicating the growing activity in busi- 
ness. The total increase f.,r -ix weeks in S 
Mid October was *!.!'.;!. 

A Denver newspaper s ;l id in April: "Th- 
-of money in one bank in this city ha\ 
creased bv $8,000.000 within less than a year. In 
other banks there has been a parallel in< ! 

Tin- l.ca<hille Strike. The miner 
which began June 1!>, ls'16. continued until M 
9, 1897. ending in a victory for the mine o* 
Gov. Adams went to Leadville in January and 
brought about a meet in LT between manag* ' 
mines arid leaders of the strike in the }\\ 
ing a settlement. Hoth the miners and the ov 
made propositions, which were rejected. About the 
middle of January tin- -real pumps that drained 
the mines on Carbonate Hill, the center of I 
ville's wealth, were taken out. allowing the many 
mines there to fill with water. The l.egi 
appointed a committee of 2 Senators ai 
sentatives t<> in -he strike, which commit- 

tee in their report proposed apian of settlement. 
At a meeting of the Miners' I'nion. March 9, it wafl 

decided by a vote of about 1J(M to :'.<M> to d. 
the strike off. This action was umler-stood 
owing to the reduction of the weekly relief allow- 
ance to an amount barely sufficient for mea^ 
istence.and the apparent hopelessness of any < 
in the attitude of the managers. The expci. 
the State for protecting property and kc. -pin- 
by the militia was about fcMO.ow. and the . 
niitie owners and miners of the camp \\a- estimated 
at $4.000,000, to say nothing of the cost to 
organizations elsewhere that were taxed for ui<l to 
ikers. 

Public Lamia. The amount of vacant public 
land- in the State is given as, approximately, 1 
. : 

Kfforts have been made this year to get the case 

of t he Las Anitnas grant before'the Court of Claims. 

Me. of those old undivided tracts the title to 

which, while allegedly perfect, never has been passed 



COLORADO, 






the court. Mid i* in the anomalous position 

. r actually in the pubh. nor in the 
It covers 8 < 

Jiliiad. tto 

tula and La* Aniina-. u Unversed 
>ed to contain, 
ranges, valuable deposits ' 
v* action to niwimmry to Mad 
i f na, aiace by law no 
.fid ran be 
.rt. ami I! 

mission to the court 

ti|> t!,,- 0Mi w.i- IMI two fttn "- ' 



to be transported by railroad on the same term* as 
other baggage; and one to prevent and punish 
fraudulent i>u>iag upon crwht. The charter of 
Heaver was ammdetl in rvgani 



A 



avaema. ''^^ 

for Htate institutions for lt*7-W 

$50,000, br*dr the institution. 

' I A >if ~ *! ! .. 



: . 
6 f 

" \ 

r- . 



- complained thnt 

I tlml II.- 

nave ha<i 

r..r illegal slaughter. are now u 
i -mull i>r|M,rti..ii ..f i in- lawbreakers. 
- ' -are 

1 sportsmen. 
Hh,n< < f. .!. The Lafwatttn rwviatd 

I if they are enforced the animal* will u 

seafloa. The . m-ral Aft- 

ivrnel Jan. mi.: 
imrtiee !. i I.HII..I : I'oi.uli^ 

m prwident ;//>/ /. M,. ,.f id.- 
.in \V. llurll.iit Si 
lie ottoe of cliai'linn -f was 

IilH-tl in favor of tin- 
with 
m in a moveim-nt to secure works of iint 

mneeaye of tin- ntiruu- 

23 was li 
e f.. a sheriff t -In- IHMS 

<>f a 

n. ami ail-. 
to 111, -in- irreat to cstab- 

vas innuuunit.-.l .Ian. 1'J with con- 

> -Mtij-l expense t> . ac- 

' l.-v than fo. 

tin- oath of office, 

I there was < . or demon- 

.tes Senator to suo- 

' 
candidate of the roe*. 

ho vote stood 98 for T. Her to 



- Peniteatiary. $lflOjOOfll 

i -. I:,' -. .- l:,: . \ < 

tt.000: deaciearv. &JHA.IO; atwefe and lam 



lU $1'" ' 

1 for the iVaf and Dumb and the 
inearaaee, apueratu*. eld. $1 



- 
Other appronriations -he two years: 

grounds, |6W nompJetion of the Oapiiol 

l.u.1. grounds. * 

IWJ5CM) is to be used for 



law was one aU.lihini; 
lit and -ul-t itutiiiu* iinpri-M 
|>t : .r th rrruani*jiti. 

-ow amifrntni'ii? w law re- 

"ti ; l-l.- Hi-'riiii;. n' -:: r> dfteg . . 
if*- umlrr the name 

<>ther 



r a |rt of t) 
peas* legislature. $87.000; for operating 

E III bat *; '-.! -I! 

1,! 

th. r l-ilU that became laws 

it*- and lotal l**nU of 

and providing for tin- adju-" - ncea 

I'loyees and de- 

11 nil.. r- ami ofuties thereof ami making an 

!ij'j-r..|.n:it i"ii tlu-n f 

vi'lin^ that every able-bodied convict be put 
to the work that is most suitable to him ami that 
will h-n>t .INT. and that the 

Im-tion of suf- 
ii.-i,-nt t<> pay the cost of maintenance and retea- 

ifcaU be given t.. th,- family of such c. 
or <1 >f there lie any ; if there be none, 

the same accumulated shall be naid to such com id 
u|- .n liM harge. and appropriating $10,000 to carry 
nit t 

I nn. cm: that the Twin I^akes Hatchery be 
: or MM. 

, a ilr part men t of forrtrr. game, aad 
fish, with a con at a salary of $1.200 aad 

an allowance of $500 for cxpcneea, 

. that no |mm may acquire 
in ga le 

f course, what> 
caught according to the game laws. 

Making it unlawful to kill or take at any time 
any bison, mountain sheep, elk. or beaver, except 
that ouch may be caught f. r |rk purpose* 

..i.|..rtiN.- rd of Horti. 

. .,!ture.coasisting of six practical horticulturist*. 
with a seereUrr at a salary of $1.000 and mileage: 
1 1..- members to receive $3 a day for time actually 

rk.and tr 
of tliiir | |.l ft.r to U tlnr ^ear. 

the eMablUhment of an Industrial 

Behooli r6 rk or Mai I 1 - - 






r merely one initial 
he business name, and persons 
Cnesn un<l<-r any other name than the par- 

members, ton 

k an. I rvconler affidavit;* nhowini; who am 
presented, and providing a penalty for failure 
law for n-culattn^ the' husiaese of 



To prevent lilackliting and b 

Regulating Inn Mini; ami loan 

provide for the erectioa 

and completion of a faiutol l.uiMinc at Denver, 
ami n- at ing a hoard of management and 



viakm ": and creating a bnanl 

>e purpo* rrising and direrlinc the 

const motion, completioa, aad furnishing of the 
Capitol building. 



144 



nMiM;i>-i:i> AII;. USES OF. 



Authorizing the Treasurer to pay the mi. -r. --i for 
two years ..n the "caMial deficiency" bonds ami 

isurrvction " I 
Prohibiting druggists frun M-lling cocaine with- 

ite, 
Creating a board of examiner* in d.m. 

< and g<. )' right 

to belong i<> lawful labor organisations, unions, ao- 
cietfe*,or |-in i toproxidea |H-imlly 

or Mien.] 

r the fun.i -.:\(MiOof tin- in- 

. : - -s- v, . \: . n- - in' urred 

in mipprnwing insurrection during l s '.aii'i 
and appropriating money out <>f the general 
. the tut \ear's interest on >ai 

II funding lionds. 

I. tin of Immi- 
gration and St. < : to promote the or_ 

ami guarantee 
official I-. nds under certain reguationt, 

d ..-king that 
I*' made for that branch of tin- 
Survey which is engaged 
mining the metallifer n- districts of 
the States and T mt-.i-i.-. to the end that needed 
y* mar be oommeiMMd or completed, and the 

results publi-hed at the end of each season in pam- 
phlet form, a* much of the value of the information 
thu> received depend- upon it- -peedy publica- 
tion " : and that the l>ill for the erection of a 
eminent building at (ilenwood Springs he pa ed. 

As the regular session adjourned without enact- 
ing a general hill providing an appropriation for 
theordina s of the executive, legi-lat ive. 

and judicial departments of the State for the years 
1897 and 1898, tin- (iovernor called a special session 
to meet April 6 for the sole purpose of passing such 
a hill, ami it was accordingly passed. 

The Governor vetoed a bill regulating the manu- 
facture and sale of oleomargarine on the Around 
that it was not as good a law for the dairy and 
farm interest as the present statutes regulating the 
dairy industry and the oleomargarine traflic. 

Political. The only State election this year 
was for choosing a justice of the Supreme Court. 
William (Jabbert was the nominee of tin- People's 
party on a platform demanding the independent 
and 'free < -ilvcr and a suflicieni volume of 

pa|er money to IM- issued by the Government, and 
denouncing' government by injunction. The re- 
turns showed a majority for" him of about 3.000. 

< I'MI'i; 1 . ss| h Ml!. I s| > or. The value 
of compressed air as a convenient means of distrib- 
uting power was known long ago, but its general 
introduction isof comparatively recent date, as only 
within late years has it been practicable to mami- 
. re at low cost air-tight appliances for utilizing 
it to advantage in a variety of wavs. Among the 
earlier ami m.re familiar uses to which it has been 
applied are the railway air brake, pneumatic cu-h- 
ions, and pneumatic dispatch tubes. The com- 
preased-air ro<-k drill <ame into use ajx>ut 186."). and 
Unemployment informing tunnels, mines, and *.th.-r 
excavations has become almo-t univer-al. It i*n>ed 
by tin- nak.-d A fri-an lalx.rer> in the.Iohanii.-- 
burg gold mine*. Compressed air has a conspicu- 
ous place in most modern engineering works. The 
drill* and channeling machines and most of the 
small engines on the Chicago Drainage Canal were 
air-driven. The rock work at the bottom of Har- 
lem river for th- foundation, of the brid-e a' I s 1-t 
* was all done in caUson* of compressed air. 
The Blackwall Tunnel, under the Thames Knglami, 
was also constructed under air pressure. ( '"in- 
pressed air has replaced steam in many mechanical 
oses, and done away in many cases with such me- 



chanical appliance* as >hafting. belts and pnlleys, 
and gears. It i- the active competitor of electricity 
in a hundred fields <.f usefulness, and is frequently 
preferred to the latter as a nieehanical agent for 
Mining p. 

Largely owim; to the inroad- of electricity in 

liranchofnieclianisiii.it ha- come to be'ree- 

d that the fridioiial IO,M- sii-taiiie.l in trans- 

milting p .iflin^can be saved by employ. 

e u ith the 

machines that it is .: ,1 i he eh-e. 

tlio wire U-ing found to alTonl a mean- !' trans- 
mittin- power with small loss, builder- of machin- 

line to understand more fully Ih- 
pipe- or hose filled with compressed air alTord an 
equally economical means of sending ] 
moderate distance with little |o . Thu- the devel- 
opnu-nt of electrical method- of po\\i-r dj-irihution 
ha\e opened the way for com pre ed air and br. 
about a dev-lo|imnil "1 .'ed niacliinery 

which i- most e\!eii-ive and is oilplant 1;. 
creasing. 

The machine that confine- the air so as to give it 
an effect ive pres-nre is called an air compre ,.- 
i- a form 01 pump, or rather a steam engit,. 
pumjicombined. In the u-ual con-truci. 
cylinder and an air cylinder are placed end t 
and the steam-cylinder pi-ton i- mad- t,, di 
pi-ton within the air cylinder s<> that at each 
a cylinderful of air i- compres-ed and fM 
into a tank. The airso-toivd IH-COI 
power that may be u-ed at any convenient time at 
a distant point by transmission through pip< 
power being ut ili/.ed at the receiving point by n 
of a cylinder and reciprocating pi-ton, on the prin- 
ciple of the -tram engine, or in any other conven- 
ient manner. In compressing air a great amount 
of heat i- generated, and the loss of thi- would mean 
a corre-poiidiiig lo in power: hence m. an- have 
to be provided for saving the heat. The common 
method is to surround the air cylinder, win r 
compre ion i- going on, with a water jacket, thus 
cooling the air and heating the water. As tin 
ter i- healed it is led away to feed the boiler of the 
steam engine. Of course" the hot water brought to 
the boiler is turned into -team very quickh . 
this saves coal and economizes the lo that othei- 
\vould be sustaim-d. In practice it i- found 
best to compress tin- air in several -tage-. AK 
of compressors a re built, from those deliverini: i 
for operating one rock drill to great mechanisms ca- 
pable of driving a hundred large machn 

Drills. -The rock drill is simply a pen-n 
drill or chisel driven up and down and forn. 
hole by repeated blow- on the rock. It i- al 
crated by -team, and occasionally by electricity, but 
for underground work in mines and tunnels com- 
pressed air i- preferred, a- the po\\er deliv. i 
the drills is worth all it co-t- in the way of furnish- 
ing fresh air to the men operatin- the madiiii'-. 
The compressed-air rock drill has been u 

it tunnel built within the pa-t twenty 
years, and for such excavation- a- those at Hell 

theCp.ton Aqueduct, and the tail race 1- 
escape of the water at the Niagara power plant. 
Drilling in cai on- or in front of air l"-k- i- the 
common method in excavating under water. In 
caisson work, as on river bottoms, t he men de-cend 
through air lock- to the cai on or chamber which 
has i,,.,. |, SU nk to the bottom, and there work under 
a pressure of air sufficiently great to prevent the 
Inflow of the water from the open bottom of the 
n. In excavating the I'.lackwall Tunnel the 
work was carried only H feet below the Thame- bot- 
tom, this thin stratum being composed of gi 
and mud. The workmen were enabled to pr 
their labors there without being flooded or drowned 









nc of a heavy pressure of air Berlin for 

i-k the ffiir ami en 



yean. Ther have 



been em- 



SrfUoal |- r 

s pooni " 



nel 

'se were maintained 
it* through w!u h the men a tid 
it and the excavated mat. rial was 

ies.it 

. was 

d to im.re than 8 at- 

fered with slight affection*,' i 
under each oo 

be mm i n allowed 
r the pressure only niu- 
was essential 

allow 

> pass freely to the in. 
.11.1.1. i . halo- . f j.r. mm on UM ovtaidi 
SH a ibarupain la Ihedrmn. \ 
, was used un-i 

rogress. It was first 
.nice, being used on a line be- 
' 

Kailwa. re recently on a line be- 

is also op- 

cars, the presum- in the tanks on 

the square MM h 

>r * milrs <nn U> made 

it has been f.>un<l best to 

> stopping at stations, about every 

liki- those of a 
s at a 

preesurv of a -..' The storage 

iployed are known as Mannesman tubes, be- 

ng up. but if a burnt 

i- in tin- n 

i Middm blaM. dangerous only 
lmroediat.lv in front 
ardie svHti-m <*f j r.-. 1 >ir propulsion 

raised ; 1 pn^x. The cost of 

lion han'm.f nt it is be- 

hegreat.-r than that of tl, roller 

The air is stored in tubes under the car. as 

ris * V f,-in. a,,.l u-.-l in . vln d( r^ I '. '.>, 

betislOOOpoundi '' theeqaafi lad ,aad 

to 130 



ployed by the Wei. 

ftestiualbi 



r 

hav 



maty by expansion / the 

'. l>ut i-:ir-:\ I'v raporixation of n |--r- 

tvnntairp of 

rs ami ninnini; equally 

mijir wml no 

*y sf-iii avoidi all th> .lifll.-ul- 

.1 nusrhanism as 
mlerground 
>lr lines. 

nmatir Tube*. Transportation tulea for 
ng small package* br pnetimatio pressurs 
wn establish,-,! in I.-mlon. Pn>. Vfc Una, and 
\xxvu.-10 A 



i.. th.- iir 9 j. tt j.-r, tram i . A tthsv 

f l than 9 u<-hr> 
lt. h eerrke was estahliehsd 

connect the main post office with a eahstatson half 
u.t ThVoperaUon of this was so ealhv 
factory that a system of large tubes was under. 

' connect the post office and 

ton Avenue branch post **fftfti, etH the unfit post 

I l! ' 'I | - ! ' - W il* tl ' ' ! ,\' ' ' > . 

Oej ;. i-.,; n, r - i ' . ., ' ' 
MM eJtlM - .,-M.Ht;,,,,-? ,., l iit, : 

that 



ti 1 






about SO inches long, and *r slightly Urgrr in cir- 
'rent* at the ends than slsswhers so as to al> 

i- % . f r. ndlH .rv- - 'i .- r opsnb 

l.^nt.an^marsss 
.1. r a hrailway of only a few second- 

I.IMIV rrnMsil-air torpedo gin. conv 

monly called the dynamite gun, introdocsjd by 
Edmund I.. .. X-.h: 

, ps^B 796). has attracted wide 
military nn !* within a few yean. The air gn, 
,-ntion. was rerired br Mr. X efforj, of 

use for throwing higli aplosives? Up to the 
present time 11 pneumatic dynamite guns have 

DMB - ,i |-::.-l t.. d .nines, 1 going to 

State* man-of.war ' 3 at Sandy Hook. 

hese, the 3 on th, Vesuvius.- 
Reynolds, with the sssistance of other enginmro. 

as designed by Messrs. N.' Pmit and 
SewalL The last 7 guns, all of : 

:t-.l ami designed by Capt. John T. 
RapiefT. who has obtained several patents for the 
guns. ('apt. Xnlit.ski. then a lu-utenant. became 
acquaint 1 1! with the system, and. upon presenta- 

f the MI* State* (i< 

. was detarhed to inTestigate the matter, and 
ts. 



pn mm 
Eheston 



tl.n.ugh his 

tract ed A proper public interest, which eventually 
OoJmfcMted in nn .-r.l.-r from the Tnited Stales 
:>t. Tl..- maximum rang* of the dyne> 
is about 9.000 yards; the artuating' air 
or less to the squarelnrh; 
> lfl\ m * *Sm ttn 
The guns are ommhle of throwing 
projectiles containing MI 100. 00.or 500 pounds 

arm sub- 
caliber projectiles* The pressure of air does not 

in. The test.' 

I*, at Sboeburynesa. afford* a good idea 

mx ura. N ing made on land, so that 

was no doubt as to the firi point of grace or 

It was found that at 

<>f t,54S yards five soccnsive shot 



in a rectangle 7 yards long by 5-4 yards wide, a 



the acceptance 
trials in t .tea the horizontal target 

vards (this 

being almost the siae of the 1'ntted Slates rteemer 

t was required to place a 

t. percenta^ of the number of projectile* 

thrown. All the projectiles were dropped into a 



146 COMi'i:i:>sKi> AH:. 



coN<;<> 



STATK. 



horizontal rectangle having less than one twentieth 
of the superficial arva .-f tin t . 
The disappearing-gun carriage* used at Sandy 
and elsewhere are operated successful 

..in pressed air. An air cylinder stored at a pres- 
sure of aix serve as a 
Miring, and receive the ki .rwanl ihru-i of 
the gun as it is fired and descends 

pet. The pressure in the \lind. -r i- mili/eil later 
to restore Che gun to firing posit t< >n. 

I rp*4oc. Many of the automobile torpe 
as the Mall and the Whitehead. make use of com- 
pressed air. The Itittor entries the air in a reser- 
storcd at a pressure of 1,000 pounds. Ti 
.ittrd t<. a triple-cylinder m-' 1 

propellers set ill the tail 

f the* torpedo, The torpedo is discharged from 

a pun by in. -an- .f .: 

... -.'.: . inmonh inpl"\. -1 with locoinot i\e 
torpedoes for na\ al warfare, the torpedo of 1 
sons ** Destroyer" is fired 1-;. : nation <>f 

.-rand OOmpffMMd air. tl. ige in this 

tteing that the air cushions the initial shuck of the 
th- tor|N-ilo. and also aids th.-.-t' 

combustion of the pov, 

lee Making. Refrigeration ami ice making are 

now accomplished tJnoet altogether with the aid of 

ing plants, ammonia gas being usually 

luted for air in the compressor and limi.fi. -d 

by pres-un-. When the liquefied ammonia is ai. 

- heat to compensate 4or whafl 

it ha* lost, and in so doing reduces t he temperature 
-iirmundiiigs. Under some conditions atmos- 
pheric air is compressed and exitaiuled. instead of 
ammonia. 

Machinery. A few years ago a large machine 
shop in St. Louis was equipped wholly with com. 
pressed -air median inn. A 5.V horse-power com- 
press | the plant, the air being stored in a 
reservoir and pi | >cd to point* where wanted. Asa 
rule, the piping is brought directly over each tool. 
For the larger tools motive engines are employed. 
and when it is desired t.. driv.- them the Riming 
of a cock admits the air. and the engine is stopped 
in the same si tuple manner. This avoids the running 
of idle shafting, there being no consumption of 
power when the machines are still. The 3 
has been copied in many establishments, notably 
railroad shops, where air'is jM-culiarly serviceable, 
because it lends itself to a number of peculiar uses 
to which no other motive fluid is applicable. In 
these shops traveling cranes, each hearing its own 
air cylinder, are used" for handling . . cast- 
ings.* Smaller weights are conveniently handled by 
compressed-air hoists, which may be used almost 
anywhere. Hoists operating from overhead are 
made in the form of a long cylinder with a hook at 
each end. This is hooked to an overhead b.am 
and t le to be hoisted, and compressed air 
Is then admitted to the lower end of the cylinder 
lowly raises a piston to which the lower hunk 
ichcd, and the lift is made in a most simple 
r. nlv moderate pressure is required, ami 
any good quality of hose will bear the strain. Lift- 

iing machines, riveters, and m- 

the das* of machinery usually operated hydraulic- 
ally may lie managed equally Veil with compressed 
air.and with greater convenience where a compressor 
'i a plant also does away with 
*cessity for blowers or rotarv fans. beinL' 

for operating blowpipe, to dine* A gM 

flame, or for fanning a forge. Steam pipes, steam 
passages and steam ports may be readily < 
by a blast of compressed air. and in many railroad 
shops the cars and cu-hi'-ns ; , r e <], aiied in the same 
manner, the air being appli.nl through a hose, much 
as a fireman throws water on a burning building. 



;V of (he safety appliances u^.,1 J M con . 

- depend upon compressed uir. 

It is j adaptable to t he opera! ion of inter- 

aphores. being commonly 
used in conjunction with ,-1,,-tr. 
mechanism^. 

rumps. T:,, air-lift pump is a n-cent invention, 

1 U> assist the 11 -.an wells. The Well 

has a main pi|e. which the water m.i\ ascend, 
beside -mailer pipe, down which the coin- 

pressed air passes. Th<- smaller pipe enters thtf 
bottom of the main pipe In-low the water levci. 
I ith 11 in 

f the air cools the water and a- 
it. SO thai it is in the I 
drinking. The water sii| 

.rd. 111., are obtained in this man' 
the latter place the natural flow of a well ha 
increased fhcfold. A similar mechanism ha 
employed to drain swamps or pil>. and ! 

ive and economical. 

Various | srs.- Coal-cutting machines an 
(jucntly driven by compressed air. at a pressure 
of about 75 pounds, the exhaust air b. in- valu- 
able for ventilation. Some of these ma.-hiin 
mechanical picks, but the undercutting m.i 
is more usually employed, 
miscellaneous small to<>;~ \eniently 

able by compressed air. a- the calking ma- 

in" solidifying the joints ,,f steel tai 
ship plates. , tc. \;i ' | . rat< d sion-dr- 
chines have largely replaced hand labor within a 
few years, doing better work at a fraction of the 

The machine delivers rapid, rccipiv.- 
Mows with dressing tools, and will level . 
foot of granite in two and a half minute-. I'.y 
regulating the upstroke with a die or pattern. 
rough carving maybe done. A few other i. 
compressed air an- the operation of 
spraying of petroleum, as in the luci-en. or for the 

iiions of welding, japanning, and tempering; 
agitation of asphalt in process of manufacture; 

ion of sirups in refining sugar: mixi: 
in compounding nitroglycerin ; paint in-.- 
an atomizer in pla< brush : maim!. 

of cellulose silk, the pulp being forced tin 
minute holes by pneumatic | 
of natural-gas wells; inflating pnemii 
pumping of fluids from barrels; refining of silk 
ribbon: operation of sand blasts; increasing th- 

Sure in hydraulic elevator tank-: work 
idicators and bells: regulation of clock 

: compression of other gases, as for light- 
ing railway cars; production of oxygen and nitro- 
gen by the" I'.rin process; sanding of railway rail-: 
raising of sunken vessels; and vulcanizil 
timt 

( n\(,o nil E STATE, 

cut. monarchical state in Central Africa, ci 
with the consent of the great i declared 

.tral in conformity with the L" 

!in on F< 
Nl II. Kini: "f the Bel-ians. wa-dccla;. 

iind he by his will, dated A 
has ceded his 

convention made on .Inly 3, 1 *'.'. I'.elirinm acquired 
the right to annex the State after a period of ten 

licil to the will, dated July 21 

the territories of tl r- declared to be in- 

alienable. Tli- !icd by tl 

gian Chamber- on -I J90. The fjr.vernment, 

t-rc-ided over I 

ate at Brii-seN. Kdmr.nd van Ket- 
velde. who js a--i.sted by hr. A. de ('livelier ;i 
ret a rv of : . !Tair-. II. I'oche/ as Tn-ji-urer. 

II. In- armana aa Secretary of Finance, and Charles 
Liebp-chts us Secretary of the Interior, Tublie 






147 



-,e. Tbe<; -neral at Duma 

.,,! PoMlatlon.Tbe area of 

. mile*, 

'100,000. The nun.l.r f h.' 

wa* !.*. of whom 660 wer 

.an., and 
.inre*. The revenue for IHOQ wa* estimated 

ri.ltt frum v . 

l.r Brlglai. 

:.-e*r of ; 

,1 tribut.- ami m.p..-t, M n.| in kiml. ami 

(U86JOOfran 
81.000 franes wen- ntmiu.it 

ion, 4,820, 7U8 francs for the pu>ln ' 


rks, 880.04" ami 

1807 wait < 

to same com ni 

*. and th- Belgian 

1,11 I'.NNI. 

'.,860.000 f 
8^00.000 frati. 11 en 

in, > tr,.in CUM 

< advancvil by tin- I'.. !^-i . nt. 

'*30 franc* wcrv contributed b\ ami 

MI.IMI hMMi van BfeMllMKoas r, ..;:-. Th, 

".1 ll.MNi franc*, of 
.!f. Hiimin- 

n lj588.(MMi fi ,rinc 041,000 franca, 

.IS4.II.MI f. 

and Marine. Tl 

- compoeed of native v 

:-an offler* and 173 ser- 
^^Ba\ The et! * for 1806 was fixed at 

; AJtlun the 

nt ha* 6 steamer* plying on th,- 
Congo from the mouth to llatadi. ami 

n merer and Production. The 

llin oil. palm nut*, caout- 

.%mwood. The iin|>ort* are cotton good*, flre- 
gunpowil thin a It 

1805 

- n^nitiot 

; fnim-H in value: 
houc, 9J8K9JW5 francs; pain '-7.000 

. Tobacco is grow 



from the Portuguese 

franc*.' lu IHI5 the number of vcearle that nailed 
Hanana and Itonia N* 

i amountrd to 16J000060 

154MJO/MJO frmi 
stuffs and other manufaclures come almost ei 



.anil plantation^ hare been eatablinhed by 

The tnulo 
' 

'^.000.- 
1(0.660 

N 

- at 885.000 

iinj*.rt-. f Britain at 2.- 

(Jr.at Britain M .108.000 
import* from Germany at 920.0OO franr*, 



tnm Btifi . '.- ..... ' ; - 

aid an e<|ual amount of the esport trade 

f..r, v ,,... 1I ,T,- u, Mi Mi a .- 

Ad ... 1 '....:. 



bidden thitmfftxMit the Slate eieept on thr lover 
Conis-, ai> u Mbjeeletl to Ibe mailn 

ieU. The bv 
bociOMMfl 
h --, itajMd '.''..-., . , >-. 

tlut I<MA vill IM rM^in^at Ttiara mfm ?IHM MMMI 

MM inif* win iv cvmpw*i i ovrv i 



!: U, A' - . 

... -i-al. In l-.; a dnreaea wa n^ir^d in the 



ndilurv by the 

'iiinrnt. the religious missions, and USB rail- 
road oompany. 

.ttioiiall. 

..thrK-Kr-m the statr. 

.i-M"nnry accuser* of the Congo admin- 

appear* that alx.ut thr middle of 1606 

1 Inln.r wa% imposed on the native*, and this 

wa* a ith im.%i inhuman practice*. Sol- 

/in- at uMoiiKtl to shoot or mutilate any na- 

.4 to gat! . Thr st 

.1 be engaged itm-lf in thr la%e tra.le and 
to receive war 

ii war ar< 

to cultivat 

stations. Sat m- armed 

wildest triU-s are placed in the towns to fores the 
people to brim: in r> >oe ' 

upper Congo, near Equatorville. 4' 
bunieil by the l.lark w-ldirry. M 



to be trained m 



Ir, :, : ' r ' | : 



soldiers going to ntt, k thr \tll k -.- . f Hompaaga 
h.-ir Nation, and hranl the shot* by 



near 
awt 



in ' jieople were killed, three quar- 
imber women at . and they 

lands of the killed taken back in a 
nu-tice to preserve the hand* 
h smoke and return these tro- 



of such victim* i( 

phiea to the authorities to prove that 

U, MI rated -..r aejfj IM W\ i 



.Tirs. ami 
851,000 franc*; import* 



M' 

carnage and devastation perpelratrd by the troops 
ng the collrction of rubber. Ike? were 
! in most case* with evasion* ami no investi- 
gation wa* made, the matter being dragyed along 
until the officials could say that ft w* an old story 
toMMbtl Of being rfftal at M,< h a late date. Some- 
time*, whrn thry were insistent, the missionaries 
were thrmsftlrrs threatenel with trial and penal 
charge of inciting the native* to 
mfssi to nay 

> haa mailr a ' *e station* in July. 

1806, and hail, on asking the missionaries if the'y 

hal anv compl .nforroed of the 

.-id already l^rn the sub- 

Malala vtjll 

v* similarly attackel and aU.ut .Vi *orr killed, 
natives refused to pay th.- t' 

f good rubber not being equal 

thine ' ^ sentinels 

carryine ba*ketii of right hands of men, women, 
and children to the commissary. 



the supply of piod 
demaml. * It was a 



148 



10 FREE STATE, 



Although the charges of the missionaries were 
MMpnd over and discredited, their publication in 
Europe spurred theOover ral to men 

getic action for the correction of abuses. 
soldiers and traders were punished for cruelty, and 
some of the worst officials were got rid of. The 
Congo State encourages the developm. -m of mis- 
sions, both ('t! Protestant, and tin- num- 
ber of missionaries has increased sevenfold since 
the SUto was founded, being 828 in 1 <-'.:. m.-bidini; 

'rotestants. s-uirtiuiu' has IN-.-II done ;- put 
a stop to cannibalism and human sacrifice, winch 
)ted rrimes bv une of the decrees of the 
State. On the Ubangi the trafflc in human M-tim- 
has almost ceased ; but on the up| ran 

Baron lh:ni- i* ^ud to have given out ration- ..f 
human flesh to his troops, and cannibalism has, ac- 
cording to some observers, been on the increase 
since Europeans apjn .ir.-.l in the Congo basin. 
Some of the decrees of the State are in direct n.n- 
tli.-t with the Brussels act, such as the decree an- 
nouncing the confiscation of all lands in which 
private pro|crty has not l>c-n recocni/ed. and tli> 

iedaring that all products of domain lands 
belong to the State. There are, however, regula- 
tions leaving the natives in possession of all the 
land that they can cultivate, and allowing them to 
settle OD vacant land-. 

The freedom of navigation and commerce on tin- 
Congo has become a fiction since the State estab- 
lished a practical monopoly of rubber and r 
The Government boasts, in spite of the severe criti- 
cism to which it has been subjected, that it has 
accomplished much for the civilization of Africa, 
summing up its work in the report for 1897 as fol- 
lows: "The peril of the slave trade aver: 
territory entirely opened to progress, center- <.f 
civilization springing up everywhere, roads being 
built, communications rendered easy and speedy, a 
railroad in course of completion, a flotilla sailing 
over all the course of the river and its tribut. 
trade developing, missions flourishing, schools be- 
ing opened, the population protected by justice 
and getting initiated to cultivation and handicrafts, 
their material and moral situation improving. 
Christian villages forming themselves, barbarous 
practices disappearing such is the work of ten 
years." In September, 1896, six missionaries were 
constituted a commission that was charged with 
the protection of natives throughout the territory 
of UM 1 authori/ed to notify to the judi- 

cial authorities such acts of violence of which the 
natives may be the victims as come within their 
cognizance. The president of the Court of Appeal 
has since been charged with the duty of making 
tours of inspection for the special purpose of en- 
forcing the regulations for the proper treatment of 

Military Operations. The military forces of 
rec State were operating in the early part of 
the year on the upper Congo and in the Nile terri- 
tory leased from Kgypt by arrant -incut with Great 
Britain. In January the guard stationed at Han/y- 
villo. on the 1'bangi", fired upon the French admin- 
istrator from Mobaye, who crossed the river to se- 
cure the return of a woman captured bv natives of 
-'ate. The French returned the fire, and 
several were wounded on both -id. s. The admini*- 
:i of the Congo State apologized to th> French 
authorities and promised to puni-h the (.(Tenders. 

An expedition under ('apt. Chaltin. consisting of 
700 soldiers, supplemented by ."in fu-ileers and 500 
lancers under native chief*, leaving Dungu on Dec. 
14, 1896, reached the site of Hcdden. on the Nile, two 
months later, after engaging in some skin 
with native tribes, and on Feb. 17 attacked 
Mahdists who occupied a strong position. While 



I attempted to inclose the ('0111:0 State 

- with the two flanks. the-e charged the eeii- 

.d carried a defile and the neighboring heights 

at the point <>f the bayonet, whereupon the Mah- 

dists fled in the direction ol 

tl.cir arms, ammunition, and baggage. The v'OQM 
troops ma; , lies the SB arriving^! 

front of Kcjaf. which \\a- held by !.""(> Mahdi-ls. 
half of whom v ininedaiis from the north 

armed with l>r< After a severe 

engagement the dm i-hr- were driven from their 

.'ii and fled northward. They lost 
hundred men. Tin ' ' troops capt i, 

li-loadini: rilli -. an enormous <|iian- 
f ammunition, Lain I, the town ar- 

ch ive-. and many herds of < Ion test ic animal-. K< jaf 
was found to be 'the only fortified place in the 1 
torial Province, with spacious, well-built houses. 
Ijodo hod ceased to e\i-t .ml its 

site was overgrown with vegetation. Vatako. I.-.n- 
gomerri, and other stations hud al>o <i 
The defeated Mahdists made no attempt to r 
the country, and were not seen or heard of 
The pcople'were glad to In? delivered from their 
and made their Mibmi-sion top ^tatc. 

Supporting this expedition was a force of 30H 
Han a-aii'l a small army of Congo natives, sta^ 
tioned at different points on the northeastern fron- 
tier to guard against incursions of the Mahdists. 
Baron Dhanis had brought up this force while 
Capt. Michaux with 5<Hi picked troops w a 
in Damping out the rebellion of the Hatal* 
the south. Mutinous Hatatcla troops, after organiz- 
ing their lirM revolt at Luluaburg in 1 *!"> and suf- 
fering defeat at the hands of Major (Jillain and 
('apt. Lothaire in November of that 
in making their escape toward the smith 
penetrable forests. Baron Dhanis organi/"! 
mini at Koasongo, which was sent in pur-nit under 
( 'apt. Michaux. This force proceeded south w . 
Mnn/.a, between the Lualaba and the Lomami. and 
there encountered the rebels on Nov. 1 1, 1806. After 
a preliminary skirmish a battle was fought in com- 
plete darkness, which ended in the flight an 
persion of the rebels, ('apt. Michaux continued 
the campaign, coming up with the rebels again in 
January. ls;7, when no gave them another - 
defeat. 

The bulk of the force taken to the north by 
Baron Dhanis consisted of Batatelas and Hal 
impressed troops who were subject. 
cipline by the trained soldiers from Sierra 1 
and the middle Congo in order to keep them in 
order. The Batatelas were especially n-tiv and 
morose on account of bring taken so far from their 
homes to fight for the State in a strange country. 
They eipected to be led next against the der 
and" were afraid that they would never see their 
native land nu r nin. On the same day that ('apt. 
Chaltin attacked Hejaf a battalion of l.o(K) I: 
las and Baku--u-. under a brother of Maron 1 )( 
mutinied and killed their commander. Another 
column, led by Major I.-roi. revolted near Ndursi. 
and after killing their chiefs the rebel- marched ff 
in the direction of the upper Ituri, where tin \ 
joined in March by the mutineers of Huron Dl ; 

;ition. The rebels oarried off 8,000 rifl< 

all the stores and ammunition of the expedition. 
They made their way to the south, toward 
own country beyond the Arab zone, by way .f tin- 
valley of the Scmliki. occasionally cnis-injr the 
border into the British sphere. During 01 
these incursions one of their detachmen 1 
the F.ngli-h fort of Katwe, which had been strength- 
ened by 40 Congo State soldier-, who aided the 
small Knglish garri-.n to repel the a^nult. Tli<- 
soldiers who remained faithful to Baron Dhanis 









d several encounter* with the n 

JUO Haufttfa*. hark 

had a small garrison. 



V 
rth tui.l.-r '.-* in 

) hinl fi.l. 
k rm.,l at tall* . r. 

lltnt lu mutii 

I'M, \ I ln\ U.IMs 



of 66, the dscraasi being mainly in the 

The --i,-i> :- . - . . A : f 

rnSBOOa. Sail l^akr. Farro l^kr ( tiarW ffidgSj 

schools. The r 

bad betai f: -.: i: .. i ....;. 

In* |ra% ing a balai 

Home M Uei I he ttventy.fir* an- 

nual meeting of 

LniiHarlss had 



HtateS SJI they are gl x ' 

.< !, i :'." iff r- 1 - rsd M 

"vacant " ; numU-r f mm- 
without t-liitrK''" ; mnnU-r 

f attendance nt Sundny 

fnmilu*. i 
s i.f ( hriMmii ! 

,6M of children. Amount 
< Imrvhoi report 

an MiMiontfT ABMXM 
chooU, $57,853; f.-r 

- 





- r- f 



er*.2-l rv-i.l-nt !i. . ntiatr or fellows, -".' .i-han. id Of 

graduate tud.-iiN. un.i M; un.i. -r-r.-i.lu.-it.- ltod< : ' -. 

Qonapafational rhurrh liuild- 

1H96. as rv|->rt.-.| at irth 

in .Un.n 


were $185. T had been 

mis amounting to $71JB67 had Ceo voted 



:ii rhun-h pr 

^^^B aj| $985.975; ami parmrnt* in t 1 
^^had been 

.'.775. and tin- numU>r <>f par- 
sonages to 5rt! . May. 1809, and the end 

. hud 

cd $97.9X1 in tl 

"age Loan fund and $i::-.'..V.-. in th.- form <>f 
uage loans n-fun.lol. Thr purj-^- ' 
board was t.> k- 

.un-h Hu 

Loan fund was $819.751). and 110 rhurrhe* had re- 

i.SU'n.N,-,! had been 
|-1 Uu-k. anl $189.905 were outfU: 



the 



rt of the 

thftt <lur- 

W in the 

falling off 



ovafcldstMMlA. The expend it oiWofU* natioaaJ 

ihr au&iUtfto 

*: Mil IV -!,.! f ! -.-.<..>..: 
ciwurtl from $51.700. to $lt7400c The Woman'. 

I ...... .......;, .-,,- 

.trnt ? .. 
rioB had been employed in 4 

.,...>.;.... ^. . . . ...;-. 

rtnan. 107 
-.a v .an. to Bohemian. 4 

Mwniah.4 
rmenian, 1 

ber of 



ami 4 to Welsh congregations. The number 

pupils in Stinilay M h-.| and Bible classes was not 
fur from hundr.^1 and ll 

!H had been organizrl. and 2,688 schools 

un.lrr the special care of the missinnsriea. 

M.l.tions on ranfession of faith, so faras conld 

seven new churches had been organised, 68 had 
assun self -rapport, 88 houses of worship 

ha<l U--n fonipleted, 182 materially repaired or im- 
It. 62 }iarsonagM provided, and 
Motion wit I 
were prtMurinj; for the ministry. 

v 111. -ri. an Missionary Asaorlatlon.-The fifty. 
fifth annual i. -he American Mbaionary 

Association was held in 
19. 20. and 21. IV* rill K. Gates. I.I 

liege, prwided. The treasurer re- 
ported that the total receipts for the 
$S20.440. and tl 
M2. The debt bad been* 

.- -.-. - i* .'- T ' 

one schools hail been aided wholly or in part from 
the income of the Daniel IUi 

account* of wl t r|iarate from the gen> 

eral a< 

d work of 

ions, 44 

and graded schools, and 27 common schools in all 
:; i I :- .-h 



; 



of the pupiU. 69 wrre clast4Bed as theological. 70 
llegiate, 860 at collegiate preparatory, and 

1.480 as nonnal. The condftion olthe oolored peo- 
^reprewntedasbeingoneof 

under the care of eolon 



tnriitiontNl in th- rv|,.rt * 
tnreswortl ! he higher schonb- 

rdkdismOollrgi 

aUma: Tonga I 

-an*. I'*.: and Tflldw. 

lege, Austin, Teias each reported a year of excep- 
1 progress. The induntrial ^Incation given at 
these schools was constant ly growing 
tant, and every vtar young men were being i 
out of negro schools in the South who had 
taught carpentry, shoemaking, ptintiag, the geoer- 






al use of tools, and scientific farming in addition to 
i IK- usual academic courses, and voung women \\ho 
had been taug . washing, sewing, dress- 

inakini;. Mursini;. and hou* ke, j "'^ 

mountain school* niulud. .1 in the total of ?? 
school*) returned an enrollment ..f ;.M!.~> pupils. 
Them schools, besides their direct results, were ex- 

ug a healthy influence in creating a desire fr 
a better education and larger intellectual growth, 
and in promoting a higher sUndanl of Instruction. 

>mnge Park School. Florida, was now ft. . 

the troubles from which it wns suffering in 
the previous year (see "Annual Cyclopaedia M for 
1888. article OOMMGOATIONAI Phe church 

in the South included i:i:t ministers ami mis- 
sionaries an i J-.M churches with II. -17 memb.-rs. 
One thousand had btto added 

f faith. and lrt.li.Vi pupi 

turned in church. mi ion. and Sundax schools. In 
all. 18 new churches had been organi/.c<l. of which 
12 were colored chun IH-S. -1 in tin- .Southern moun- 
tain*, and '2 in the Indian Held. I Miring (h- 
five rears l',M new churches had I.een added, of 
which 81 were colored churches. :J5 were chu 
in the mountains ami ~> in tin- Indian fields. These 
churches had come into being independent <.f any 
direction or suggestion from the association. The 
55 mountain churches had 1.61U memi 
local Congregational associat ions organ i/i -d within 
.ist few years among the mountain churches 
the Cunibcrland Plateau Associat ion. in Tennessee, 
and the Cumberland Valley Association, in Ken- 
-wen- maintaining "a vignrou- 
ecu churches were sustained among the In- 
dians, and returned !?! members 1,1 H pupils in 
.iy schools, and $2,4'J? of benevolent collec- 
. There were also connected with the Indian 
missions 26 missionary out stations, su missionaries 
and teachers, 87 of whom were Indians, and -j:j 
schools with 592 pupils. The Indian missions were 
divided among tne departinenis of NYbra-ka and 
tin- Oakotas in which the :J central training >-hools 
were situated Montana frFort Custeri. Washington 

M. and Ala>ka d a|-e i'rinc.- of \\ 
The churches, of which 2 had been added during 
the yrar, were mostly >ervcd ly native pastors who 
went iut from the Christian Mhootf. while 4 uhite 
general missionaries superintended the work of the 
re pastors in the out stations. The Chinese 
missions comprised 20 schools, with o2 teachers, 7 of 
whom were Chinese, and 1,084 pupils, while 60 per- 
sons had made profession of faith during the \< ar. 
The Chinese brethren, since the organ i/at ion of their 
Chinese Missionary Society, in l s '. had < -out rilni'ed 
more than $15,000 to missions in china. The? 
were carrying on missionary work at Canton, with 
a property worth $4,000. "at Hong-Kong, where 
they had j.rojH-rty valued at nearly $10,000, and 
rganizcd an aggressive work fn>m their chapel 
atCi-Nuni;. Ibitides sustain ing their three mi-ions 
1 the American l;.,ard in China to 
start a number <>f chapolsand free schools, and had 
1 largely t. the Mjpport of them. Their 
Christian Knd -.. v in Sjin Francisco ranked 

Mine third in the United States in contributions 
to foreign missions. 

The American Board. The eighty-eighth an- 
nual meeting of the An f Commis- 
sioners for Foreign Missions was held at \. .v I la- 
ven. Conn., in October. 

The treasurer's* report showed that the total ex- 
-ture for the year had been $888.414. of which 
$636,299 represented the cost of missions, and that 
the board had been left > 
manent fund amounted to ^-Jl" 

The general survey gives the following num- 
bers : Of missions, 20 ; of stations, 101 ; of out sto- 



1.120; of plan 1 preaching, 1.501; 

I.'.'lil. 

Laborer* /. NumlK-r <<f ordained mis- 

I::IM- - i"i I '.:,_ \>\\\ - ians . I ; l : o( ph\-iciaus 

not ordained (besiues 10 worn. ilu-r male 

assistants, 4 : of \\..mcn. Klof them phx-ician-.. \\i\j-s 

17J. unma: whiih- nnmf>er of hiliorera 

he t'niled States. .")}:{ : numlier o| i 
pastors. 284; of na :..-r- and 

548; of native school-teachers. 1,651 : of oth.r na- 
tive laborers, .Vj: : i-ial ..f native | a l.,,i 
total of American and native lalNif. 

-.- -Number of clui' 

hurch members. 4 1.IMM5 ; adiled during the year, 
:;.!!! : whole number from the liM.as nearlx B 

///i' ;*/. Number of theo logfafl 

seininarie- and station rla-r>. 1?. \\ilh 1 ?.i |>ii|iils; 
and high schools for\<.iin^ men. ."?. with 
8,888 |>upil ; ,,| boarding self K. fl. with 

3,608 pupils; of e,, m m,.n schools. i.ni:i. u,th 48JH 
pupils; whole number under instruct: 
Amount of Dative Contribution! so far;. 

$118,0 

n\\ing ti> incomplete returns from \V- 
rn Turkey, the items from those im^i- 
pee to churches and native agencies were ' 
from pi-evioiis reports. In European Turkey, not- 
withstanding the war and the disturbances at Sa- 
loiiica and Mona-t ir. and much hindrance to gedl 
eral travel, the mission work had held its ,,\\n. In 
Eastern Turkey it had been more interrupted, and 
the care of orphans. 2,000 of whom ha 
protection, had laid heavy burdens on the mission, 
aries. Yet the schools and churches had 
thronged, and many places hitherto closed had been 
seeking spiritual 'help. The \\estr, n and central 
missions in Turkey had held meeting- for th- 
time in iln The colleges at Constantinople, 

van. and Aintab and the hi^'h si-ho, 
ported ; . Micci-sful year. In Bulgaria the work had 
considerably broadened : it had been very su 
ful in Austria. Spain, and M- xico, and the growl li 
of the Christian Kndeavor societies in Sj.ain and 
Mexico liail been very noticeable. In India the 
were ojpen on every hand. < I real changes 
shown in Japan, which was open everywhere. The 
Mast Central African Mi ioii.now in it'- foiirtl; 
had founded its HIM church, with 1? membe; 
revival i.f great power ami extent had marked tin- 
progress of the Xulu mission. In Micronesia tin- 
situation was much improved, the i 
visited 1'i.nape by special invitation of tin- Spanish 
governor, and visits had been paid to tli 
and Marshall islands. A rapidly and wide! 
tending interest in Christianity was manifest in 
China; and in the Foochow mission, whic! 
celebrated its jubilee, there had been more than 
2,000 inquirers, while the 548 additi- 
churches were almost .",o per cent, of the nuinl 
ported in the previous year, and more than th- 
number in the mission live years preceding. 

The Rev. R. '!>. !>.. president of the 

:. having expressed a desire to retire from that 
on account of his age, a committ 
pointed to nominate a candidate to be in 
The committee unanimoi, 

name of t i . I>. !>.. of I la; 

Conn., and he was unanimously elected president 
of the board. A special paper was present- 
the Prudential Committee railing attention t 
stringency in the financial affairs of the mission* 
ami the failure of the churches to contribute 
quatcly to the needs of the work, and a-king advice 
as to how the emergency should be met. Should 
is to papal lands be given up '. Should 
some of the older missions be left to take care "f 






telrcs f or should the educational work I* re- 

adoption of any poUcv thai 

., In* alt. .I,-! rvconv 

*tions of contract ing the mi*- 

1 I-. a 

fU-l.t ttU. I dl|>al'-h ilr|.lttA>. 

^^^a ami < hum. The meeting was addrmsad by 

II lUrr- 

td Protestant mission* abroad. .( 

ul olmrd amoof 

: to inquire concern- 

( a. Initial Com- 

ortnl thai tin legal Or Ct.i ,, nn- 

^tootl III lhi< tta. 

rertlMr ooaridtratioa a 

wis intru ..i ihn 

takni 

-;inl | -nun;; th,-i 

ai f.*r *! 1.000. 

mini 
lu'laiul 
' 
hiirli-. A. Berry presided, ai> 



It of the Chord) 

Mrs l.a.1 
n.| was on -1-. mm WAN to I - 

I'n^li-h r'ri-r ( hurrhos, by 

' 

-. It 

.ll Coimril 

t branch, with the purpoae ' 
knK thr f,,rn..vi..n..f H I, mllUMftnd their fed< ra- 
reaed cfBciencr and co-opermtton. All 
- Nocietieii formed on 
-,-iou* Uni'nr. incloaed in tlu-^h. 

u-e rare 

i..h- 

(Vntml fund wan nmk- 
'W pmff1t8 limn tin- l' al fumi- >:;i<i 

in in thf pr.Moug year, AIM! tin- 
lla-,' DHtan l:i-l hten ' - i 

! the 
fll U! 

PMOf thf rliiiiriliiili. t 

jnliiumi Chtin-hmai 
DMnd contvriiun; thr "iiu'atloo 

anting of the union wan )n*M at 



iid*bJ ; but it obwrvtd. with pro. 

. UK- (]. 

ieh WMooortiloiVooall> a ProtMUnt 









McertloUf < " 



cUim an.l 

I the count nr, rvcnjmixrtl an 
to rraffinn tiio judgment rr< 
vl in tho 

. -hurvht't. It <lil n.. i 
: man l'atli.-lu- ouninuni'-n was bccora- 



f . .. 

' . : : - : 

(tsm. there had grown up a oonaidarabie partr 

,:.. .. j .1 R ' ,. 

ministry sacerdotal and is*nficiaJ fanctiom 

i.,, aging f ,..->.' ' i . - - 

of Rngiand a mass of ritualistic observances such as 

. r. a--- .t 1 . : w ..".'.. -'.... ' . 

Home. Kvm the two archbUh<|. in 
a. ltttard Ftp i.- UN ! r- . i 
sjajam Mtoowbdgr.1 tl, 1 r.:....- '. ..-..: 
MfMd that the mioisUrs of the Ckwvh of " 

while desiring to cultivate unity and 
with* 17 place, rrgardrd OMW 

.aJistic practices with stem dis- 

;;; I .' : I I u-- '..,., .. . . 

unshaken lordly to the Protastant faiti 



regarded a being the embodiment of OH- 

,1 the pdladium of 
gioiw Ubertie*. and !l-l . t, a 

raoJutk* 

.* to the dipite which wa* going on at 
Hi*- limn mniij ihn uifliixiiiiif Iradea i f 

tr> : 

\pmtM-d the conriction of the aawmbJt 

r4 npon theleadmof 
all trade fedrralionm whether of Vrnployrr. or em- 

I, to seek to submit their difference to arbft- 

aattled only by 1 1..- humiliation of one of the panic*. 
It furtlH-rexpreaiedenitittnlrat thpgro 
He ont MIL nt w -I to an act of Parliament 

aathoriiing the Board of Trade to intevrenr in tral 
Another resolution emphatically 



.1. -n.ncd the educational policy of the Got e 
during the previous anwon as - rncou raging the 

>d repeal- 

that ili.-n- ctuld be no 



inj; I) 

<>f the educational difficult \ until all 

ported out of pui. !i.- funds were placed 

,1 Urds elected by popular uf- 

tthadeUbarationi 
banidad brth n - - : -- - ' 

a Mutable reply was 

Mnaon Memorial ( hun h. o callfd 
. raory of the past..? I'Ugrims of the 

> had co-ofirratcd. wa dedicated at 
^borough. June 9. 

London Ml^lonari Sirirl. : 

iidon May 10. Mr. Stephen Massey pre- 
side* i asurcr's report represented that the 

: a Mnnll.-r m, omr than in the 
>us year and yet had had to incur a largrr ei- 
- entire receipts for the year had bam 
::. ..f 

ad been raiwd and appro- 
I at mission station*, that reducing the free 

i these fig- 
ure* wrrv two special fund* the Indian Famine 
funtl. from which 5,606 had been rrcrirrd. and the 
.Aunlan.1 i:,-l,,-f fund. whi. h had brought in 
The missions in.-hi.lM 101 men and TOstn- 
missionaries.: 



churches in Madagascar). 133J8S 

a,lhrrvnt., S7.17X childn-n in Sut,.!.-> ^ h.w.U, and 
pilab anddispctwarie*. treating 117^82 pa> 



l.V' 



i:ESS. (THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE.) 



CONGRE88. The second session ,.f the 1 
fourth Congress began Monday. Dec, 7 

lificalion that 

any communication, the President sent in the 
folio* 



queue**, iraugm wun mn 

ness and passion, ha* 
our land, and determined b 



T" the Ctapreat of the Vit< 
As reprwrntativos of the |KM,ple in the legislative 
branch of their (iovernment. YOU ha\e assembled 
at a time when the m .:id exeelb-n. -f our 

;s:itiiti,,ii and the fitness of our cid/ 
i-pi,lar nile have been again made manifest 
ill teal contest involving momentous conse- 
quence*, fraught with feverish apprehension, and 
so intense as to approach 
been wage I throughout 
by the decree of free and 
nt suffrage, without disturbance of our 
tranquillity or the least sign of weakness in our 

nal structure. 

When we consider these incidents and contem- 
plate the |>eaceful ot id manly s;il>mi in 
ceded a heated clash of political 
' abundant evidence of a deter- 
mination on the part of our countrymen to abide 
erdict of the popular will, and to be con- 
trolled at all times by an abiding faith in the agen- 
cies established for the direction of the affairs of 
their Government. 

Thus our people exhibit a patriotic disposition 
which entitles them to demand of those who under- 
take to make and execute their laws such faithful 
and unselfish service in their In-half as can only be 
nted by a serious appreciation <>f the trust and 
fence which the acceptance of public duty in- 

In obedience to a constitutional requirement. I 
i submit to the Congress certain information 

concerning national affairs, with the suggestion of 
such legislation as in my judgment is necessary and 
expedient. To secure 'brevity and avoid tfntOOM 
narration. 1 shall omit many details concerning 
matters within Federal control, which, though by 
no means unimportant, are more profitably dis- 
cussed in departmental reports. I shall also further 
curtail this communication by omitting a minute 
recital of many minor incidents connected with 
our foreign relations which have heretofore found 
a place in Kxccutivc messages, but are now con- 
tained in a report of the Secretary of State, which 
is herewith submit ted. 

the outset of a reference to the more impor- 
tant matters affecting our relations with foreign 
powers, it would afford me satisfaction if I could 
assure the Congress that the disturbed condition in 
Asiatic Turkey had during the past year ass Mm ,.,| a 
less hideous and bloody aspect, and that cither as a 
consequence of the awakening of the Turkish 
ernment to the f humane civilisation, or 

as the result of decisive action, on the part of the 
mat nations having the right by treaty to interfere 
f..r the protection of those exposed to the m. 
mad bigotry and cruel fanaticism, the shocking 

-* of the situation had been mitigated. In- 
stead, however, of welcoming a softened disposition 
or protean, intervention, we have been afflicted 
DOtinued and not unfre^uent f the 

wanton destruction of home* and the bloody butch- 
ery of men, women, and children, made martyrs to 

profession of Christian faith. 

While non- of our citi/ens j n Turkey have thus 
far been killed or wound-d. though often in the 
midst of dreadful scenes of danger, their safety in 
the future is by no means assured. Our Govern- 
ment at home and our minister at Constantinople 
have left nothing undone to protect our mi 
nries in Ottoman territory, who constitute nearly 



all the individ i right 

to claim our protection on the score of An;. 
citi/ciiship. our efforts in this direct ion will not 
be relaxed; but the deep feeling and s\ mpalhy 
that .! people ought 

not to so far blind their reason and judgment 
lead them to demand impossible thing-.. Tl. 
breaks of blind fury which lead to murder and pil- 
lage in Turkey occur suddenly and without i 
and an attempt on our part to force such a I 

gilt I'e effectixe for plV\- 

"i protection would not only be resisted I 
Ottoman (iovi-rniiH-nt. but would be regarded' 
interruption of their plans by the great n. 
who assert their exclusive right to inters 
own time and method for the securily of In 
rty in Turkey. 

ral naval \e- i! i -d in 

measure of caution and to furnish 
all possible relief and rel i. -f einer-, 

ha\e nun:. t the Turkish ' 

eminent for the pillage and destruction of mi 
ary property at llarpoot and Mara^h during upris- 
ings at th the validity <! 
demands has n,,t been admitted, though o'ur minis. 
ter. prior to such outrage* and in ant icipat ion of 
danger, demanded protection fr the ] 
property of our mi i< nary citi/.en- in tin 
mentioned, and notwithstanding that sii-oii- 
dence exists of actual complicity of Turk, 
in the work of destruction and'rob! 

The facts as they now appear do not' permit 
doubt the justice of these claims, and nothing will 
be omitted to bring about their prompt settlement. 

A number of Armenian refugees havi; 
at our ports, an order has lately l.rn obtained fr^m 
the Turkish (Joverninent permitting the \\i\, 
children of such refugees to join them i 
hoped that hereafter no obstacle will be inter: 
to p re vent the escape of all those who *,->]<. ti- 
the perils which threaten them in Turki-i 
minions. 

Our recently appointed consul to Kr/erum 
his post and discharging the duties ,,f hj s . 
though for some unaccountable rea^n his formal 
f.in{inifnr fn.m the Sultan has not been js^m-d. 

I do not believe that the present somber pr< 
in Turkey will be long permitted to offend tin 
of Christendom. It so mars the humane and en- 
lightened civili/ation that belongs to the cl 
the nineteenth century that it seems hardly |>" 
that the earnest demand of good people throu- 
the Christian world for iU treatment will 

remain unanswered. 

The insurrection in Cuba still continues with all 
its perplexities. It j s difficult to perceive thai 
progress ha* thus- f a r been made toward the j 
cation of the island, or that the situation of ,. 
as depicted in my last annual message has in the 
least improved. If Spain still holds II 
the seaports and all the considerable towns, the in- 

ill nnm at will over at least two thir 
the inland country. If the determination of - 
to put lown the insurrection seems but tostren- 
with the lapse of time, and is evinced by her un- 
hesitating devotion <if largely increased mi, 
and naval forces to t he task, there is much r- 
to believe that the insurgents have gained in i 
of numbers, and character, and resources, an-; 
nonetheless inflexible in their resolve not t- 
cumb. without practically securing tin 
jects for which they took' up arms. If Span 
-et re-establish'ed her authority, neither 
the insurgents yet made good their title to i 
garded as an independent state. Indeed, as 

e on. the p retens.- that civil govern- 
ment exists on the island, except so far as Spain is 



1CESS. (TBc PicaioevT's MOSUOE.) 






has been 



,.,*:,.:,, 

_ r :. 



vrge towns and their 
.1. thai exception 

lolllil! 

demand Of tlM COm- 

il has now ifirm up nil attempt 
* liovernment 

ih,-n- i- ih. u .1 i. l% .. n f or i i| 



.ubh armies able to mert thnr an- 
I ml I Ir. prompt 

$ I- l.-.ki-.l for. Uli. I til.' 

IIM *uirriTiiv *>f tin- S|miuh force* in num- 

'nl i.. 
fra' i.-. Hut thry arr railed 

itiirv of th.- roiintry i vim Mr or in- 
.I tlml ' am- 

li and whi-n all i!.. .. :\ nntatfri ' 

- oo its iili>. In a 11 MI n try where 

rood, 

b 00 eav 

tl>nt th, r.- i- har.ll> a limit to thr turn- during 
h ^HPtfrY of may !* i 

M all ram* of protni. 

uiltatant* grow more and more 
ied and excesses on both eidcs become more 

marauder*, who, now in 

4IM of OIK In* naiiii- < 

trln-il inlinliit- 
igv. Such u condition of 

in -initial |MI!ICV of tin- S| 

ipparaatlj a)>anioi 
theory M tin- b 
i<> ..f the contest 

lulatjoii of |>n>|N-rty. that 
' prov. i advantage to the 



'ic name cml that in pureuanoe of pni>ml 

:rwn 

: thr rural |N.J... 

The rare result 

iu-.trial valur of thr 
nml that unlr^ tl 

>|i|irar nltotfrtht-r. That valu. 
sisU Tery largrlr. nf cotir- pro- 

agar a capa 



Doscontinti. 
illy PV 

rritonr 
UM) no much inoi. 



it tempt. 

rhr uttrr ruin of an ! 

f.-rtilr mill 
rioiui 

unriit ati-l j^-oj.l,- 
^ 

n with it whi- 

of a 'Miirntal or philanthropic 

M> near to us as to bo hardly 



from our 

:..-.-- . ' , ,.. | 

and Government of bp rvsjKMaibJt 

mated that at lr*t from HOjUOflyPOO to mflbfrOOO 

ital art- ,...; .:. plantation* and 
in railnMul. mining, and other hasinaai . 



OOOm i>d >'. MM. t 
Mtrrectioo broke oat, amounted to nearly 
000. Besides thb large pecuniary stake la the for- 
tune* of Cuba, the I'nited Stale* 
d in thr present 



oandcx*tly. 
kieiothbcoontryandfa 

I r, ...... r, >\ t . bsMrra ,. .. Usmsjl i n 

i :- .'-'."; . -.-: 

raUitig of f iin-N. and by other mean 
tit and the tcn< 
la w do not pen 

inal j.r.- 

|Mi|<-ni an naluraliwd < 
a prorreding rwof 

and not unnaturally rr*ar 

-in. The in 

iouUedly encouraged and sttpportc 
widespread sympathy the neopto of tin* 
always and intm< ti 

better and frrer fforeniment, and which 
case of the more advcnturou* and restless eta 

r |Nipulati>n. leml in only too many instaaccs 

..i | M >roiial partici|jation in t'hc c> '. 

result u that nment b constantly 

called upon to protect American citizen*, to claim 

damages for injuries to persons and proprrtv. n-.w 

ns of dollars, and to ask 

explanations and apologies for the acts of 

< we zeal for the it press Jon of 

sompt 

to the unoending ilv power. 

.^ that 

a long line of sea- 

coast aninot unla* ' escape of 

utmost vigilance will not always soAce 

Tnese inrvitahle ontangiements of the United 

State* with thr rrl* Ihon m Cuba, the large Ameri- 

can pn.|H-rt> interests affected, and consideraUons 

of philanthropy and humanity in general, have led 

to a vehement demand in various quarters for some 

f |.*itn. intervention on the art of toe 

It was at first 



a proposition no longer urged beeaose untimely 
iuriou* to our own interest* It has sine* been and 



> - m I -..'.: .,.:.:.[".'. . 



... 



of the iiiMirjrmt* should le rwpiizrd. But troner- 

-(nt*hgovernii 
.er exists there unless thr ill 
..ffict-r in tnnjioranr command of a 
particular district ran U- 
iTrnpMPt. It b now also 



. 

speciesof 
that the 



i -,-l States should bar the bland~a 

n if there were any 
evidence of A desire or willingness on the p. 

S|mu tin MI, h a pnuwval. It 

finally, that, all other methods failing, the exiting 

' in ful* should he terminated by 
n at the cost of a war between 

- and S,min-Hi war which iu advo- 

QSJlSJi ,.-:,-; :.--,:-- - 

roportions nor doubtful in its bsoe. 
The correctness of thb forecast need be neither 



FBI I'Ki.-n.i.M's Mi.u;r.1 



affirmed nor denied. The United Stairs has i 

x* A cham : r to n. a nation, which 

plainly dictates that right atil not might should be 
the rule of iU conduct. Further, though the United 

it ix in truth the most pact!; . f potnod desires 

nothing o mu '" nil the 

world. Its own ample and diversified domains sat- 
isfy all possible !< all 
dreamt of conquest, and prevent any caatii 
covetous eye* upon neighboring regions, bowaftjf 
attractive. That our conduct tow and 
her dominions has constituted no exception to this 
national disposition is made manifest by th<- < 

.eminent, not only thus far during the 

prwwnt insurrection, but during the t,-n years that 

i in 1808. No other great 

|ower. it may safely be Mil. under dreomstanoei 
of similar perplexity, would have manifested t IK- 
MOM restraint and the same patient enduran. -.-. h 
may also be said that this persistent attitude of the 
d States toward Spain in connection with 
Cuba unquestionably evinces no -li_rlit respect and 
rsgard for Spain on 'the part of the Am 

. in truth do j her connection 

with the discovery of tin- We-tcrn Hemisphere, nor 

do they under lie great qualities of the 

~\\ |H-..ple. H, ,r fail to fully rec,,gni/e their 

splendid patriot is in and their chivalrous devotion 

national honor. 

They view with wonder and admiration the 
cheerful resolution with which vast bodies of men 
are sent across thousands of miles of ocean and an 
debt accumulated, that tin- costly nos- 
of the Gem of the Antilles may still hold its 
place in the Spanish crown. An I yet neither the 
Government nor the people of the t'nited States 
have shut their eyes to the course of events in 
Cuba, or have failed to realize the existence of con- 
ceded - which have led to the present re- 
volt from the authority of Spain grievances i 
nized by thc(^ueen Regent, and liyti. 
by the 'most patriotic and enlightened of Spanish 
statesmen, without regard to party, and demon- 
strated by reforms proposed by the executive and 
approved by the legislative branches of the Spanish 
rnraent. It i- in the assumed temper and dis- 
position of the Spanish QoTernmentto remedy th. - 
grievances, fortified by indications of influential 
public opinion in Spain, that this Government ha- 
hoped to discover the most promising and effective 
means of composing the present strife, with honor 
and advantage to Spain, and with the achievement 
of all the reasonable objects of the insurrection. 

It would seem that if Spain should offer to Cuba, 
genuine autonomy a mea-M <>f home rule which. 
while pntervins; the sovereignty of Spain, would 
wtisfyall rational re.juirements of the Spani-h sub- 
ject* there should be no just reason why the paci- 
fication of the island might not be effected on that 
basis. Such a result would appear to be in t he t rue 
int.-n-t of all concerned. Il would at once stop t he 
conflict which is now consuming the resources of 
the island and making it worthless for whi 
party may ultimately prevail. It would keep intact 
the possessions of Spain without touching l.-r 
honor, which will he consulted rather than im- 
pugned by the adequate redress of admitted 
ances. It would put the i.rosperitv of the i-land 

-{iiiir- ..f if .uts within their 

I. without severing the natural and an -i.-nt 
iiieh bind th-m to the iiiother country, and 
would yet enable them to te-t their capacity for 
self-government under the most favorable cnndi- 
It has been >n the one side that 

ild not promise autonomy until her in- 
surgent subjects lay down their arms; on the other 



that pr-:: noiny. however lil>e- 

in^unicieii 1 \\iihoiit assurance of the prom* 

Hut tin- rea-oiialileness of a ro- 
i|iiiremeiit l>\ Spain, of unconditional sunvn.. 
the part .f'the in-ur^. nt Culians lu-fmv their uii- 
toiii- ! alto-ethei- apparent. It 

res important features of the situation ! 
Miration ha- iim-n to the insur- 
rection: the feasibility of its indefinite prolong, 
t ion in the nature of things, and as -!.< >u n by pgY 

:ienee; the utter and imminent ruin of tJB 

inland, unless the present strife is spt-edily coin- 

..! HP lanU al'ii-es \\hieh all'partil 

in Spain, all branches <,f her (Jo\ernnient. and all 

her lead in:: public men concede to e\i-l and profe-s 

:re to rein iig sudi <-ircuii. 

withhold the p roller of needed reforms until the 

s demanding 'hem put themselves at me rev 
by throw in-; down their arms, has the appearance 

Reeling ft .ml in\iting SUH- 

piei.ui as to tlie sincerity of any profc ed willm-. 
ness to grant reform-. 

The objection on In-half of the ii 
promised reforms can not be relied upon in 
course be eon-idei-ed. though \\e have i 
aume. and no reason for a-sutniiii:. that an\ 
Spain undertakes to do fur tin- relief of Cut) 

not be done at rding to both the spirit a: 

letter of the undertakinir. 

. erlhele*s. reali/in^ that -uspi<-ion- and lire- 
<-autioiis on tin- part of the weaker of two combat- 
ants an- always natural and not al way- unjust iftsjH 
being sincerely desirous in the in: 
well as on its own account, that the Cuban problesl 
should be Mil\ed with the least pos-ible del 
was intimated by this Government to t 
incut of Spain some months ago that, if a sat: 
tory measure of home rule were tendered t he i 
insiirgeiits. and would be accepted by them H 
guarantee of its execution, the I'nited St; 
endeavor to find a way not objectionable to k 
of furnishing such guarantee. While no <j. 
response to tliis- intimation has yel be. 
from the Spanish Government, it' is believed 
not altogether unwelcome, and. as already sug- 
gested, no reason is perceived why it should i. 
approved by the insurgents. Neither party can fail 
to see the importance of early adion: and 
must reali/.c that to prolong ihe pr.--.: 
things for even a short period 'will add enor: 
ly to the time and labor and expenditure i 
sary to bring about the industrial recupe.- 
of the island. It is therefore fervently hop, ,| 
earii'-st clTorts for healing t he breach betv. 
and the insurgent Cubans upon the lines abo' 
dicated. may be at once inaugurated and pu-' 
an immediate and successful issue. Tin fi 
otliee of the I'nited States cither in the m 
abovi- outlined or in any other way c..n-i-teiit wifl 
our Constitution and laws, will always be n 
di-'posal of either party. 

Whatever circumstances m 
and <ur int-re>ts would constrain u- to obj 
the acqui-ition of the island or an inl 
with it- control by any other power. Ii 
added that it cannot be reasonably a-- 
the hitherto expectant attitude of the 1 

s will be indefinitely maintained. Wh 
are anxioi d all due thesover- 

f of Spain, we can not view the pending 
fliet in all it- features, and properly apprehend our 
inevitable close relations to it. and its j 

. without considering that by the coin 
event- we may be drawn into such" an iinu-ual and 
unprecedented condition as will fix a limit f 
patient waiting for Spain to end the coril 
alone and in her own way or with our frien-. 



ICRB8. <Tni 



MESSAGE.) 






nil purpose* of ii, 

ui.-i wh.-n u nOpalaSJ -!r ,_-.. f r . - r. 



A h ,,ur obiifistioM "- - m 

e can hardly he*i' ugniat 

Deferring the choice of . 

trrive*. we should 



Btren were appointed to plaeat not beted** in the 



uM ma U determined upon 

1 u,t,-n- 

Mil ' f . 

fgMtl I 

we should 

nstances exi 
its of public Uw and our regard 

llily of ; la! i' n 

- *l,.,.iM plainly t. .i.l 



and ill-tmtrd expre 



lint I 

.h 

welt us a n-^nnl f 
ations and tin i 

lete devastation wil. 

will nub* i 

. ,-l aixl Ht tin- name ti""' prom- 
:t- an o|.|H,rtunity l<> 

11 and 



nin H !u mb- 

aii-l 
zurlu It con- 






aH'itt 

Toroncca 1 . tin- 

'.ir advanced. nnl pri>niine to 

a Micoetaful oonmitnmation at an early 



he past year 85 appoint im-nt hare been 

<errice,87>f win, l, . 

nci oauaed ly .l.nih .-r t.*. 
plv newly created poita, 9 to meet** 

rn. the offlctal tit 

n^i-nt t 

part- 

f ilnn ap|Niinttl hail 
vious Mnrice under the de|mi 

l>erons who paased a *ali*factory 






* of exam n ants for certain 

nl.-r issued 

nf tlr 

;an *>f . \tunination. promotions and 

in, unit* n 1 - have been 
\ccllcnt result*. 



'it 1 1 -i i i * ' ' t i 

>iiui*( 1'iucTA, |nuvniflU lor oy 

n appn'i>ruitiun for that purpoie at the last ses- 
sion of tbo Congrats, has been jm- 
tolsjOsMdhifetlNsI I . 



in the futr be continued. I know of nothing 

i d.nc VIM, - -. , - . 

t- t!,. HTfioi 1 ' afa ' 

..-: : hi ' 

' . f ; ..-..'; .' . -; 

... r- *.<[ !i- f. r MM ISJDSjSjSjMSJfl "' : '- 

at foreign caj reasons Mppuning tin* 

ranomnisiiditlon are strongly stated in 

of the Secrrtar nd the * 

such iin|>riaiii r that I h- i-- tl may receive the 

earlv ,. 

e hut vear labored faithfully 
and against unf 

.in lave lately 

[!.- i . r.!,! '-.....- 

causes of their rapid duraaai. I j 
commisioner.soon to be 
with thrfxercise of patience and good smse on the 

l-art of all inu-refttrd |rtie. it t earnestly hoped 
that hearty co-operation may be secured for the 
i rota\ ti. n nfajsjsj :.... : 
life in th. ix.rthirn l'u< i He and Bering Sea. 

rt-asury reports that lur- 
lie fiscal year ei> 30, 18% the receipts 

f tin- (i< all ources amounted to 

p.-lnur-v van $4.:;- > . M, taencesi of , v 
penditures over r $2&.* 

808,245.70. The ordinarv expenditures <. 

\vt-rt- $4.015.K'2.21 lew than duhr. 


th.T,- :.- iit-n\-'l fr--ni . Bill DM lilt I IH '. *!"" 

>1.67. and frm internal revenue $146,380,- 
615.66. The receipts from customs snow an in- 
crease of $7.868,184.22 over those from the fame 

>e 80. 1895. and 
tin- n- !!!- fnxn internal revenue an miliass of 

ur imported dutiable men handise 
dunnu- the last fiscal year was $860.7'. 
.f fn-.- K"l- importetl $409.!- 

value of duti- 

at.!,- p^N. and $41. 11 .(KM in the value of free 

goods over the preceding year. Oar exports of 

merchant I IM\ foreign and domestic, amosjntod in 

vabM ;. ^^--..>H;.-,.> - . . .- ....,;. ; - . 

.; vear of $75.068.778. The average aW ia/sriai 

lid on dutiable goods imported during the 

yeaf 780*4 per eent. and on^rw and dutiabk 

looditaco JNkM IMI pareeni 

Mlrrnal revenue was 
2*78 tier tvnt.. a am 

. exclusix 
86Usm708 taxable gallons, being an mcnase of 

* an increase of 1,448.676 gallons of t 

..m|*rl with the prrce*!. 



' larrebof 



(lurr.1 



88^80.784 prodaoed m 
the preceding fiscal year, being an increase of 

The total amount of gold exported clurinj: the 
IMI iui farwat$lll,l(>4; 

541.*. ,n mrreae of 

and $U.2K..:>4 ol M^T i-r : . - ' 

fiscal rear. The imnorts of gold 
of silver $3> 



156 



CONGRESS. (TitE PRESIDENT'S MESSAOB.) 



$8,859,695 less of gold and $8,566,007 more of sil- 
ver than during the preceding year. 

.I stock of metallic m.-iu-y in tin- I'nited 

: cloM' of the liiwt (foal Veal ended on 

which $599.697,964 was in gold and $62*.7->.o:i in 
silver. 

(he M >'.>. the 

,11 kind- in the country was 

$2.885.410,590. ami the am--unt in circulation, n-i 
in. -1 ii. i in- that in the Treasury holdings was 
U-ing $28.68 per capita upon an 
estimated population f 71.902,000. 

in. -lion of thi- ' lh in the 

fi.it.-l State* dun; .iendar year 1H95 is 

estimated to have been 2,254.7'. line ounces of 
gold. line of $4fl.filO.<*H>. and 55.727.000 

fine ounces of silver, of tin- commercial value of 
$36.445.000 an.l th,- coinage value of $7'J.'51.ooo. 
i rod net ion of these metal- thr.'inrli- 
ut the world during tin- same period was 9.688,821 
line ounces of -..;.!. amounting to $200.285,700 in 
value, and 109.189.24!) I'm.- ounces of silver, of the 
nercial value of $110,654,000 and of the coin- 
age value of $-j according to our ratio. 
The coinage of these metals in tin- various coun- 

rld during the same calendar 
:itcd to $232.701,488 in gold and $121,996,819 
in sii, 
The total coinage at the mints ,f the f nited 

the ti-eal y.-ar end.-d Jin. 

amounted to $71, 188,468.52. of which $58,878,490 
was in go 118,809,978 Q standard 

-uli-idiary coins, and minor coins 

The numhvr of national hanks orirani/ed from 

tin- tune the law authori/ini; their creation was 

passed up to Oct. :i:. 5.051, and of this 

mi m her 8,769 were at the date la-t mentioned in 

oiK-ration, having authorized capital stock 

of $T, . and 

- amounting to $211.H'J .' 

The total outstanding circulating not.-s of all 
national banks tlsl day of October, l s '.'>. 

amounted to $234.553,807, including unredeemed 
Init fully secured notes of hanks insolvent and in 
process of liquidation. The increase in national- 
Iwnk circulation during the year ending on that 
-MM $21.9,429. On (tot & 189ft, when the 
condition of national hanks was last reported, the 
total resources of the 3.679 active institutions was 
$8.268,685,813.83, which inch, 
in loans and discounts and $302 in money 

of all kinds on hand, of their liabilities $1,097,- 
891.058.73. was due to individual depositors, and 
$209,944,019 consisted of outstanding circulating 
DOtet, 

There were organ i/.-d during th. ding 

ite last mentioned 2H national banks, located 
iii 15 States, of which 1: >d in the 

Eastern States with a capital of $1.1*0.000. <; in 
the Western States with a capital of $875.(KKI. and 
10 in the Suit hern States with a capital of $1.1 !'<.- 
000. During the year, however. :',7 hanks volun- 
tarily abandoned their franchises under the na- 
tional law, and in the case of 27 others it was 
found necessary to appoint receivers. Th. i 
as compared with the year pn < -din-, there was a 
decrease of 36 in the number of active banks 
The number of existing banks organized under 

laws is 5.708. 

The numUr of immigrants arriving in the United 
ing the fiscal year was 34:'.. 'J*;:. of whom 
340,468 were permitted to land, and 2.?.W wer 
barred, on various ground- pre*criliod by law. and 
returned to the countries whence they came at the 
expense of the steam- -.:,:- l>y which they 

were brought in. The increase in immigration 



.mounted to SJ.7:11. It is 

ion> the immi_ 

of th.' pa-' of a hardy laboring cla- 

UHtom.-d .irn a 'support for them- 

selves, and il isc-iimated that the money lir.-uuht 
with them amounted to at lea-t $5,000,000. though 
II ). rol.al.lv much in excess <.f that >um. since 
only thost- having less than $:{<> are required t<> di>- 
close the exact amount, and it i- kno\\n that many 
brought .-..n-idcralile MUM- "f money to l.uv land 
and Imiid home-. In.-ludini: all tlie imrni. 

M- \\h" w.-r.- o\-,-r fouri. i -js-r;i 

ii againsl 

of tliose of that age arriving during th. 
The numlier .f nnmiLM 

\ -ars old. the countn*-- from which they . 
and the percentage of illi: 
as follow: Italy. 57.515. with 
land. th 7 per pent.; K'u with 

ll'll per cent.; .\utria-lliin':ai-\ and pro\ 
57.05!), wr : with 

2-96 per cent.: Sweden. l\v,>i.\viih 1'16 percent.; 
while from Portugal tin-re came 2.1MJ7, "f who-n 

1 per cent, were illiterate. There arrived from 

:i during the year only 1.1 10 immigrant 
it is the opinion of the immigration autli 
that the a]ipreheiision heretofore existing to 

1 'f a large immigration from Japan to the 
f nited States is without any -iil>-tantial founda- 
tion. 

From the Lif.-Savini: Service it i- reported that 
the numlicrof <! documented vessels w Uli- 

in the limits of its operations durinir the year was 
j:',7. Th.-e eeSSelfl had on l.oard 4,6 OS, of 

whon. -aved and lo lo>t. Theva. 

such vessels is estimated at $8.880,140, and of their 
Cargoes $8,846,880, making the total value of prop- 

::uperiled | >. Of this amount $11.- 

- -av.-d and si ,- lost. - 

seven of the vessels were totally wrecked. There 
\\eiv l..-ides 243 casualties to small undocumented 
craft, on hoard of which there w.-iv .V.i| p. rsons, ..f 
whom 5s 7 were sived and 7 were lo-t. The value 
of the pro|crty involved in th. 
c-timated at $119,265, of which $114.'.M5 was 
and^i lost The life-saving crews daring 

the year also rescued or assisted numerous other 

Is and warned many from danger 1 
ooth by day and eight, The Dumber of d is 
during the year exceeded that of any previou- 
in the history of the service. Imt the saving of both 
life and property wa than ever before in 

proportion to the value of the property in\ 
and to the number of persons imperiled. 

The operation- of the .Marine- Hospital S< : 
the Revenue-Cutter Service, the Steaml- 

tioll S-rviec. the Ll'^lltll 

of Navigation, and other I. ranches of public work 
attached to the Treasury Department, together with 
"ininendation- cone. -rnini: their support 
and improvement, are fully -tated in the report of 
the s.-iTi-iary of the Treasury, to which the atten- 
tion of the Congreei i" especiallT invited. 

The report of the Secretary of Wai exhibit- 
factory conditions in the several branches of the 
pobUo terrioi intrusted to his charge. 

The limit of our militarx force, as fixed b\ 
is constantly an-l r.-adily maintained. The pi 
discipline and tnnrnli- of our army are excellent, 
and marked progress and efliejency are app 
throughout its entire organixatiotL 

With the exception of delica'e duties in the sup- 
pression of slight Indian disturbances along our 
southwestern boundary, in which the .Mexican 
troops co-operated, and the compulsory but peaceful 
return. with the consent of (Jreat Britain, of a band 
of Cree Indians from Montana to the Briti-h j 



CONGRESS. (TE PUHM9T** 






Vms, no active operations have been required of 

uigt* in ni.-th.-N of administration, the aban- 

varioaa officers charred with the 



In addition" tCu^ara in 





E 

II * 






artillery to have been 



.4 to mii.iMium 

;*l year the work of uuiutru 

mi rat airy post* has bevn COO* 

r repeats hi* recommendation U.at 
arracks MM| quarters should 
the needs of the service as 

(tie dr|arlmrnl rather than rrto!. 

i, a 

now be allotted to the 

i, ------ .IM quart rs f 01 tin jarri M M 

i -roperly care for and operate modern 
It i* essential. too, tbat early provision be 
i he nupissanr force of art 

.:||MM| Wit! 

uagaxine arms, and wise policy deiuandft that 
all availal.l.- I 

ployed as to pmvidr within a reasonable time 

E "blent number to supply the state militia with 
modern weapons and provide an ample reserve 

twre 112.879 men. 
by the several 

N . uito $3^00,000 annually, and $400,- 

ln- 

at ion shows these troops to be usually well 
iniirti in. '.-rest, 

tanccs they are so dafleianl in prop- 
na and tqaipmenl that a sudden call ton 
1 flml th.-iii inmlr<|imtrly pr. 

recommend thnt prompt 

^Hferrs be UK Mtion and 

.rngrmrnt IN-J;, deserving 

(aid and voluntary citizen soldiers upon 

assistance we must largely rely in time of 



;>ast year rapid progress has been 
.r.l tht- ci.mpli-tion of the - 
ic erection and armament <>f f,.rti!i. . 
oar seaooent. while equal progress ha 

itrriul f..r Hubmarine de- 
in connection with these works. 
-' pei-uliarly graiifviiij; nt this time to note the 
dvaiMi that has been made in thi im|*ortant 
- the date of my annual 
ngrcss at th. 



mortars. In * 

tprgun. 1 

H -.:,.'. f. .' -,:' .- . ' ; 

mortar* ; in all, 418 gons and mortar*. 

message referred to the first modern gun oarriaca 



.....:.:. mfJSJ : 

but one were 



as to 



traction. All but one wrre of UM BOD. 

necessary oorer for toe artillery 
n*r aoainst tne mtrnM fire of modern mat 

'. ..:,;-'. 

n,.- h^WllfifHMI >-t OMMM) M : - . i 
pert* has been taxed in designing carriages that 

A .;.,.... ' . ^ . , ,. 

".. i. . -.- rofgm< .if? m - ' Md . . - . . 
ing has bsen raisad to . 

are on toe disappearing principle, and the number 
of mortar carriages to fit while the tt 



This 






utiitifactui 



>. and 80 40-i 

' -lal 

cant when oooiparvd witli the 

hen 

>f American design an. I Araer- 

.on-itrat.il our nl-i! 
i resources guns of unexcelled 
hat data, however, there 
no carriages upon which to mount 
and only 81 emplacements for guns and 
rs. all these emplaceroenta 

ir armament. Only out 
was at that time in position for the 

t Mm,> th.- number of gnnaaetnallT com* 
been increased to a total <-f -ji u inch. 



a 



ridad br priori 
to built and build 
Unproved situation it largely doe to the recent gen- 

.r- .--.;. f ( .''. r. . :.. 

of th. War Depaitmaai. Thus we shall soon have 
complete about one fifth of the comprehensive eft- 
he first step in which was no 
tarn to th< 

Whan it is understood that a mi 
nient not only furnishes a platform for 'the 
modern high-power gun. but also in every p 
r serves the purpose and takes the place 
the fort of former days, the importance of the 

inplished is better comprehended. 
In the hope that the work will be prosecuted with 
no less vigor in the future, the S War 

has submitted an estimate by which, if allowed. 

i..| of the next fiscal year such additional 
guns, mortars, gun carriages and emplacements, as 
will rvpn '.ir from one third of the total 

work to be done under the plan adopted for oar 
coast defenses, thus affording a prospect that the 

k will be substantially completed 
ar*. In Itat time than that, h hall 

have attained a marked degree of security. The 
and results of the past year demonstrate 
that with a continuation of present careful meth- 
ods the cost of the remaining work will be rooch 
lees than the original estimate. 

We should always keep in mind that of all forma 

of military preparation, coast defense alone is et- 

illv |riflc in it- nature. While it gives the 

MM . f an nritj ABJ : ifjsjaaaj SJMSJ Patm ith, 

i: bfjeJaVi .;.-;-..-'- . - 
manent fortification to involve us in foreign com- 
plications but rather to guarantee us against them, 
are not t.n ; secnritv 

agautl it. Tliii- they are thoroughlv in accord 
with all the traditions of our national diplon. 

rney-General presanto a detailed an<l in- 
taraating statement of the work done under hit su- 



>u.n during the last fiscal year. The 

)iip and managament by the Govern roe i 

triitiariea for the confinement of those convtcteil in 

i States court* for violations of Federal law *. 

whirh for many yean has been a subject of execa- 

^ororoenaation. has at last to a slight extent 

ration of the abandoned 

military prison at Fort Learenworth as a I'nited 
Btm^psaKairj, 

' is certainly a movement in the right direc- 
he at once mipplemented by 

the rvbmMinff or . \ tensive enlarp-mrnt of this im- 
pft> vised prison, and the construction of at least one 



158 



(THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE.) 



more, to be located in the Southern BU 
capacity of the 1/eavenv .itmtiary is so 

limited thai the expense of its maintenance, cal- 
culated at a per ctij I|MUI tin- numb, r of 
pn~ : ;i accommodate, does not make as 
economical an exhibit as it would if it v 
an.l bet tor adapted to prison purposes: but 1 am 
su'hlr convinced that economy, humanity, 
an.l A proper sense of responsibility ami duty 
towani those whom we puni-h for vi,.lati. 

:atc< that the 1 ' \ernmeni 

should hnN re control ami management of 

the pciiiicntiaru* * rioted violators are 

It appears that since tin- transfer of the 
Learenworth military prison t.. its new us*- tin- 
work y done by pri-oncrs OOOflned th.p. 

ami for which machinery has been 

iiMiued. This work con-j-ted 

of the manufacture of articles for army use now 
done elsewhere. On nil groin; \ceedinglv 

desirable that the nm\i-:- <.>M lined in Un- 
ary be allowed to resume work of th 

It is most gratifying to note tin- sati-factory rc- 

foUowed tin- inauguration of the 

new syst.-m provided for by the act of May >. 1 VM;. 

which certain Federal officials are compen- 

sated by salan of fees. The new plan 

was put in operation the IM day <>f .Inly. l s '.;. :i nd 

already 1 1: .n.uny it enforces, its piwen- 

f abuses, and it- tendency t" a better en: 
ment of the laws, are strikingly apparent. Detailed 
I the useftilnes- ..f thi- long-delayed but 
now happily accomplished reform will he found 
clearly set forth in the Attorncy-<iciicr:d's report. 

Our Post ofljee Department i's in pood condition, 
and the exhibit made of its operations during the 
ended .lunt- 30, 1896, if allowance is 
for imperfections in the laws applicable to it, 
v satisfactory. The total receipts during the 
^.40. The total expenditure! 
were $90,626,296.84, exclusive of $1. 
which wa< earned by the Pacific Railntad for Iran 
ion and credited on their debt to the Gov- 
ern ment. There was an increase of receipts over 
the previous year of $5,516,060.21. or 7'1 per cent.. 
and an increase of expenditures of $3,836,124.02, or 

er cent. 

The deficit was $!.< ess than that of the 

preceding year. The chief expenditures of the 

postal service are regulated by law and are not in 

ntrol of tli- ! ral. All that 

he can accomplish by the mo-t watchful adminis- 

(ration and economy is to enforce prompt and 

ugh collection 'and accounting for public 

. h minor savings in small e\pendi- 

and in letting those contra'-:-. f<-r p.-t-..flice 

supplies and star service, which are not regulated 

by statute, 

"An effective co-opcrai inn b.-tween the and 
office and the Post Office Department and the mak- 
ing and enforcement I by the department 
re M uirin- immediate notification t',, their sure! 
all delinquencies on the part of postmasters and 
c.iinjH-llin- Ktcfa pM-tma-ters to make more frequent 
deposits of postal funds, have resulted in a prompter 
auditing of their ac, ., U nts and much less default to 

:iment than heretofore. 

The year -hows larg* both 

star-route service and railway mail - ;h in- 

creased postal facilities. Much higher accuracy in 
handling mails has also U-. n r--;i< h.-d. as appears by 
the decrease of errors in the railway mail s. 
and the reduction of mail matter returned 

i -letter ofli 
The deficit for the last year, although much less 



than that of th ding years, em- 

/es the necessity fur legislation to correct the 

if noond-olass rate>. to >\i,i..-h the 

deficiency is mainly attributable. 

Tin- MOI'I at the rate "f 1 cent a pound 

hoii>c or- 
particuhir 

li- ii-e " or iiisiit ir s ( and the 

like ought certainly t lie di-( mitiiin' d. A i 
at the re\-nues ircn\cd for the work done la- 1 
will show more plainly than any other 
the gross abuse of the postal so \ i. . and the 
ing waste of its < arninn. 

li-.c mai: iils for the de- 

partments, offices, etc., of the <io\, rmm -nt. n: 
reSB, in pounds, amounted to !M. IHJ.ISJI. 
If this is offset against building f-r po-t , 
ami stati<.n-. the rental of which would : 

colllj.. -lU'll free p< 

this .-xhil.it nf the weiu'ht of mail matter (other than 

. tra?ismiitrd throii.u'li the mail for tl,. 
ending .luii' 



1. I'oiiufitic and f..r.-i^M l. it. i- 
ix.stal ear.l- 

, . 

pound. 

1 I'.in-.-U. . i,- . ]<, oeBtS a pound 



W...I... 



19,860487 



US.977JM 



dern 



nay 



The remainder of our postal revenue, annum 
to something more than | I, was " 

from box n loney-order bu>i 

and other similar items. 

The entire expenditures of the department, 
eluding pay for tran-piirtatioii credited ! 
Pacific railroad-. \\.- :!:..! 1. which 

considen-ii a< the co-t of receiving 
delivering the alx.ve mail matter. It thus ap 
that though the second-class matter 
more than two thirds of the total that v 

the revenue derived from it was less than 
thirtieth of the total expen-e. 

The av. : ue from each pound of first- 

Class niatt.-r was 08 i 

From each IMHIIKI nf s-ec.iiric]ass. .. 8| i 

" f th- s ml-. *C was county-free matt 

Fmui eaeli pound of third-class 

Kr mi eaeli pound <>f f.>urlli-elas.s . l5'0 

The growth in weight of -econd-c!a-s n:a'i. r h; 
been from MI p ( ,un<l- in 1- 

(KX) in 1895, and to almo>t :} J.(KK).()00 in 1*;ii5. and 
it is quite evident this increasing drawback 
outstripping any possible growth of postal 

lllle-. 

<>ur ma:' viild of course be such 

meet the wants and even the convenience- c,f our 
people, at a direct charge upon them-o li-_- 
pernaps to exclude the idea of our Post oili- 
pjirtment being a money-maK n : but in 

the face of a constantly recurring deficiency in its 

v ,-f the fact that we -upplv 
the be-t |i - to me it 

is quite time to correct the abu-es that swell enor- 
mously our annual deficit. If we concede the pub- 
lic policy of carrying weekly i.- free in the 
county /if publication, and even lhcjolicy of . 
ing at less than one tenth of their cosl other hunn 
fide newspapers and periodical-, there can i 
excuse for subjecting the -ervjce tf. the further im- 

- and increasing loss involved in carm 
the nominal rate of 1 cent a pound the serial libra- 
rie-. sometimes including trashy and even harmful 
literature, and other matter which, under th< 



ICESa (Tut PftesiDurr's 






.has been gradually 
us rates, thus absorbing all i 

* lines mor. -. .,t , and 

a large annual !. to 1-- paid by general 
la** inalt<-r i , 

dJtappaaf 



i 



' 



' ' .<..,., 

-.-.-... 



mini* rai i.* u i- i, ih. general Unas i 
adopird. tlie < I*- part men I having asm no 



f.r ra 

tin- Work a% found to N 

y satisfactory 
10 provide in 




...- - , ,. 
the regulation of our |* ~ul 



..I... rfMNH ' 
tartment must be secu red bafbra 






rtirwty MI omit*. 

.-r all 



*al 

..' i 



tali- 






v hi 
'hotild I*- a - 



Lad to ,.. 

ipectore who could assist the central office in 

-m-enmitf mar 
teases, post-office sites. allowaii- 

H offices. 

hat tin- -mall expense > 

f these reform* would ao 

lellt. 

ecially rvcomiin -nd Mi-h a reca- 1 
Congress for the Po- 
nd to 
f consolidating |>ost 

..rk ha- jiltvii.K U-.-ii , nt. n ! u|..,!, ^utVi, ;, M- 
noiiMmt.. :tni-nt an-! 

nM>li.|a' 

larger revcniu-j*. and !?. exjM-nili- 
nar nothing of th,- furihrr nd vantage of 
withdrawing post offices from the 



v embraces 
Mind w hone delegates will r.-p- 

B in May. 

nave takfti thr initia- 
to the first f this congress 

postal servioft 

tries nan's neighborhood, and 

li in cheapening postal rates 

vws hare 

, and the 
n whirh ..-. have assem' 

f-if th.-ir nv.. iiiiin . 
for the reception and entertainment of 

rtance of thi* assemblage and 
the honors and hospt- 
orde-i -en t alive** 

that 

ly attcmlant m>on t 

and indicative of our appreciation 

and ii 
v fully exhibited in the report of 




.||.r 

tra< u ma. 






March 4. 1801, tiwre wen 
the 




n.,-1 



. : 



unarmorrd 




In'.-, of VMSSU r authoriwd. there have 

ocmniwton 3 
fsMOlMl-clai. > 
1 hnt 

Kiyht IHW 

The " Iowa." an4hrr Uillr aliip. ill br 
-..n Man -h I. ..ore 

be ren- m tin- -a- 

Male that our hip and tbwr 
vl to be equal to the brt il... 
H- manufactured elsewherr. at 

tkxis bare been made in their cost as to jsjs* 
tify the statement (hat .put.- a number of rrtmlt 
an- now u u,- constructed at rales as low as those 
that |>n-vitil in Kuropean shipirards. 

' turiiiK' fii' i.i'.n- arr at this time 

ample for all possible naval contingencies. Three 

ranis, those at Mare 1s- 

lainl. ."ml lini'khn. X. Y.. arr 

1111 Mm-, our ordnance plant in 

world, and at 
rpedo station we are successful IT making the 

class private shipyard*, at Nt-|-.n N. . i 

L-lphia, ami Btt Fmodaoo, an- Lmldini; Uttle 
shim; 11 n*. nituati-*! in thr States of 

nnsvlrania. New Jrnry. 

Maryland, Virginia, and the Slate of Washington. 

arecon-tr. lioats or torpedo boats ; S plants 

are manufacturing largr quantities of " 

riran fa-tnries arr 




guns, and everything else i 
t of naval vessels. 

re have been authorised bv Congress sine* 

'1.1*0. ft haul, 
16 torpedo boat*, and 1 submarine torpedo boat. 

expresses the opinion thai we 

< present a Miffleient supply of emisers 

snd tinhoK .nd that hereafter the construction 

hips and torpedo boats will supply our 

need*. 

h attention has been given to the methods of 
ng on detrimental buslneas. Important 
ration* in the rv; 

a* may le. under the Bureau of 
Kepair. and al*> 

the navy by I he Him 
nd Account*. The etaMihment. unler re- 
ly fund. wK hirh 

to purchase these supplies in large gnat - ..- i 
modiflcationn -nsle- 

riallr to their cheapening and U ttrr qua 

The war college ha.* ilereloped into a i in*titution 

.t ralue t 
a- well a* in 

stimulating professional teal in the navy ; and it 



mode of pnrchas- 



[60 



CONGRES.V 



will be especially useful in the devising of plans for 
the utilize i*e of necessity, uf all the naval 

mounts uf the United States. 

.i.s persistently adhered t,, the 
plan he found in operation for securing labor at 
nary yards through boards of late tnployment, 
and* has done much to make it more complete and 
Ooitat 

The naval officers who are familiar with this svs* 
tern and its operation express tin- decided opinion 
that its rvoulU have U-. l| ImproTt the 

char.. work done at our yards and greatly 

reduce its cost. 

><> among the officers an<l mm of the 
navy has been maintained to a high standard, and 
the percentage of American M listed has 

been Terr much increased. 

i . - .-..-. .-.,. ring, :tn.l will formulate 
during tin- coming winter, a plan for laying up 
ships in reserve, tli. r. I. v largely reducing the cost 
of maintaining our vessels afloat. 

This plan contemplates that battle shifts, tor- 
pedo boats, and such of tin- misers as an 
needed for active *: :i shall be kept in n- 

serre with skeleton crews on board to keep t IK-MI in 
condition, cruising only enough to insure the elli- 
ciency of the ships and'thrir crews in time of a<-ti\- 
ronomy to result from this system is too 
obvious to need comment. 

The naval militia, which was authorized a few 
Tears ago, as an experiment, has now developed 
into a bod- ;rising young men. active- and 

energetic "in the discharge of their duties and 
promising great usefulnc--. Tin- establishment 
has nearly the same relation to our navy as th- 
tional Guard in the different localities bears to our 
army, and constitutes a source of supply for our 
naval forces the importance of which is immediate- 
ly apparent. 

The report of the Secretary of the Interior pre- 
sents a comprehensive and interesting exhibit of 
the numerous and important affair?* committed to 
Ids supervision. It is impossible in tin- communi- 
cation to do more than briefly refer to a few of the 
subjects concerning which the Secretary gives full 
and instructive information. 

The money appropriated on account of this de- 
partment and for its disbursement for the fiscal 
Tear ended June 30, 1896, amounted to more than 
$157,000,000, or a greater sum than was appropri- 
ated for the entire maintenance of the <;<>v* m- 
ment for the two fiscal years ended June 30. 1861. 

Our public lands, originally amounting to 1,840.- 
000.000 acres, have been so reduced that only about 
600.000,000 acres still remain in Government con- 
trol, excluding Alaska. The balance, being by far 
tin most valuable portion, has been given away to 
settlers, to new States, and to railroads, or sold at 
a comparatively nominal sum. 

patenting of land iti execution of railroad 
grants nas progressed rapidly during the year, and 
since the 4th day of Mar i*>ut 25,000.000 

acres have thus been conveyed to these corpora- 



I agree with -> that the remainder of 

our public landt should *> more can-fully dealt 
with and their alienation guarded by better econ- 
omv and greater pru-i 

The opmraisftion ai.jM.inted from the membership 
of the National Academy of Sciences, provided for 
by an act of Congress to formulate plans for a na- 
I forestry system, will, it is hoped, soon l*j 
prep: .f thorough and in- 

telligent examination of this important -ubj.-et. 

total Indian population of the I niter] States 
7.235, according to a census made i 
elusive of those within the State of New York and 



those comprising the five civil; >fthi- 

numb, r there are approximate. 

1 age. huring the year iM.i'i'.ct of these 
enrolled in school. Th. \\hich h.-i 

\tend Indian school : 
and the anticipation of continued liber;. 
01 to thai end can not fail to alToi 
utmost satisfaction to those who believe th.v 
education of Indian children i- a prime fat: 
the accomplishment of Indian ci\ ili/at ion. 
It may be said in general terms that in- 
dnr the impr ' the In.lians u 

Government care has been most marked at 

Indian Affairs, and the age'nts havii 
hans to whom allotmeiii 

.:> the passage of a law pro)nl>itii 
o'f liquor to allottees who have taken then 
severally. 1 earnestly join in this recommend, 
and venture to lie Impe that the |i. 

may be speedily protected aguin-t tin- : 

all "ob his well-being aii<l ad\. 

The condition of affairs among the ti\ 
tribes, who occupy laru'e tracts of land in the 
Indian Territory, a'nd who have government 
their own, has assumed such an nspe, as 1,1 i 
it almost indispensable that there should be :u 
tire change in the relations of the-r Indi 
General Government. Th 
in furtherance of tlieir own interests, .s well ,, 
the protection of non-Indian residents in their ter- 
ritory. A commission organi/cd and empov. 
underseveral recent laws j- now negotiating with 
Indians for the relinquishmenl of their 
courts and the division of their ( omin<>n 

rally, and aiding in the settlement <: 
troublesome question of tribal membership. 

ion of tlieir first proffers of negotiation was 
not encouraging; but through patience and 
conduct on their part a-s demonstrated that their 
intentions were friendly and in the int.: 

tribes the prospect of" success has bec.inic 

Sroinising. The effort should lie t. 
ians from the consequences of their own mi- 1 
and improvidence, and to secure to the real h 
.rhts as against intruders and professed ft 
who profit by his retrogression. A change is alo 
1 to protect life and property through the op- 
eration of courts conducted according to >trie- 
tice and strong enough to enforce their man-: 
As a sincere friend of the Indian I am exceed 
anxious that these reforms should be a<-.-..m|,. 
with the consent and aid of the tribes, and that no 
necessity may be presented for radical or di. 
legislation. I hope, therefore, that the comnn 
now conducting negotiations will soon b 
report that progress has been made toward a 
friendly adjustment of existing difficult 

It appears that a very valuable deposit 
itc or asphalt um has been found on the re 
tion in Ctah (H'cupied by the I'te Indians. Kvery 
f care for the public interest ana 
sensible business reason dictates such inaii- 
nt or dis|.osal of this important sour 
public revenue as will except it f mm t i 
rule- and incidents attending the ordinary d: 
tiin of public lands, und a-ure to the (Jovi-n. 
a fair share at least of its advantages in place of its 
tran-fer for a nominal sum to interested indi- 
viduals. 

I indorse the recommendation made liv the t 

.try <.f the Interior, as well as hi- | 
cessor, that a permanent commi--ion. coi 
three members, one of whom shall be an army offi- 

fo perform the dntii- now <\< 
ing upon the Commissioner and As-jstai, 1 ' 

; of Indian Affairs. The manage men t of the 







un 



hat I h'i 

m * P~j 

ii. The nuinU i 
tie close of the fbcal -, 

llOUIlt |i 



late and Jan. 1. 1*00. the remaining 

iMtVAPIftHi^ttt TttMy_ AMkxtMMt tx. 



on roll 

I fail in 



u 

and excee 

l! -'. 

full 



~ 



unt of the Central 
r**d* and thr condition of 

.,!, 



rts of 






uing the department ami 
penaion dbtribuii..ii, am 

- y Mil all f r 

JBi n.. pMM r| !:.: 



an no 



M 1,1 ..tu-.i.al alluwancea of 

! " !'.>.! ^ | 



tnetu uurinj; the year waa 

'r lli- )-n\iinrit if 

ami ftr the niprmirling > 



ion raauic 



. > 

: .:- ., 



I**/ faction 4 of the i <-f Congress passed 

i .-. lit that anr mortgage or otli 
rnm- |raim>mil t<* the intrmt of ' 

'. iflr railr. *.! 
.nid I- lawfully 

f JiMicc in the protection of the interest of the 

hi M.-W ..f -I:,- f,,, t :, - ,- Congress has for a 
numU-r <>f year* alimt conHantly had i. 
ideration various plant for dealing with the 
in eiuting U-tween then road* and th. 

unified in withhold- 
atofi n .:.. 



ii | 
r iiif'-rrnati- n and obtena 

illnW.il t,. 

MM in 
JHI.J.I.- ami uml nnininc good 

roll ami 
uld be. a n>!l of 
bled in 



the I 

ha* become especially and iraroe- 
rYoosadmci am* bean .:-. M 



t.. foreclose a first mortgage upon those aided parts 
of the main lines upon which the Government 
holds a second and subordinate mortgage lien. In 






-* proceeding* and increa*ed 

>nft.ailde.l fault .- urr.ng on 

edition will be pre*eotrd at that 






which 



en those who pose a* tl 

ixity 
penKion 
es, I ha ap- 

A : ' --..'. :. Ii nu'lil 
oii I t.. an attack 

-. who, worthy of a na- 

t.. liv.- ami d 

alln att.iiti.-n t< tho ptihlir r 

adju-tim -nt f t) 
N t4 the < 



of the 

the Westen 
havp fnll.-n due 



date, so far a- : any is concerned, that 

emphasize the mandate of the act of 1067 and .. 
duty under its provisions a mor* 
re. unle*> 



min-d ui 

t: : ! 



or -hull harr prerk>usly deter- 
lifferent solution of the problem. 
ap|H ar to rxit any reason for de- 
dr fault abore men- 
action as will promise to 
rrsta and art? the OoTern- 

Wthrra lion, 

urr U M. mtimalrly 



ity of our nation that 
the care and encour 



f j- i || : " pj p*jss> 
it should constantly receive 

has grown to be t he 



'uilt on tin- IMI- 
ment a will pivo it t!i. 

In addition ' tin- imlebtadnasa, 
Hill U> du, Jan. 1. w:. there will mature 
\\\MI. 11 A 



Prom *mall I- it ha* grown 

.: d the 

of aid ami encouragement to agricultural 

I.arge sums of money are annually appropriated 

maintenatK department, and it 

-latkw relating 

ha* not always been directly in the interest of prac- 
tical farming, or properly guarded against waste 
and extravagance, So far. howeTer. as public 
monev ha* bean appropriate*! fairlr and srosjoly to 
IKW who actually till the soil no expenditure 
ha* been more profitably made or more generally 
approved by the people, 

t'nder the prencnt management of the depart- 
ment its usefulness has been enhanced in every di- 
rection, and at the name time strict economy baa 
to the utmt extent permitted by 
Prom the report of the See- 






UK PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE.) 



nrtary it appears that through careful atul prudent 
financial management be ha* annually saved a large 
tun* from hU appropriation*, aggregating during 
urnbvncy and up to the cUe of the present 
fiscal vwu- nearly onr Aft I. ,.f the rniirv am.-unt p- 
uaed. These results hars been MOOfjiplilMd 
by a conscientious - e real needs of the 

fanner and uch a regard 
ine fanner ought to ap 



IT * 

uppferaenUxl by * 



rigid adherence to civil-service mrth.-N in a de- 
,-riment which should becundu. t. .i in the interest 
of agriculture instead of partisan pol 

..Ue of o,r 

ports of farm i .ring the last fiscal year 

amounted to $170.000.000. an increase of > 

y.ar immediately preoetl ing. This 
t the less welcome because of the 
thai, not withstanding such increase, th 
p,.n,., n of .r.il products to our 

l<>(al exports of all descriptions fell off durin. 

Ths benefits of an increase in agricultural 
ns being assured, the decrease m 
tion to our total exports is the more gratifying 
when we consider that it is owing to the fact* that 
such total exports for the year increased more than 
$; n. 

The large and increasing exportation of our ag- 
ricultural products suggests the great usefulness 
of || M . organization lately established in the depart- 
ment for the purpose of giving to those engaged in 
fanning pursuits reliable information concerning 
the condition. Meeds, and advantages of different 
foreign markets. Inasmuch as the success of the 

products, and inasmuch as foreign markets must 
largely be the M of s,,e|> products, it is 

that a knowledge of the conditions 
and wants that affect those, markets ought to result 
in * :itly and reaping with u 

better promise of profit. Such information points 
Hit the way to a tirudent foresight in the selection 
and cultivation of crops and to a release from the 
bondage of unreasoning monotony of production, a 
glutted and depressed market, and constantly re- 
.g unprofitable toil. 

In my opinion the gratuitous distribution of 
seeds by the department as at present conducted 
ought to be discontinued. No one can read the 
statement of the Secretary on this subject and 
doubt the extravagance and questionable results of 
this practice. The professed friends of the farm- 
er, and certainly the farmers themselves, are natu- 
rally expected to be willing to rid a department 
devoted to the promotion of farming interests of a 
feature which tends so much to its discredit. 

The Weather : ...w attache! fco the 1 1. - 

parti: has continued to extend 

Its sphere of u^-fulness, and by an uninterrupted 
improvement in the accuracy of its forecasts has 
greatly increased its efficiency as an aid ami 
lection to all whose occupations are related to 

Omitting further reference to the operations of 
the department, I commend the 8r< .-port 

awl the suggestions it contains to the careful con- 

>::.',- ' . 

The progress made in cMl-sei-rice reform fur- 
pishes a cause for the utmost congratulation. It 
lust survived the doubts of its friends as well as the 
rancor of its enemies, and has gained a IN -rmanent 
place among the agencies destined to cleanse o,, r 
s and to improve, economize, and eleva: 



There are now in the competitive classified scrr- 
ice Howard of 84,000 places. More than ha 
these We been included from time to time since 
March 4, 1803. A most radical and sweeping ex- 



. \\ ;i< made bj neoutiTe order dated the <>th 

,d if fourth-class poMmaster- 

shlps are Dot included in the statement it mas l>c 

ally all p nlnnplated by 

the civil--. :,"W classified. Abundant 

reasons c\i-l f..r includ;: : -i ina-ierships. 

based upon economy. lm . and the 

and quiet of iiei-hborhoo.ls. If. ho.' 

it Mich action at present. 1 earnestly 
hope that Congress will, without increasing 
oflicc appropriu ;ju-t them a- to permit in 

projH-r cases a consolidation of these post oiii> 
the end thai through thi- process the r.-ult d. 
mav to a limited i-xlrnt be accom|tlishcd. 

Th' rkM rule- as amended duriii;; the 

-ilile and uniform met hod 

of promo; ,i j,,ns 

upon demonstrated eOicicni-y and faithfulness. The 
lix.il rules on th'i sul.jed lia- b.-.-n .-in 
infirmity in the s\>tem inon- and inmv appar- 

its other benefits lia\e been lietter apprei-lati'd. 

The advantages of ci\ il-sers ice melho.U m ilirir 
business i, loo \vell umlrrM ood to r.-, j u ire 

argument. Their application baa i 

slty to the e\eciiti\e Uork of the ( n.\ eriillleiit. 
Mu't those who gain positions through the op-ration 
of the>e methods should be made to understand 
that the iionpart i-aii >dn me through \\hi--h they 
receive their appointments demands from them, by 
way of reciprocity, noiiparlisaii and faithful per- 
formance of duty under every admini-t rat ion. and 
cheerful fidelity to every <-hicf. While they should 
be encouraged todeccn'tl. their rights of 

iti/eiishiii and sup|ort through their sufTrap-- 'In- 
political belied they honestly profess, the : 
pestilent, and partisan employe.-. \\ ho loves polit- 
ical turmoil and contention.' or who ivnde: 
and grudging an administration 

representing his political view >. should be promptly 
and fearle--ly dealt with in such a way as to furnish 
a warning to' others who may In- likewise di-p 

The annual report of the commissioners w ill be 
duly transmitted, and I commend the important 
matter they have in charge to the careful consider- 
ation of the Coni: 

The Interstate Commerce Coinnii i-n has. dur- 
ing the last year, supplied abundant evidence of its 
usefulness and the importance of the work commit- 
ted to its el 

Public transportation is a universal necessity. 
and the question of just and reasonable cl 
therefor has become of vital importance not only to 
shippers and carriers, but also to the \a>t multi- 
tude of producers and consumers. 

The justice and equity of the principles em- 
bodied in the existing law passed f,,r the pi,- 
of regulating t 

ceded, and there appears to be no question that the 
policy thus entered upon has a permanent pla< in 
our legislation. 

AS id,- present statute when enacted was, in the 
nature of the case, more or Ji-s> tentative' HI.-. 
perimental, it was hardly expected ! supply a 
complete and adequate system. While 

fleets are manifest and have amply justified 
\idetit that all desired reforms 

in transportation method> have not Ix-en fully ac- 
complished. 

In view of the judicial interpretation which some 
provisions of this statute ha\- Mid the .!<- 

feetS disclosed by the efforts made for its <j,! 
ineiit. its revision and amendment appear to Ixj es- 
sential to the end that it may more effectually 
\ ils designed to l>c corrected. 

I hope the recommendations of the commis-ion 
ujN.n this subject will be promptly and favorably 
considered by the congress. 






Hindi- 



recur to the 

on- ti . 



ftenu elsewhere tut - Treasury, u, the tvi 

---1 ^4^ ^MM* * * ^^ ^ 

not nrt ay lu currrfu rweauaa, M 
:,! to a mat. 

gesUons touching our present tariff law thns incurring dt4 ,i 

4ui 
-iok effect on the JHth day of An- srfnajmsjMls and makr additions U> < 



fUggir .1 

r and pliration of an accamalaicd fan 










INl Ih . 



l a w 



Un(T 



I H f i - ; ' ! . It . i r i '.', : i . ' . v a- ' ' . - . A ' 

that tariff rhnr k i-< ' r- 

iM-yotttt iheneeeeeUi' 
Mii-l with tin- ii'i'ir i-iml porpoee of eo inoreeainm' 

Mi<l | TiNiuc'ere better and morr ; 

..|.|-.rtu!i!'i.--'. tniixt ngrre that our tariff law* 

-lifted M eourcee of rrrenue to 

nt to meet the neceeeary ex- 

,-1, ..f .r, maintMMt, Oooridered H U> iti 

itcy in this aftpect, the preeent la^ 
mean?* full utidt-r ju-t . ..H.I.MI 

(1pal rear of it* <>; ha* 

irhr $8,000.000 i u- tlmn wanrr- 

year. 



waK - N ml NT last, eeren 

tl..- ,!.-,- ,,f t!.. flacal Year, that the S 

I 

Tin- tfr.-t iin-1 in. r. .iM:i-a|.|.rrl..-!i>i..!, aii-l timidity 

. deprnwon in all n 

nne rwultinu' fn-in 

I-MII-M-H i--rf.-. tly \%.-!l IIII.I.T-!.--! un-1 MttlMl dfe 
wroected with our tariff 

'iiiTiTenor be- 

tin-. stit: and tin- nrttinl 

JIM well as for a cor fu it. In- 

it must be oonfeend that we could hnnlly 

ad a uion> i. .'i the last 

nn* f.. r tin* 

i.* reasonably hope that > fnxn 

tin-, huflineeadeprewioti will u- -u . 
nln-ndy -M-I iu.'with u promise of accrlrrnti<>n and 

; mrnt tariff la 

iillowi-| H fair oj.j-.r!uiu!\. ill in thr n-r fiiturr 

imnable economy in 
lituree, OTercome all deftciencie*. In 
has occurred or in 

n thrTn-a 

i reeerve -f mil- 

UM" of thr (J 

h must, anless expended for that 

pur|Niee, remain a unrlem hnanl. < r. if nt - vrava- 
xrnntly wasted, must '-rtrtl from 

thr f 

than its |>n>|*-raml 
Government thus applying a surplus, for- 



to UM payment of tu nuit.ii 

.ial living beyomi hsf 
rraing himarlf 



. 



:.- M* '. - ' . 

ibeneitof UM paonle and tor proper fisjysssi 

all the sjosjer it iwosivss) from eny soon* and UM 
.lual who .1 to manifrM a natural 

to avoid debt 





....: .-.' i . ' 



LOTS SAd 



rtWobJesto 



(Ill* t" Ihr |'fttllif -lit ' 

allow nir an irmtaiion to rVrkless 



ns and extravagant expenditures. I Mippass 
be denied that under the present law onr 
people oUain the nsfessries of a comforubl- 
Men- 4|*r rate than lorn 

matter of supreme importance, since It is the pal- 
pable duty of every just government to make UM 

n* of taxation as lu 
should not be required to rtlioqaiah this nfivi. 

- - ' r 



pie should not be required to 
lege of rhrn|. living except under the st 
Uovernment's necessity made plainly 
rencetotheeonditlon aiid 
our revenues, naturally suggests an 
weakness and vices of our financial i 

...-.-. ' .-:- - : :. ' 

Congress in previous Executive com 

and the i nrx uable danger of their toleration 



of 

t.- to. 

'- 



.t n. . n j--at ing thoM details I esjB 
ajrain eamesUr prrernlinc UM 



: 



not refrain from again earnestly 

prompt reform 

' - .iiiHi finance aad shown by Vxpe- 
fraught with the gravest peril aod prr- 
r mhich shook UM 



The temMe mil r 
ions of oar O< 



than thirty 



train the destmrtiosj of 
waging of oar com 

-. 



and the estrangemrt 
INX^ and for*. n the dbtnwwng loss of 

entailed is but a sarmi SMSory. 
.: n.-iic sentiment and keeps a 
r mmnl for those who nobljr died. AI 

- to-day, in full rtrpngth and 
a<tiMt\.a%an inridmt of that t 
fraiurr.f 

festly a ilbtuH 

"*ul ar 



cause we mav I 

ten^MwEi -":.- - . . 

r.*gn the snd 

etl than ever that we can have 



1 am more* 

l*re and safHy until ibe GOT. 
emmrnt ctirrrncr obligations upon which gold may 

Irawnfrom 





ernmeni nirrrocy ootinuoas wpoa wmwem paaa 
n theTrrasury arr withtlrawn fm 
circulation and canceled, lib m. 





->oeeds Of 
bowk Bran If only the I nitrd States 






CONGRESS. (THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE IMMIGRATION.) 



as greenbacks were thus irtinil. it it probable that 
theTreaaunr notes issued in |*>m.ni of M.\, 
ohaesa, under the act of July u. IMJM. i.-* paid in 
fold when demanded, would not create much dis- 
mrUnce.as they m: ime, when 

received te Uw Treasury l.v r*d.-inpti..i, in g"ld or 
c<brrwuv. be gradually and prudently replaced by 

Tim plan of toning bonds for the purpose of re- 
demption certainly appear, lo be the mo 
m,. I dirtvt |ih l. the nedtd reform. In .It-fault 
A however, it would be a step in the right di- 
lution if currency oblifaUont redcemabtt m p-1.1. 
wiirneTer eo redeemed, should be canceled instead 
of batoff itemed. This operation would be a strong 
11 would improve present condr 
sank* should redeem their own notes. 
allowed io issue circulation to the 
value of bonds deposited as security for its re- 
and the tax on their circulation should 



be reduced to * of 1 percent 

s for the- retirement of 

I'nited Slates notes and Treasury notes issued un- 
der the law of 1880,1 am of tilt e. pinion that we 
have placed too much stress upon the danger of 

i. ting th- - and have calculated too 

little upon the gold that would be added t., ..ur e-ir- 
i ulatjon if > us by better and safer finan- 

cial mrth- -t so much acontractieni of our 

ncy that should be avoided as its unequal dis- 
tribution. This might he obviated, and any fear 
of harmful contraction at the- wne time removed 
by allowing the organization of smaller banks in 
HSl populous communities than are now pe-rmitted. 
authon/. _: banks to establish 

m small communities under proin-r r> - 
...... 

The entire case may be presented by the state- 
ment that the day of sensible and SOUOd financial 
methods will not dawn upon us until our Govern- 
ment abandons the banking business ami the- accu- 
mulation of funds, and confines its monetary oper- 
ations to the receipt of the money cont ribu'ted by 
the people for its support and to the expenditure 
of such money for the people's benefit. (Mir IUIM- 
eaiinteresUand all gfMKlc'iti/e-ns long for rest from 
agitation and the inauguration by theGov- 
tof a reformed financial policy which will 
encourage enterprise and make certain the rewards 
of labor and in>! 

Another topic in which our people rightfully take 
deep interest may be here brief! \ 1. I 

refer to the existence of trusts and other huge ag- 

Hons of capital, the object of which is to secure 
monopoly of some particular branch of trade, 
industry, or commerce, and to stifle wholesome 
petition. When these are def.-nd-d. it is usually 
on the ground that though they increase profits 

also reduce prices and thus may benefit the 
public. It must be remembered, however, that a 
reduction of prices to the people is not one of the 
n-al objects of these organizations, nor is their 
tendency necessarily in that dir.-, !.. if it occurs 
in a particular case, it is only because if 
with the purposes or interests of those managing 
the scheme. 



occasional results fall far short 
satiny the palpable. ttooantoi 

ncy is to crush 

out individual independence and to hinder or pr- 
jent the free use of human faculties and the full 
development of human character. Through them 
the farmer ,n. and the small trad- r is , 

danger of dtslodgment from the proud p'.-i'i-.n of 
being hi* own master, watchful of all t! 
his country*? pn*perity. in which he has an indi- 
vidual lot, and interested in all that affects the ad- 



vantages of business of which he is a factor, to l.e 

i!ed Io flu- level of purleliaiice to a 

great machine, with little' five will, with no duty 
I. ut that of passive < . and with little hope 

or opp,,rt . in the scale of respoiiMl.le 

and helpful citizenship. 

To tin- inMiiictive lu-lief that Midi i>the inevi- 
table trend of trusts and monopolies is due the 
1 and deep->rated popular nverMoii in 

\\hic.hthc-yare hcdd. and not the unreasonable in- 
sistence that, whatever may be their incid. ntal ec-o- 
nomlo advantages, their general elTect upon p. : 
character, pros i K-.I-, and usefulness can not be- 
wise than injurious 

Though ( 'ontfress has attempted to.l.al with this 
matt* iatioii, the laws passed for that pur- 

pose thus far luixe proved inelTective. not b 
of any lack of disposition .r attempt to -i 
them, but simply bec-ause the laws themselves as 
interpret eel by the court> dei not reach the- dilViculty. 
If the insullicie : \i-iin- la\\> can be-' 

lied by further l^i>lation it sh<.uld be' done-. 
fact must be recognized. h-\\. \- r. that all l-'cde.ral 
legislation i.n this subject may fall short of its pur- 
pose because of inherent ob-iach-s. and also b. 
of the complex character .f mil- governmental sys- 
tem, which, while making the Federal authority su- 
preme within its sphere, has carefully limited thai 
sphere by metes and bounds which can i 

tnillsgressrel. The decjsjun of our highest court on 

this precise question renders it quite- doubtful 
whether the- evils of trusts and monopolies can In- 
adequately treated through Federal action, unless 
they se-ek directly and purposely to include- in the-ir 
objects transportation or intercourse betvi 
or between (he- I'nited State-s anel foreign c<.m 

It docs not follow, however, that this is the limit 
of the remedy that may be applied. Kven though 
it may be- found that Federal authority is n,,t broad 
eneiiigh to fully reach the case, there can i 
doubt of the power of th. s. \eral St.v 
elTectively in t lie premises, and the'iv should be no 
n to doubt their willingness to judiciously ex- 
ercise such power. 

In concluding this communication, its la-t 
shall be an appeal to the- Congress for tin 

:ny in U6 expenditure of the- money it holds 
in trust for the people. The way to perpiexil 

.-.nice is easy, but a return to frugality is difli- 
cult. When, however, it is considered that 
who hoar the- burdens. .f taxation have noguar. 
of honest care save in tin- fidelity of their |.ulilic- 
servants, the- duty of all possible retrenchment is 
plainly manif. -t. 

When our differences are forgotten, and our 
f political opinion are- no longer rem.-mi 
nothing in the retrospect of e.ur public seTvie-e will 
be as fortunate and comforting as the recollection 
of official duty we-11 pc-rforrncd and the memor-. 

nit devoticn to thu interests cf ourconflding 
fellow-countrymen. i LAUD. 

EXECUTIVE MAXSIOX. Dec. 7, 1896. 



i. At ti . f th- Con- 

gress the- House- of Mtives pa d a bill 

-trict immigration. It was in t he- 
form "f an amendment to the act of .March ::. 
and it provided that all male persons between the 

ages uid H\ty who can not both read and 

write- the Kimlish or -'oim- other lani_". 
cludeel from this country, excepting par- m- of per- 
sons now living here or hereafter admitted. It 
prohibited aliens from engaging in labor in the 
ites while retaining a residence abroad : 
it f. rbade- employers to set Mich aliens to work : 
and it declared unlawful \\\<- entrance "f any alie-n 
into this country from nations outside of America, 



. 






point* where a board of immigrant in* 
rtion U maintained, 
lie meaure wa* reported in the Sen* 

- U |*MM*J tha 

htm or etui aft* r a if 

Of ft o- 



ut fiilm during the 

'hat Inland ff< 

fte 

riolut ion* front vnriou* labor orgaoisa* 

I will eoiifi'* Hint I ntti \rry radical ut* i 
I -hiNild bo glad to see imrotyr 
until ii mid woman seeking work in 

Women certainly 
o> >, it h* lines of work 
sompi in - n & t i thial ti 
1 1 makes it desirable t 

! unmiK'rant. racy toft I* imply ait 

i..|l a UM win. 
lover the number of unnii^r.t 

read one will 

tend. V form of exclusion can I* : MTU- 

it a any tent. If 

Mil take tin- iroul.i. 
careful analrsi* ma<! 
tee they will. I think, find what 1 MIV on that 

:t tiii.1 U-.-n iit.pl, ..i during the last 
ysar, would have idr. 

limn:. Aliment f- 

not see how- it ran U- a 

-tiiniU tn !l;.- n this 

::.|-i\ taking in 
;..\,-d of 

ople gathered in <>ut 

>luyment. who we a constant stream of t i 
loyed !mti..n> |-.urin. that 

Mith them. 

. differ a.- to i.i her |>lirie* in otl. 
Jt, as to the tariff ami the t -urrencY question*, 

.!! that thi-y nn- nl. 
hnt tin- -. : i-<.|ii|N-ti: 



the in 



Thtit it a(T. 



ami affwi* them liadly. no one 
plain that if there are 



tin;.' that ..tr .-vn unemployed will remain a- 
an. Ilini; r-.*-'ii f.-r tint 

legialnti -.!.> it mak.- : 

:nd whrtlin it U-th.M ..III|M titi.'ti withtbr labor 

lit he labor of 
I think at this iM-rid w<- ou 

Illinois ' 
tlmt it micht nwull in the eepara- 

aUled: 

1 the rurht af ex|atrtation. I 

( of emicratiMii. I lielievelha 

iiml that theee 

alien ntnlliliir the mo\ . 

people are wronp. I admit the ri^-hi . -f an\ 

idr fn>m iu border* persons of had 

char.i i-ii. :.-! t dainttrom 

ill i-ltiVH^. but 1 want to g%y that I hare 

vrlil that the t U>> of |'<emon whom 

\cludo fnm the ot>untry 

will be affected by thi> lull. I understand the dan- 




'.. 

. 

Md brine wtih Um hu iU aad 



in i. 

, , -..., 
poo4dkftr r a! . .,..i,.-. - . 

ite seanuinn of (atttilte vfckfc 



Mr 

tlK- 
eameetJy bmt apoo that 

-.h the aitrnttoo of the Hraal^r fmn III*. 
not* a moment in ordr that I mat aA him wbnber 

t. I made the 
on the pa -.fhrr and mU 

laiitfuaK*- 

alllr ll.a> 

dela> iirriod of time w Arimt to 

lho.e c 



i. -atr 



chiidren f TsJto tW ee of 



a father and mother. *> 

law requires that t hat f .t her and n**hr shall read 

and writ.-, and the Senator doss not prof. 



ehaafB t hat nx|uiremenU Now. here u a fathrr 
and ni'.tli.T who can read and wntr. thr irrnU of 
a family in It;. Kngland. They want to 

come to this country. They nave children betweesi 
the ages of sixteen and t w niy-one who ran not 
read or write. Ther ..u^-hi to hare had their 

Taught to n-ail and write, but they lad that 



hen they desire to come to this country they hare 
not 00 taught th.in. N,,w. 1 ak the Senator if it 
is a hardship wh h would make him wish to 
amend this Dill implr to say to that fsthor and 
mother: You can read and write : and now before 
coming to America you wait until your children 
can read and write your own language.' 

bill ; it is a weak bill in the 
opinion of many of us. because it doss not go far 
' nothing in the world bat detain 
abroad in their own countries for asunVieot length 



Amplest rudiments of 
. wit, the reading and writing 

" l ST*President. this bill has been po 

. rereire the snpnort 
,mbers of all political parties, ai. 
hope I hat it would go through t he Senate without 

accordance wuh 







*ilk of Texas, declared against the 

j^al^rlatbod^of fJ^ people in this 
rent. They are laborer* : 
great hire of 

amsffaa* InoV r v * insti is room for i n ' 
N Speaking for my own 
Stata, I would be gU 

to ^ , *^ *T"^. . f -..* Ll * ! it f^-k wBBB^LswnaBBksa) 
i u. :' i HM . * * < " 

* O I ri^unen : I woaU be glad to weJcosae 100,. 

*ndtnatians. There i> a Unre number of these 
three race* of foreiiri 

known many of them, and 



1 have 

many rearm and 



known I he for 



Soppoee that the people from eone < 

, .,',., 

and they hare not hod the oppor 







1*6 



CONGRESS. (IMMIGRATION.) 



then educated under the dc*pofic gorrrnm- 
now. they are to be kept aw> mt (o wait until 
*n educate their children, ami the < i. .\.-rn- 
meat i make no prorWon for them. This is a 

.'..-or hith. i them to 

coat gad enjoy the blearing* of librrty with <>ur- 
...... , ... .o !:. . rernmenj 

u .kapotie gutemnMOt and DM enslaved y.. u an, I 
yw chUdn* MM! it it ip 
doral* them. yo hall be proscribed fnun mining 
to till! ooontry MM! enjoying the blessings of free 



nly rrally fir* country in the world. 
pvrultarGurrnimrni among the governments 
and natioiialitirs of the world. This r..niiii.-nt 

m fcd,, "hen this Government 

a* er*rti. to be the home of a free ptopl* 

people, of ft people who held their 
lihrrttr* m thnr own ban I m UNd 

thai ' <*t nj'l'ly o tin- imii. 

ii.4i of people coining from foreign countries, and 
a man or hi* chililrrn who can not stand tin- t.-i .,f 
rml-senrice examination must be remanded back 
to duepottom again became they have lived in .. 
rnmcnl which cared n.t for th< 

.ill! op|*,S4-d t,. t||.. educa- 
tional left. The capacity to road and write is no 
of Tin in- fisher in manhood or woman- 



hood, and I have not a doubt but that tin- penitentia- 
ries < it.- in the t'nion an- full of crimi- 

nal* vv r,-ad and write, and read and write 

welt I have not a doubt that the majority of the 
wretches whoee necks have been broken on the 
ga!low could read and write. The acquirement 
of the capacity to read and write does nt dispel 

dnw from the heart. There are 
thooamni and hundreds of thousands of good peo- 
ple in this country and in other countries who can 
not rrad and write. I doubt \. r\ much if one in 
ten of the men or women who first came t.. this 
could read and write : but yet see what a 
heritage they have created' in this coun- 
try and bequeathed to us. 

re the reasons which constrain me 
to vote again* this bill, and to preserve and |>erse- 
and conti 



Wal 



continue in the p.. hey of our father- t.. 
Into the teat of pauperism and crime the only test 
to be applied to foreigners coming to enjoy tin- 
herttagTof hi- ,*. 

The bill passetf the Senate Dec. 17 by the follow- 
law vote: 

TEAS Allen. Bacon. Baker. I .wn. 

*. Butler, (nil. CM- .MOM. Chandler. 

rk.DavU.I)ubois.KikinH. Faulkner. I 
lialli llatithniugh. Harris llawley. Hill. 

Hoar Mi Hride. McMillan. Mantle. 

Martin. Mitchell of Oregon, Morrill. Nd-on. Pasco, 
tigrew, Platt. Pnn-tor. I'u-h. 
erman, Smith. Stewart, Teller, Vest, 
lth 

>ni. Him. -T.rv. Lindsay, 

Mn.-h.-ll of WiecoMto, Morgan^ M.- 
am^r. \ i t ^ in. 

neh. Allison, Brioe, Cart.-r. 
Cockrfll.rullo,,,. Daniel. Gear. George, Gibson. 
don. Gorman. Gray. Irbv. Jones of Arkansas*, .1 
of NeTada, Pritchard. K/^ h. sho.ij rhurs- 

IJ^TUhr .,, Voorheea, Svarn ,,. \\ 

The House disagreed to the Senate amendments 
and a conference oommittee was appoint 
committee made a report which wa* concurr 
by the Hr.u*. and nooconcurml in by th. 

The points of objection in the <x.i 
were stated by Mr. <i,b~.t,. . f Maryland, as follow : 

- The rwnlt of that crmfcrrnce is. as I hare stated 
in my point of order, that the conferees instead of 



ween the Senate lull 

ami the ll.'ii-e bill, reporting that they had agreed 
and r the ><! ions agreed UJMUI. or ivjuirt- 

in^' that tin- lloii-ie hail a.lh.-red and the Senate 
had reeelel or that the Senate had adli.i.il ;md 
the H..UM- had receded, and prcs'iitin.u r the ivMilt 
of that eonferen<-e in the sha|>< : hill 

which had thai time been passed upon by 

iNith ln>ii-< ' done so; but . on t he eont rary. 

ntly to accomplish 

by IndirecUoD what : pftheUnitecl states 

ami the II i. i.roeiitatives had expressly de- 

termined a^'ain-l. 

" I i Dti "f difT.Tciice I., which 

i from Massachusetts has called myat- 
M. The eonf-n-nei- n-port j 

different immigration bill from that i.a-. d npoii 
and |i:iss>d upon by the I In. 

t us see whether I am > 

or whether 1 am im-orrei-t in that statement. 

"In the very first >ecti<-n of the con fen-nee re- 
port and here is the surest ion I made tin 
fcrees have added t.. \\hai had already I 
Upon by both house- Mate and the II 

had au'f 1 upon the ajje limit : th- g 1 the 

- to the character of the 

.:id writing lest; the Senate an<l the Ib-u-e 
had agreed that all persons o\er sixte, n \e;ir> of 
age who can not read and write the language of 
their native country or some other lan^ua^e, ex- 
cept in the case of "n'd (HTSOIIS not able to n-ad 
and write at all a grandparent should be admit- 
ted. The House had au r n-ed that all male persons 
between >ixte,-n and -ixty Vi-ar- of ;i-e who can not 
both read and write the Kn.ulish ] ; n 
other language should be excluded. The Ibmse 
and the S<>nate practical! Audi- 

tions in this connection ; yet we find the coiii 
in their wisdom, in the plenitude of the authority 
which it seems that they have arropitcd to them- 

- or not which remains to be seen- -have add- 
ed to and have changed what the 11 l.'.pre- 
M-ntatives and the Senate ha'. ted without 

the House and the Senate, hayii ii|>on that 

(jiiestion. They have provided that : 
"All persons physically capable and 

v.-ars of a^e who can' not n-ad and write t he 
Kiitflish lanu'iiau'e or the lan.u'iiatfe of their nat 
resident country.' 

"Hen- is u provision to which I call the attention 
of the Senator from Massachusetts in answer to his 
inquiry made of me a moment since as to wh 
change has been made by the confer- 

The object of the immigration bill as pas- 
tin- S.-nate and as passed by the II 

ives was to admit immigrants who could con- 
form to the educational tot. The conferees |,. |X| . 

uNide of the authority with which the} 
invested by their re<pectr ;>dded 

what the House and the Senate ne\er b.-f.,re passed 
upon, and that is the prohibition entirely and 
lutely of a class of immigrants who would have 
idmitted under the Senate bill and under the 

bill. The explanation of that i- to be found 
in the fact that there are thousands of immigrants 
eligible under the House bill and under the ft 
bill who are ineligible under the conference ? 

IM "f the fact that they have not a rv-ident 
country and can not speak the language of their 

natire country. Those ai i he Slavs. 

the Hungarians, Mennonites, and thousands more 

of the different classes of immigrants that I might 

mention who are intended to' lie admitted under 
the bill passed by both houses who are excluded by 
the conference report. I hope that point is clear, 
.Mr. President 
I come to the other provisions where the con- 



OOTCUH : 



nets further transcended their autlmnt . 

in- hill 



'.. .- 

,1 to .. 



provuion i ho 

*a* iilii. 
if hr a; and y*t. u 

ve add 

Represent nil t. n n>i it 
agreed upon by un.l. rta. 

luriHy of hi* grandfather rath. 

Alnl -.It 

ho Senate passiid no Mich bill, and yet the 



* logiftlation. have 
it ha* I -.11 (tarred upon y bot 

'he second proposition. as to the 

r |*.int of ordrr whion I ">" 
1 that tlmt ti 

* use the word rev. 
nectiun have sought to do bv Indirection what has 

r In iu w of 
it was to mid now section* ( 

~'. of Massachusetts. though not ronoed- 
Ing the fairness of the critictMii. proposed a new 

nftrr ex- 
ng the scope of the changes made by the coo- 

I ro|!imiUi>. 

w n* tn the nuinlH-r of illiterate* > 
shores from rent 

f (ho ('omrnU* nil of In 

for (he year en<linc .lum*90. 1896. You mil Hml 
on page 80 of the m 

at iii who r. .1. i.r.l tin- coiiniry .ii.- IllCftl 



large \>r< in -nth- 

. M Jtnt-.s a.H r\---i! 

irk it was 

1 IB. fp'IU 

. mill Ireland only 7 JUT mit. Hut when 

Kuro|M-!l . r tk) of illitrr- 

fr.-m 

.tlnllli!t\lir 

Morn ami northern Borope will be 

ty liltli' bv thf i**-.. 

-.- iif Italian in 

^ nrt- tol.l MTI. :ml 

as th< in thnt 

lion ilia: munl*>r of an iitftitiiflrant ami inferior 
from Mniti 

trur thnt iiinliT If 
pprtMJOO aiul |-M uluir HIM tint i..i 
OUMi of thoBe |.-. }!.- nn- icorant. but nm. ii.!- r 
- it-Ian' .tiMir* and thr 

nU-r thif i> the misUe* 

I u h.-n Ixindon wm but t h.- tower of a 
" and a !lnui; ' |Ni|itiral Mnfr and 

rx Hrmi'inluT that wlu-n all of northrrn 
e was in thr darknew of the Middle Ages 
ad li.-r Uantr an, l htr Tesso, her IVtranh. 
. r Miclmcl Anjfelo,art<l a little lal*r 
ni'ii!*. These facrs hare the 
it ion in thnr *HI|. 

the whole 
measure n> imrntw ami ren> 

"Mr. Speaker, I confer that this conference re- 
port, as it now stands, has stirred my blood more 







ha.1 

- : 



ihruieh the Home on the 

iopte4 or a 
half 

"tifrM I shrink 
a<ld i n any other prohlbilioeiio thaw alrrl - 

.|de immicralkJti to thie counlrt. lU 

f M "... N- - :, II., ; . ..-> ,- : ; 

i^-.fc _ t_^_ 

MWW 9mm iatP*fw OVr grBIMieUBVfV WPCB IMVT 

flr^J immtm limfm f I l^ll .^i &ir itiat 

iir CWBW OBU Irll tw * Mr, iiuii wv afw BOT 

of us M. far rrmortd fro the iaioiicraot that e 



, , 

that we eaa posWbly aroid 

u . - 



Why. Mr. Speaker, the vrry worst dens of i 
* come here can not only rvod 

higfc 

ink of t hf socialists, the communtrt*. th 
arrhtt..and tf 

have no means of eicludinjr them. We hai 
law for their exclusion. U it not better f 

-t. nn.l tt, interests of the foreign 



who have already ma*ir f 

the better class of honest toilers from th. 

rtrs .-hould come here to balance their baorfal 
iiillii.-n. ,-- ' ' trur that in the last r!. 

it was among these people in our foreign- Uicn 

lation we found the most conservative of owr 



people f I say. sir. that the BO 
pie during the last campaign 

! in the immigrants who have 
homes among us. Almost to a man they - 
honest, faithfu. -titutiuns. and 

u*r bill wae snOdently drastic: hot let 
us look for a moment at the condition of this hill as 

Mr. Speaker. I would sooner 

than cast a v. 



not amended in several particulars.- 
general argument for the bill was put by Mr. 
Taylor 

losophy of protection which Met he- 
hind a 



that d 
war that r 



- .juite as 
rfvee ageieet 




laU.r an that we should prol. 

that we should defend our rmhmion i 
ravaging inroads of other civilisations 
ravages come through the immimliof, 
. come through the 
-. ,- . 

C profess, so far as it rrlatrs to the 
pnl aper labor, come* through pr 

ive-tariff act*. We can not 

but we can prevent their invasion of 
: that * to MIV. r ..n prevent their 
the rewards i Moerican 

receives for his labor. It is the 

flxcs the character 
ofonrcivUiiation. 



nf iiroeees. so far as it relatce to the 
importation of the cheap labor, comes thronch laws 
restricting immigration, flow can the** kws so 






CONGRESS, 
the deteriorating effects of 



ne ASBVnean PVwfM** MVWHV AW 

rto foal; and natur, 

and our a. 

Uod.nl. who love thr 
. all that in.- American people arc. In 
- y*ars they aw wMsd * tb^tf stock. 
and takin* impression., and 



liiiiiiiiii no in! 
do not, except in rare and no- 

cone absorbed into the tissue 
pTour own ,ple, Their fiber never change* 
Though among us and appar y are 

aJien7in spirit, in tradition, and, generally, in Ian- 

^fneh a people, in the broadest and most pat riot i, 
r be said to be desirable elements in 

I have said be true and be in 
I need not waste words of eulogy on those splendid 
people who, though of foreign birth, have I..-1 ; 
make our country what it is and who share wit h us 
a just pride in the magnili <* empire which they 

American* thwn 1 take them to be if they oppose 
the spirit of thi* measure, 

- The disturbing, the threatening fact is that the 
character of our immigration ha- radically cha 
HI th< U*t twenty-five years. Prom some coin, 
we have received a brave, stalwart, and desirable 
people ; from others we have received an increasing 
horde whose influence is, and has been, distinctly 
deteriorating and demoralizing. It is against the 
lattrr that we would route the spirit of patriotism, 
and. if that will not suffice, we appeal to a spirit of 
wlf-intercst 

he proof is at hand. Bv the census of 1800 
wr |r*rn that out of every million of native-born 
whit* inhabitants of toe I tte* 808 were in- 

mates of prisons ; out of every million of foreign- 
born whites 1.788 were inmates? of prisons. 

.ion of nativ-i. .n, whites. 820 
wert pauper* in almshouses; out of every million 
of foreign-born whites, 8,131 were paupers in alms 



'To put it in another form, in proportion to the 
there are twice as many foreign-born 
ners as native bom. There are nearly 
as many foreign-born white paupers as 

roroent is nnneosssary. if not mi-lending. No 
eloquence could (mint in more vivid words the ap- 
palling 1* hese figures present 

* Let ns now examine another iti-m of proof more 
convincing, perhap*. than that ju-t adduced. 

"During the year ending June 80, 1H%. the num- 
ber of immigrants landed at port* of the rnit.-d 
wMMtK, These brought with them 
money amounting to f4.IH7.818. or $14.80 each. 
1! -.-.-.: that ram suffice to support these 
on* to oar idle millions f How long was 
it until these poor people became .. Large 

he mouth of : 

S?*?^! 1 ;*? orwo *'"n bv und.-rbi.ldi, _ 
bborbrrjobt Is it for an/such purpose that o,,r 
gates arc thrown open n ling masses of 

other lands invited to come in r Have thone who 
are here no righto that we are bound to re- 

i man who w* bom under or has adopted our 
flag has an equal right with -v. ry .th. r. but I sub- 
mit that he has a greater, an 'infinitely greater, 
right than those who are yet in the homes of their 



fathers across the water. I'nhappy the country 
and distressed the |H>ol>le whieli do Ho! 

..: rt thai right, 

" In the same lection \\- l.-arn that, while the 

average amount l-!--ui:ht by the Herman immi-rant 

was f80, the Russiun brought $',.;:.. the Italian 
$8.50, ami the A ustro- Hungarian $11.70. No man 

:uplate these unhappy people without 

imt hi- pit \ Is more bountiful and effective if 

expressed Ix-fore US unhappy ..i.jr.-t ha- 1< ft his 
li.'MK- in another . nut ry. 

.In no 80, 1806, tlu> ii.iin- 
f immigrant- landed at our jKirts was -I. 1 
180, and tf Ihi I nuinher app: 

2,500,000 \\ ibOfi the age of lift, 

"Tl '> of ihj> j-Liintry has U-en tl 

ened, ana nd \er-ity has Keen and i- upon us. Many 
Causes have e.-nspired t,, produce I hi- result. 
the intr.Hluetion of . .i.|,-l,.Nlird \\i.rUmen 

affected it any f DoabtMSS We can al- 
thou.-anl- of immi^! . l.m \\ ,- d., no't 

want to absorb any thai weoannol a imiiate. 

l-'orty percent.. I think, of the imiiiiirrat i-.n of 
the la-t "t.'ii years has been distinctly undesirable, 
It has demoralised the -..< ial conditions in many 

section- -f the country. It has d.-morali/ed lalio'r 
and wages wherever it has gone. If there is \\,,H< 
for him to do. the immigrant who i- ready to c..me 
up to the American standard of li\ >in to 

Mimunity to which he com. -. The imin 

who will not raise him-elf t<> our standard is a 

menace to our rivili/atimi. no matter Imw much 

work there may be for him to do. He ha- no proper 

mioiig us. 

"The>e ought to be self-evident fact 
find them disputed. I protest that America i- in-t 
an asylum. We want all to come for whom we 
have work and who can understand us and lie-..me 
apart of us; but we do not want and do not wel- 
come any others. Let no man mi-take the temper 
of the American people on this point. 

it let us see now if this educational test i 
culated to mitigate the evil from which we sum-l- 
and from which, if relief does not soon oom 
must suffer more. 

While intelligence is not the criterion of virtue, 
it yet furnishes, along broad lines, a reasonably safe 
test. We do imt need to look about us to find our 
proof. It is not to individual in-tan. 
need to point. Indeed, it is not to any general law 
or to any generally accepted idea of the value of 
intelligence that we need to look. Con-idered in 
relation to its application to this subject of immi- 
gration, we have only to look to the .-' 
immigration for the past \ 

A second conference committee was appointed, 
and both House and Senate concurred in it- n 

In the House, action wa- taken I-Y1.. !>. ls'.7. after 
a few brief protests, among them the warning of 
Mr. Mahany. k: 

Tl.i- Boose adopted the preceding 
report (which was afterward nonconi-iirred in ly 
the Senate, notwithstanding the fact that t ; 
port, as submitted, tore asunder families, sepn 
DttSbandl and wives, parents and children. And 
now we find that tin- i: liich inv! 

sweeping change in the immigration laws of the 
I'nited State... jx jo be ru-hed through thi- llu-e 
under a motion for the previous (jiie-tion. which 
choke- off adequate debate and prevents the 
nent* of thi- legislation from pointing out in detail 
its manifold faults and absurd 

"The bill as now framed fulfill* practically 
of the conditions for which its framers prof. 
have labored. With a single exception it do. 
exclude any one whom the great body of American 
citizens desire to exclude. There is unquestionably 



CONGRE8H. <UMM*ATIO.) 



a MBttoent .. ?..- .1 in ta hvw ' .- . 
ami though Amrru-ii UU>r u in* 




h.-> ban I- .: -... . . . 

> 
rtin 



Mourinfi ..f i . i- ..-'.r rl i 

f pagr. 

.tin!*, fallen O0 

"Hut whom .I..-* tin*' law ,-x. lu.l. f I'ndrr u* 

Thevrr 

that thaw BMO are anarrhi*u and onramunta* and 
socialist* indicates thai they hav.- thought ; n 

piwesire law* 
matter what their n 

.1 hon.-M 

fearing. virtuous people, whoee descendant* would 
make patriotic eft liens and strong pillar* of tint 

une against civih/.a' 
a Iwr npiin-t the i-i lulvanct-n, 

' V. .-akrr. tin* alisuntit \ 

.:i. in all 
with 

the men now occupying Mai 

oiled 

State* if t)n l-ill had been in operation a hundrvd 
or a huiiiin-il niul tifty M^arsaffO. 

- What wr want i in it r 

an mi. ..f it that shall take the* 

n thoreaaway from the m<l- 
n and place them v, 

can win prospenty f..r t hemeelvet anl add to the 
ai progrew of the great repui 

hat it wathef< 

n that u-i 

.e of the W,M and the ec 



of UK nlain 

.n.. and 

^aasftaaui 

' i -.'.- 

Fblieh immigraiiuo. vhieh hs* aa murh ngta to 
- M % a. any otte nation nposTtna 
'.. It to an indirert niiilfrTannn 



patriotism to 



f tin- KaM. In tin- -pint <>f nonparU- 
hij> that -h..'i: ^ujwion. I 

nt the Ii-r th all 

UMd it* victories for th.- |>ur- 
vinn. I wih to ay 
i lonae and wh 



\ ; 



tnav 



thr \.-i-.- ..f y.-uth ainl in-\jn-n<-iii . it may 
the Toice of prt>phecy that 
i i-na. t thi legislation evrry man who vote* 
vi|| in the fut ure rtiil that.likr Ilaii* 
rn. 

I warn Hepob- 

i in the plriiitiide .-f >itirrie 
ire should oat oar power wietly, not ilhlirrally : 
Aoshoul.l ioaili 

he world shall be benettt. 

mistake the meaning 

:. I a MI not unconaciotis of the fa t that 
iv Kepubliran l>n-t hren are Drone to con- 
aider that triumph, not as a repudiation (as it 






I w ill DO* .k of ikr MirttlanatiiNi from wnirn 

I t 



1 

1- - that *i 



.. ..,..., 








inaniavd 
the destrartton of )<mr 

The vote In tne 

s: 
N i - Arhr.4i. Adam*. Alike*. Atdrirh of 

liailey. Baker oTSartland. Bate of Ke 
hir.-. iSarnry. BarthoUl, Bdl of 



<'rump 

i 

I 



of Florida. 



Itrll. 
W,tt. 






i. Ix-fervr. l^amud. 
on. UttV. Loodenslagrr. Low. 



BnflsTi 

. Hemenwav. Henderson. Henry of 
urn. Hermann. 
Hill. Hilt. H.. ker. !l'f. 

ing. Hull 

.ta, Johnson of Indiana, 
^th lakota, J... Krrr. Kirk|lnrk. 

\. IjlifV. I Jit 

Lewis, 

Mahon. >|r.h. >l, 
T,-nn^-e. MHl.-an - f M.I.I,.- ta. M- UnW, M, - 

.Ian. Mo 

KanVa*. M 

Mm..r,.f VHsoonanv Mu.,,-ii. 

arson, I erkin*. l*hillipa. lltney. 

i:. n 9arani ! M 9 tfi 

Simpkins. Smith of Illinois. Smith of 

gan. Sn..^ Snithar. 

- v - , .. . \. ., ; .. . , ,;.. ' 

. Carolina. Sallowar. sTlwr.'^'befl, Tale, 
Taw i . nr. Trm^ewiH, 

Tm> Van 

Van V, l*worth. Walker of 

irinia. Warorr. Watson of Indiana, Wheekr. White, 

ahaWOeonofOhio, 
S,,uth Carolina. W,d, Woodsaan, Woo- 



of Georgia, IV1I of Trias. Brrry. 
Book. Calderhead. Catching^ C Marke of Al 
Oockrrll. Timmiog 

Ix>od. Macuirr. Mahany. MrUnnt 

Kao,0u.y. Owens, PtedieUin, Rkbard- 



17" 



>S. 



on. Robertson of Louisiana. Sauerhering. Sayer*, 
Snarfcraan. Stalling*. Strait 38. 
TSor Tonv0-Abl. \M- 

rich. Allen of I'tah. Andrew*. 1 "f 

lUker'of Kana. liankhead. lUrhnm. llarrelt, Hart- 
uh. Hrlknap. llmitclle. Itriimm. 

raid. 

A, .1,1. 

lUll-r. Hani' rf Nebraska, lUnly. Ham,, r. 

Titihania. Howard, Banter, 

-... iiyito. Jone*. Kem. ^ Kendall. Kulp. 

K 

f:- r. 

K 
\l 





l.e-t.T. I.IVIIIgMi 

Ink. Martin. McTonnick. McC 



McM. M N i Vork. 

ley. Murphy. Newlaiids. od.-ll. 

e.' |{a- 

of Pennsylvania. I: ' nnccticut 

South- 
strode of 

Thori.. Tucker. Turner of 

jidegraff. Walker of Massachusetts, \Van- 

\Vaahingtn. Wat-. n ..f Ohio. Wellington. \Vil- 

\\ lai I, V< tkura 

In the S M u i"ii of the 

measure, and the vote on the concurrence in the 

n. v rv|ort. Peb, IT. "a- a- follows: 
, Aldrieh. Allison. Maker. Brown. Burrows, 

kins. 
Faulkner. Fnre.Gallinper. Gear. Hill. H 

... Morn! rkins, 

Pettigrvw. Platt. I'ritchanl. I'mcior. (^iiiiy. Scwdl. 
Sherman. Teller. Thurxmi. Wetm-.n .'M.' 

\ Bacon, Bate. Berry. Wain-hard. Cattery. 
Call. Carter. Corkn-1 '. .rman. (. 

bnmgh. llawley. Lindsay. Mantle. Mills. Mitchell of 
Wisconsin, Morgan. Murphy. Palmer. Paste, I'n-h. 
Roach, Sh<Hij. Stewart. Tillnian.Tiirpic. \Y-t. Yilas 
Voorhees, White-31. 

r TOTIJtO Allen. Blackburn. Brice. Cameron, 
Cannon. Clark. Daniel. Dubois, George, (J.-rdon. 
Hair. llnrriH. Irby. Jones of Arkansas, Jones of N. - 
va|. McMillan. Mitchell of Oregon. 

..re. Walthall, Warren, Wilson. Wolcott 
25. 
The measure as flnallr adopted was as follows : 

> it enacted, etc.. that se<-ti.n 1 of the act of 
Marrh 3. 1H01. in amendment of the immigration 
and contract-labor acU, be. and hereby i-. amended 
by adding to the classes of alien- thereby excluded 
fr-'in SjdmlSllOQ to the 1'iiitcd Slates fchefoUowlng : 
All persons physically capable and over si 
roar* of age who can not read and write the Kn-- 
lih language or some other language ; but a person 
not so able to read and write who i- over fifty years 
of age and is the parent or grandparent of a ojuali- 
Tninigran! -ity-orie years of a-:- and 

cap*' ;-rting M. 

may ammipany *wh immigrant, or -uh a parent 
or grandnarent mav Iw m-nt for and come to join 
imily of a child or grandchild over twenty-one 
year* of ape. similarly qualified and capable, and 
a wife .. r nnii..r child n-t so able to read and write 
may accompany or be sent for and come to join the 
husband or narent similarly qualified and capable. 
,'. For the purpose of testing the ability of 
the immigrant to read and write, as required' bv 
the f Action, the inspection officer* -hall 

U- fsjraisMd with copies of the Constitution ..f the 
I* nited Slates, printed on numbered uniform paste- 
board slips, each containing not less than 20 nor 
more than 95 words of M ; I , r i nted in 

the rariou9 languages of the immigrants in double 
Mnall pica type. These slips shall lie kept in boxes 
* for that purpose and so constructed as to con- 



ceal the >lips from view, each -.tain slips 

of luit one langnafn, mtl tli immiirrant may dcsi.i:- 

which he prefer* tin- leM shall 

: n immigrant shall lie required to 

draw I from the DO! ami read, and 

'.v rite out. in full view of the immi^rat ion 

rdS printed the]. xlip vhall 

urned to the lo\ immediately alter the ; 

tillishe<l. and the r, l |itriit .f t he !M,\ >hall I >e shaken 

op by an inspection . .:;. >tiu -r drawing 

i- made. N.. immigrant failing \ read and write 
out the sli| thu- di-awn liy him shall be admitted. 
bul he shall be returned ko the country fr..m \\hich 

i.e at the ex|M-ns<- of the Meamsliip or railroad 
company which brought him. a- n.-w provided liy 
law. Tin- inspect ion officers shall keej. in aaol 
at all times a full number <-f said printed : 
slips, and in the case of each excluded immigrant 
shall keep a ccrliticd memorandum of the number 
of the slip which the said immigrant failed \ r. ad 

ny out in writing. If in any case fruin any 
unavoi'dalile <-aii-e the fore-oin^ slips are not a't 
hand f<r u-.-. the in shall carefully 

and thoroughly test the ability of the immiirran! !< 
read and \\ rit'c. i^iiiL' tin- ino>t appn>pnate and 
available nn-an- at their commaml : and shall slate 
fully in writing the rea-..nx \\h\ the slip^ ate lack- 
iiiLT. and deseribc the substituted method adopted 

-tini: tin- ability of the iiuiui^raiit. 

That the provisions of the a<-t <>f March 
::. l s '.i;!. to facilitate tin- enforeeinent of the immi- 
L'rati'.n and contract-labor laws, shall apply to the 
persona mentioned in section 1 of this act. 

That it shall hereafter be unlawful for 
any male alien who has not in piod faith made Ins 
declaration before the proper court of his intention 

to become a dtisen of the ilnited 8( em- 

ployee! on any public w..rk- "f the I'liited Stale-, 
.larly or habitually into the I'nited 
Slates by land or water for the purp-> .,f ru- 
in any mechanical trade or manual labor for I 
or -alary, returning from time to time to a I : 
count ry. 

That it shall l)e unlawful for an\ 
son, partnership, company, or c<.rp. .ration kii"W- 
inirly toomploy any alien 'coming into the I'nited 
Slate- in riolation of the next preceding section of 
thi* act : /Vor/Wr//. That the j 
shall not apply to the employment of sailor-, deck 
hands, or other employees of vessel-, or ia 
train hands, such as conductors, enjjin- 
men, firemen. 01 Mien, who-e duties refjuire 

them to pass over tin- frontier to reach the termini 
of their runs, or to boatmen or guides <>n the lakes 
and rivers on the northern border <>f the I'nited 

>i-. 0. That any violation of t!i M "f 

sections 4 and 5 of i his ad by any alien or cm/, n 
shall be deemed ft mi-demeanor, punishable by a 
line not exceeding $000 or DJ imprisonment fur the 
term of n- .or by both -m-h fine 

and imprisonment, in the disitetion of the court : 
That all persons convicted of a violation 
of section 4 of this act shall be deported to the 
country w hen. > t hey came. 

Thai notwithstanding the pr'\i-inn- of 

this or any other \i-tinu r law. tlie - I'lhe 

irv may permit alien- \ enter thi- country 

f Or the pOTpOSe of teaching new arts or indu-irics 

under -uch rule- and regulations as he may provide. 

That thi- act shall not apply to p> 
arriving in the 1'nitcd State- from any port or 
place in the island of Cuba, during the continuance 
of the present di-orders there, who have heretofore 
nhabitants r.f that island. 
-. 9. That this act shall take effect July 1, 




(iHMMMUTIO*.) 

March 8 the Presi . x> f K*p- far a* this condition now 

r-~-nUtiN. - n,. f- ; 

': k^l^a lij i n il n MJWJ tK. ^ gM f^ n If aft 

1 hrrr* approval l!ou bill pn * fa--i..r. 

'uend tbe MB- of srtUed and whoieaoa* 

tuMUltf to thr ,-U-- 

!"1 fr..in admission to the 
11 nervous pbyt 

> language or some 
hiiu'u.i-. . bsjl a nerson i ' .. . . 

>ear of ag r an<i i ihr i 



171 



piui. i 

MMUIttttr* |U 




jwri-iii or ){nind|iarv 
join the family of n < hi!*! or i*ratid* 

,li- 
. ali> I n w t Ml 

i - .1, UM rasbMd sj I'.ir- !.; ri I 



idiral drpurturr fnun ur national 
here presented 
.11 who came t- 
hate wbna* moral or 

it.-iHti .(anger to our n- 
i rr ami mif 

fultii-s of ..ur people to prevent injurv t 
nl niul MH 

com in if from foreign \\ it h 

Oft aim join in the Uovolopioeiit of our va*t domain. 

ru a share in the bleaing> 
can riti/'ii-hi|'. 

jiru't-ly di 
the awimilntioii an-l tlinft of innii.ii> <>f - 

-t* the sucoeM 

.- nnl ft-. !.K|J. 

Iiii^' I ho |N-I|. fn.ui 

iimimnts , i.:^ j.|.\s| ( a l ami moral soundneas 
aiul a vttOllfMH nn<l at'ilily (4. 
thr |TM : 

cjr can not fail to amim a sentiment in it- >: frni*, 

n-iranlctl a- nn 

j>- 

hoiihl M- 
hould 



MI l that if it I- to I., uj>- 

f 

ly a|.|mvm an<i ndopf 

.M an. I Hilri|iiif N ami 

tod against in!i-ilt or oppreesive a 

I* not < -laimrtl. I l !i.-\.-. thai th>- titur has 

for the further i of I--HM 

. that an exraw of |iopulalion o \cn-mwds 

n- IMIH- t . 

ur vi 
ti are now 

> Mid that i our 

vroushr Y ami 

population. i ly a iliA>lan- 

It t-an not U- . that it .. 

nun. tit ; i 

appear that thit ron.htion hm> it r\i-tii drtnands 
>e revcrval of our present immigra- 

n is aim made that the influx of foreign 
laU'r 00 of the opportunit] tht 

bar entitled than t privilege 

of earning tli.-ir livrlihoMl by <lail\ til. An un- 
fort ii ainlr presented when any 

vho are willing to laU-r .-m> uMBipsoyvd. r. .: - 



tap. 
nil OO 



..-... 

ropoard by the bill 



to 
by 



of a fort 




or railroad 



' 

. - . - 

ii..kr I,-.. hMM - vAali i. 



;hle a 
I and 

other language 
shall tie aiiplied by recrairflM 

than 20 nor in 

Mates in aom 
.rant I..1 

turned to thr 

i,. mm n it . . > 

company - 

The best reason thai coold be giwo for Ibis rad- 
icai restrictioi. n i. the 

protecting our population against 
saving our national peace and quiet 
turl.ulrm*randd^>: 

wooM be protected 
tnmigralion to Utas* 

an n-ad and w'ntr in an> Unguagv S5 words 

of our < 'oiititiitioii. In my opinion It is 

more safe to n-l.mt a hundred thousand 

who. though unable to read and write. 

us only a home and opportunity to work. 

admit i.m ..f th.e unrulv agitators and rassiiss of 

nmi-ntal ronin>l. who can not on) v read and 

,-ht in amusing by InismsMlory 

Speech the illiterate ai d |ieacefnllv inclined to dls 

nt and tumult. V lolence and disorder do aot 

originate with illiterate laborers. They are rather 

lucatr*! acitalor. The ability 

., I and write, m miuired in ibis Ull. in and of 

afTorda, in my opinion, m misleading test of 

try and supplies unsatisfactory en- 




sion of I be benefits of our institatiosMi 

II. uiar r!rin.-iil .-f ,-ur iliit.rmtr 
wld be dealt with 





d to rid tbal part of the 



: - . , .' ....-- ' " 

oos hanUhip appears to me to be indefinite and 



A |*rrnt, grandpar 
<|tial|fled itintn k -nini. thoog" 
wnte. may accompany the 



lions to the general rale of 

the hill wrre made t 

families and yei ndtber brotbers nor 

In order that relati**- ho are 
Tided for may be reunited, tbose still in 




ITS 



CONGRESS. (IMMIGRATION POSTAL MATTERS.) 



land* most be sent for to join the immigrant here. 
What fonnalitv is necessary to constitute this pn- 
requisite, and bow are th. < lationship and 

that the rvlative i *. astabUshad f Are 

the illiterate relatives of n. who have 

come here under prior law* mtitlM to ih.-adtan- 
tajp of these exceptions! A husband who can read 
and write and who determines to abandon his 
illiterate wife abroad will find hen- under th 
an absolutely safe retreat. The illiterate relatives 
mrniiooed mu* h im- 

migrant roost be capable of supporting them when 
they arrive. Thb requirement proceeds upon the 
assumption that the foreign relatives coming here 
arr in every case by reason of i*. \crty liable to be- 
am* a public charge unless the immigrant 
pabU of their support. Theoontrai ften 

true. And yel, if unable to read ami write, tbovgfa 

al.le and willing to support themselves and 
their relatives here besides, they con 1.1 not be ad- 
mitted under the provisions of 'this bill if the im- 
migrant wa* iin|xvrrished, though the aid of his 
fortunate but illiterate n ' be the means 

of aving him from pauperism. 

The fourth suction nf this bill provides "that it 

nhall be unlawful for any male alien who has not 

in good faith made his declaration before the proper 

n to become a citi/.en of the 

1 States to be employed on any public works 

irly or ha- 
bitually into the I'nited States by land or water for 
the purpose of engaging in any mechanical trade 
or manual labor for wages or salary, returning from 
time to time to a foreign country." The fifth 
tiiiii that it shall be' unlawful for any 

person, partnership, company, or corporation kn<>w- 
nploy any alien coming into the I'nited 
Stales in violation of the next preceding section of 
thi* act." 

The prohibition against the employment of aliens 
u|wn any public works of the United States is in 
line with other legislation of a like character. It is 

a different thing, however, to declare it a 
crime for an al - regularly and habitually 

into the I'niteil States for the purpose of obtaining 
work from private parties, if such alien returns 
from time to tim- to a foreign country, and to con- 
iy employment of such alien a criminal 



Wh sider these provisions of the bill in 

connection with our long northern frontier and the 
boundaries of oar States an<l Territories, often l>ut 
an imaginary line separating them from the I'.ritish 
-.and recall the friendly intercourse be- 
tween the people who are neighbors on either 

i aliening them must be 
regarded as illiberal, narrow, and un-American. 

The residents of these States and Territories have 
separate and especial interests which in many cases 
make an interchange of labor between their | 
and I heir. \>n mo^t important, frequently 

with the advantage largely in favor of onr eir 
This sajmts the in. i '. dernl intcrfer- 

with these conditions wlien not neres^rv to 
correction of a *ub*tantial evil affecting the 
welfare. Surh unfriendly legislation as is 
could hardly fail to provoke retaliatory 
to the injury .f manv .,f .-ur citizens who 
id emplouneM on adjoining foreign M.il. 
uncertainty of construction to which the 
revisions is subject is a serious 
objection to a statute which describes a on . \n 
important element in the offense sought tolM-rreated 
by these sections is the coming " regularly or habit- 
ually into the I'nited State*." The*- "words are 
impossible of definite and certain oonMn, 
The same may be said of the equally important 




Tl, 



words, "returning from time t.. time to a foreign 
A can-fill examination of this MH has <-on\ b 

i: for the reason- j;i\en and others not 
.y >tateil, its pro\ixj,,n> arc unncc -->aril v 
. ami that il> dcfcct> in 

traotfam WOttld cause vexation, and it> operation 

\\.-uid r. Mill in harm to our cit i 

GROVEB CLEVKI \ i 
KxirtTiv HANSION, March t, 1897. 

I) It. the House reconsidered the measure Mild 

passed it o\rr the pre-idential vi-t.. U a v..ti- ..f in:. 
yeas to 87 nays: but in the Senate t fie siil.jcct was 
im-rely referred to the rommiMi-e on Immi^ratiitn. 

I'oxtal Matters. 

viding for limited indemnity for 1.-- of n-i-t.red 
mail matter was called up in the lloii-. 
fllows: 

. That Md '.!;. 

- ' .tt ut cs be amended so u- 

.itn- srciirity of valnalile 

mail matter the I'o>r neral may e>tallish 

a uniform -\>tcm <.f r. -i-trati.n. ai rt of 

such system' he may provide rules under which t he 
sender fir-t-cla-- d matter 

shall le indemnified for l>ses thereof in the mails, 
the indemnity to he paid out (.f the j 
but in no case to exceed $10 for any one 
pieec. or the actual value thereof when that is less 
than $10, and for which no other compensation or 
reimbursement to the lo-er lia> been made: /'///////. 
That the Post Office Department or its i, \, nu.x 
shall not be liable for the loss of any other mail 
matter on account of its having been registered." 

In Mipport of the measure the arirumeni of the 
i-ter-General for such a policy was n ad : 

" In the report of last year, submitted by my j : 
cessor, attention was called to the expediency of a 
law authorixing the payment of an indemnity, not 
exceeding $10 in any case, for losses of regist 
matter in the mail-. 

" I beg leave to renew this recommendation. It 
is part of the system of registration in most of the 
leadim: countries of the world, and would add t-.the 
tiopularity of our own system if adopted. It s. 
I, but equitable that after matter has : 
put into the mails, at an iner- ordi- 

nary matter, and with a special \iew to it< s,., -urity. 
the Government should, to a limited extent at li 
guarantee its safety. In addition to this. I am of 
the opinion that such a modification of the s\-tem 
would prove so popular that in a short time nearly 
all valuable matter to be sent through the mails 

Would red. so that but few 1OS8C8 Would 

be likely to occur, and these could be much more 

satisfactorily investigated and located than is the 

case when losses occur in the ordinary mails. The 
saving to the Government in the h n of 

such losses would probably more than r- : 
the amount expended for indemnity. 

"This is a matter that will noooubl be br<>i. 
before the Postal I'liion Congress, which is to ; 
in this city in 1K>? ; but before that time a law 
should be enacted niithori/.ing the introduction of 
this reform into our dome-tic postal system. 

Ml two hundred and eighty com- 
plaints pertaining to the registered mail wer 
reived during the year. of this number 'J.~lo 
alleged the rifling of abstraction of the contents of 
the letters or packages, and 2.:{02 announced the 
entire loss of the letter or package and contents. 
Only 10 complaints of carelessness by postal em- 
ployees were received. 

44 A comparison of the office records for the last 
two fiscal years shows that the total number of com- 
plaints affecting the registered mail during the fiscal 



KE8& (Pbarai. MATT***,) 






year IMS was less by 446 than the total number of 
complaint* of the same character received during 

,rly II percent, h 



losse tfistered mail . 

was 485 U- than ti.~ 
mined during the previous year, or a decree*- 


department -I,..* that the employees of the postal 

MTU,, ba. .- v. . ! j mj*\ 

ihr lat fUa: 
.considered. !,. of l ( 4eca ' 

he numlier of pieces of mail maitrr 

diirn 





, , . . -. : -, 



or free. ThU hn a f 

:il an. I the IMttlU 



gradually lottefl -ur regiat 

arestillmainu 

run. h ..f ii,, iwetaf service 
express oompanies throughout the o 
pi,.r,,nt.-.. ItSamniti ... oa ..f IOB, 
absorbing all this class of business, i 



Wtoae* Pi . . 

n,.-h..,,r> whi. h 

da. 

country, v 

gradually 
which w.. 

by the Post Offlce Department, and to 
those who have looked : -cents. 

clear that >. as arrived when we ought 

-le some such system as is here proposed, 
whereby the people may have a guarat 
safety of such matter as they confide to the charge 
department, or mune measure of . 

f,-,- f,, r rrx'i-trnti.'ii f-r |.a.-kn^- MIP! l.-!t. PS, * . - : . 
nn-i the registration depar n.- of the most 

|.r..iital.|.- onin.hr> of th,- service F-.r several 
Tears past Postmasters-General have called the at- 
he necessity of pro> 
r losses incur- 
persons who send regi*t> r thr. u- 

-ar 1809 (and the amount of !-> opon paek- 

ages is beinu' c.. t itMitmlly r.-.lu.-.-.l. it u 

'Government Dot m<>n- than f^A.OOO had 
wepaiil$i v package that was lost. 

he Post Offlce Department is becoming more 
xins day by day more car. f ul 
in th * business; ami, as I have re- 

marked, the number of lost packages is increasing 
ly year. We therefore have no ri^K 1 
:ll ii.rn-a^-. Hut w 

pirtm. n: mir nx'i^t nit i.-n will iix-rt-ane to the extent 
not merely of |35.000 a year, but $30.000 or 
000 a year !u* amount at least one half 

be clear profit to tl 
tneasure pasmd the House without 
opposition, and wan taken up ami p>rl l*y the 
Senate, Feb. 21 ivWoo, It was 

-H in t.-wi. 
lagas, nn.loth.-r iiln.-.- wl 

follows: 

narlfj. fir.. That wJ lr* than 

90 persons who rw mail matter through 

the same post offlce shall petition the |nMtmatrr at 

to appoint one or more letter carriers 

>hall be at least sixteen yean of agr. for the 

re and other mail matter therefrom 



the 



purt 

Sttitabla Daaiber of letter aan^aM ftv iKi 
aad H aball ba t^ir Arty to > m>an at teast^sWa' 

bsr of piaaas delivtred asXsoUseted by tWaiaZl 

8wc.lTbat at all places wb. 

i 

. 

thi a- 

,,ne.,f tU . 

llTi. or from 









y 

..... 
' 



laakar, an Investigation of the registraiioo an 
the post oflke will show that we are e<* 



or convey to Ik* post osV : /^rtWW.That UM mm 
V^-J ..... -htailWJlDr 

. 




request shall raftatt or naghit to 
agreed upon or filed b th act 
or collection of any mail maiur. 



urMer.That if any 

(ucat snail refwat or 

iay the an 

fof the <|. 

t he *ame may he returned by the oarriar to tbe post 
offlce, and thereafter the carrier aball wot be re- 

..-. i ... r r ' . . ' 

such person* Kacb person so appointed abau arive 
t., the postmaster for the faithful 
lnalsumof$100. 
letter carriers appointed bv an- 
t hall U- M>- 



visions of existing laws not 






pro. 



<>f IM measure 

mm) 



said in 



: .-. 



port offlce. You take it in cold weather. 

when there is snow on the ground, or in aaraat 

and the fanner can til afford to spare thaw 

two hoars, or one hour, as the easa may ba. to go 

t.. the post offlce for bis letter*. |insaflilj nine tfaaaa 

f ten returning without anything, and ret bis 

valua 

im<rlf. who ahall be apcxxnl~i by the posi- 
rrve the villages and towns in which ibe 
osV h . eawai m .- ItaAi ' t&Wwflsj 
moriMwapaparsaajd deliver tbrm to the 



i:;:. 



lrties to 
larefor the rat- 
n t he carrier and the people 
K* to have a Ic 
would charge the same price or whatever may be 

....; i , . , ' .- ........ 

.to o|wrattoD. i'ur income from tbe variowa 

he first street-lasip 

boxes that were put up in 1^>. It was said wbea 
Iheav boieswerr put up that tl involved a cost that 

: that it wa* great 

charge upon tbe (torertimcnt. But I know frnoi my 
..w,,, M .n.i,. :n th, N- flat.: : M I 

less than six months after theee latter boxas bad 
t^een placed upon the street corner*, giving tbe peo- 
pie an opportunity to mail their letter* 
or at any moment, instead of going one mile or two 
miles to tbe post offlce to mail tbe sasat,* was 



174 



' MTERS.) 



pUinlv shown that the receipt* doubled. . r nearly 
soTand the lett ; artm.nt 

aoootirl paving for iuelf. 

want* whether in fiUsfN or rural 
matt. will 







thervceif .rtmmt by giv- 

lopto facilities, if you please, to mail and re- 
c*Tve their inning a home car. If 

:n it once an hour you will n- v t he 

f pasjmgem that you would get if ton run 
it ,.nor in half an hour. If you can run it oi 
half an hour, and yon change to once in ten mm- 

ild in the 
I I.- will not w 

. i, ..,-.,- their 

I to mail tii- rdingto 

ics) given the m n-av will come. It is 

mn to QQSJU. There is no loss incurred at all by 

the Government. S> long a-* the people want their 

letters cart in this way. let the farming commu- 

*- the tillage* ami t : ....than 10,000 

inhabitant* i. 9] pa\ing for it 

as agreed upon. It is the old penny-; 

thing new aliout it. "That 

penny-port system grew up into free delivery by 
and by, as you gave the p, ..pie an opportunity to 
receive and mail their letters in the way convenient 
to themselves and without loss of time.' Why with- 
hold .ego from the i ng as they 
are willing to pay for it. where it docs not ootl the 
ernment one cent f" 

-sissippi, s 

. *. Mr. Speaker, the proposed bill the 1 
lation it weeks to enact is nothing but the develop- 
ment into law of a system which already \i-t- in a 
part <>f this count T e. d'own in my 

own h--i ippi. there is a 

jK-ople there are several of them, 
but I have in mind one community who annually 
postmaster to deliver their mail to a cer- 
tain person selected by them to receive and deliver 
it. The carrier gets "the mail from the post office 
and deposits it in boxes in front of the various plan- 
. tat ions on his route, and takes from the boxes such 
mail matter as has been deposited by the planters. 
or the renter* of the land, and carries it to the p..-t 
office. So the common sense of a community in 
this country has already developed a scheme exact- 
ly that which the gentleman from Connecticut de- 
sires to put into the shape of law upon our statute 
books. And. 1n order In avoid the objection of un- 
doe expense, his bill i.n.vides that these carriers shall 
be paid by the paOpH whoso mail they deliver. 

_'. that the 

mat cities of this country should have then 
delivery of mail matter, while the jn-ople living in 
more sparsely settled communities can not 
such an advantage. Hut I recognize at the ,;,me 
Una the ' the free delivery of lett 

sparsely settled localities would bring ab'.ut an a* 
pfOditurcto the (iovcriimont far U-yond a due pro- 
portion of the number of letters or mail matter de- 
livered.and all that: and each of us has practical! v 
surrendered to the idea that all of the great cities 

^UtCf SOOUld hfive this freede 

and that the citizen of the Tmted states living in 
Philadelphia, for instance, should have favors *! 
him by the Government which a citizen living in 

rural district of Kansas does not hate 
whi ^h -an not U- thnwn to him. I understand that 
the argument i* alwav* ma-: that, 

that the mail of Philadelphia, for example, j 
own wav; but that ie, because for every 

letter their send out from Philadelphia a letter is 
received there from some more sparsely settled sec- 
tion of the country." 



The Senate passed the mea-niv 1Y1>. -jri. HDT. but 
then rd of its appro val by the President. 

Much greater niieivM \\.-is >hown in what is called 

the Loud lull " to amend the postal law s ivlat in;: t o 

..i-dav mail matter." It \\a- taken up in the 

1 . debated <>n various oct .1 

with . : pa.s-cd -Ian.!'.. 1MI7. in the fol- 

lowing f'Tin : 

.. Thai mailablc matter of the 

second class shall embrace all IM-U -|,;ip.-r- ; ,nd 
other .1 |iublication> which are i--ued at 

stated intervals and as fre<|uently a> four t, 
thin the conditions named n 
: tiiis act : thing 

-.contained shall he so construed as to admit 
to the second-class rate publication-, purporti! 
be issued periodically an>: nit which 

are merely book-, or reprints of bo.,k-. w hether they 
be issued complete or in part-, whether they be 
bound or unbound, whether they he sold by "sub- 
script ion or otherwise, or whether they purport i 
be premiums or supplements r | 

That publicatii-ns of the MO 1 <-la- 

M proviilcd in section 'J."i ( ,f the aet o| Ma 1 

when sent by the publisher thereof, and from 
the office of pubficatioii. excluding sample 
or when -ent from a news agency to actual siib- 
-ciiber- thereto, or toother news air'-nt-. shall le 
entitled to tran-mis-ion t hroiigh the mails at I cent 
a pound or fraction thereof, such postage to I" 
paid as now provided by law: /'/-, ////,- 

?, That news agents shall not 1x3 allowed to 
return to news agents or publisher- at the pound 
rate unsold periodical publications, but shall pay 
postage on tne same at the rate of 1 cent for 4 

>i. ::. That all periodical publications regularly 
i from a known place of publication at state.) 
intervals as frequently as four times a ;> 
under the auspices of benevolent or fraternal 
ties, trades unions, or orders organi/ed und- 
lodge system, and having a bona fnl< membership 
of not less than 1,000 persons, shall be entitled to 
the privilege of second-class mail matter: I'mr, <!,<!, 
That such matter shall be originated and published 
to further the objects and purposes of such s- 
or order. 

"SEC. 4. That the conditions upon which n publi- 
cation shall be admitted to the second class.. 
follow- : 

"1. It must regularly be issued at stated inter- 
vals as frequently as foiir times a year, bear a 
of issue, and be numbered oooaecvtn 

It must be i ued from a k now n oilicc of publi- 
cation, which shall l>c, shown bv the publication 

itself 

It must be formed of printed pat 
without board, cloth, leather, or other substantial 
binding, such as distinguish printed books for pres- 
ion from periodical publicati 

It HUM be originated and published for tin- 
dissemination of information of a public chai 
or devoted to literature, the scicnc. 
special industry, and inu-t have a legitimate li-t of 
subscribers who voluntarily order and pay for the 
same: I'rnml,,!. That nothing herein contained 
shall be so const rued a- toadmit to tin- -econd-da-s 
rate regular publications, or any particular i<-ue of 
any regular publication, designed primaril 
advertising purposes, or for free circulation, or for 
circulation at nominal rat.-: A,,, I That 

all extra numbers of second -r -lass publicatiot 
by the publishers thereof, acting as the agent of an 
advertiser or nurcha-er. to address e- furnished by 
the latter, shall be subject to pay postage at the, 
rate of 1 cent for every 4 ounces or fraction there- 



:E*t 






I nd proridtd fuHkrr. That it hall not I* per- 
miasiblu to mail any given artn-1.- ur arti. !. . ..r any 
| -art < paper or 

lotlM*vCsu| 

.1 -hall I ' the 

-i.-h mail n, a- 

flee, tO Sr|*rv 

ralma* .! 

i-. mail Battar approved July 15, lHN.ba, 

ih.- -.in..- h h. f by, r, pat! i 

< fT.. t at... 

.urn.. in. many gvntletnen here may a* 

whose 

postal system saw the gross abu*r that had 
.wsof 1879 and 1885 an 
tigress in 1887. an t 

, Oongreej ,., ... .,', ,-r: .in EMI to ifa S 



. . 



' - 



ad even to-day they are not 
<, Ui in their pc 

I-. . Afi'l f. . - A. : 

'. r all admit that 'this e**ntry to i.-day in a* 

d. 



Ml III ll.it. 

Pr*aid m 

ronU handling 

law n r. 1 hope 

- w liilo I mui a few words 

n i In- n, a: t.- rraivful al- 



ti. 



'ho report 1 

tor the i 
H wantc 

ig impairim-iit <>f t 

nt and of careful 
that Conim^*, .,,1,1 ,-,,, I the bill 
-hould have taken 

-me th.- 

: through w In- h tin-, inroad on the 
ice has U m .-fT.-.-t. .1. an.l t.. .-\. hid.- fn.m th, 

-rial libraries and other 

lie law. e^ 

r loose phraseology. 
-1 i.|-.ii those who proOt at 

Ihrollgb thr r. 

annul). I am satisfied that if the present 

Postmaster .1*1 ati'.th, r \-ar to serve ha 

. tin- puriv^' M-t f'-rth in 

annual r< 

that it wa^ r\'-r int. n-l.-.l l.'v ConglUSS 

H should |MI* thnuich th.- in.. 
i rate*, a 

d conflnetl to them 

eral at th.. ^a* hold "that a 

book issued numbers wa? entitle*! 

carried at <irmnd-rla.M ra: he rather loose, 

phraseology of the law. With all duo r.--; 
thf '. . ntloman and to his honest v 

am! infopritv. I think he em-il. because in the ad- 
: these so-called serials throughout 



w may not all agnw a* to the remedy fc the rare 

; , 

^ 

the aoajMry from a 4a 
f * i" (M)00 already riteung in tha ssrv- 

MMsi mm f I.M. ...... , .. M 

'. ..*' : I. '!- ft ;-:.... 

General Wanamakrr. aak0ov|sdge4l to be a good 
bwjtesss man. and who va* at thai limr 

H t.. k. ,- ./..', f >.. m t. f .. i ui. . 

- caw 
tUt thuiniquily-1 




t.. a,lmit. to m who deal with hMitniii oT 
as some people deal with 

Mr. Ix'ud went on lo sav thai Ihr 

- measure were simply U < 
issuud as serials and sampla copfas of 

chant:.-* mould r.- 1 1.-.- thr 




: and 

Illll,.! 



l i* not onlj important, it to 
not kai rcactiooaiT th 

'ill jn-v f..r tae fl 







".* will have taken a Mr,. lrkard in the 

,.i,.-d tl. n^ranl to the 

-t office. If thM bill MM*. 

^ and ni'ht* mill U- ithdran and 




and rights ao wklelr availed of that 

). tratlea 
lUhed, and conditions of production and barter 

.1 be frk al 

. \. ; \ ; .i". :... .- ' 

,1 t heborioeei of 

the|.r. 4 |.i.t 




ssjlinc tne product oi ine printing press, iruusis 
so, and anybody can see at a glance that it is so. 
no arcuim ir i* nervled to enforce tWasssrUosj that 

va ahotUd ba ana of osjt irn-urd r.i t. 
Miaded of cooipsQsaUnff rasalls lo tha 



such injunoas awl 

v. pretenses are made mith mhich lo 
this bill. The firt thai the mails are not 
used in a mar that the law did not intend or 



wad in a ar that the law did not ialeod or ea- 
tlr and thai U this bill we are timply pro. 
^aniwtabMML The srmd is tr 

MT to the public TrmMtnr the aval 



maliral 



the gentleman from 



Traasary U 

' 



bra 

enactment 




-,.::. I .! . - . . - 

in spile of the grievous injuries thai if* 
,., at must entail upon the industries and oo- 
cupalions to which I have just referred. But the 
farts in tha oasa oosjotusifulir pro** that the usss of 
... ..,....,.....,.-.- 
in full contemplation when tha law took its present 
shape, haw sines been repeatedly confirmed, and 
that the Affect of the bill upon the revenue ai> 
penditure of tha Post OfllcV DsMrtment is alto> 
ether problematical Indeed, f think that tha 
1 ssa before this debate i nmkiiiH that 
' s* of iwouas in first- ai ' 






; KSS. ( POSTAL M ATTERS.) 



dass postage will be quite as great as any possible 
wung by rea*. u-n ' the cost of 

; -.nation ami that the net effect of the 
bill will br t pr-lu-- di-st.-r t> print* 
publisher*. >>'-t< A 1< TV and j-a|"T mtiiiufaet 

ut matrrtallv affecting the financial condition 

1 

,of Mississippi, in support of the bill, 
- i dJseriminalion in favor of serial pul.li- 
atT of some of those pnbtt- 
II,. aJd: 

call attention now to dome Mat cm 
by Mr. Wanamaker upn Him subject. It is not 
.. i- ... . ,, . \\ B who bfj been 
tling to grt nd *>f this wrong, this Imposition 
the people of thin country, but also Post- 
Mtrncral Wanamaker and Postmaster < 
rml lluwU. All thrvt- of these postmasters-gen, r.l 
t**n calling attention to this evil and appeal- 
ins: to Congress to relieve the department of this 
wrong. I -nil it a wrong because I Ulicvc it is a 
.-.and I believe that if I hail time I could 
desAonstratr that it in a wr-n-. lb il ^h.v 

* rtU'Ut the carrying of thes' cheap 
books and the 1- riminati.. n that is made in their 

Kirst, The enjoyment of the privilege of low 
e by these paper-covered books works an in- 
^ to the publisher* of all other bo.,ks. 

lumticred thousands of books ar< i-- 
every year in this countrv bound in cloth, 
r. or some -I her Militant ial form of bindinir. 
Then are also many books publi-hed with paper 
covers, the publisher* of which make no pretense 
of issuing them as parts of a series or library of 
publication*, thej havii irness to 

them under their true name books. Now why 
should there be any discrimination against th.-'e 
books, either bound or unbound i Why should 
they be taxed, for carriage by mail, 1 cent for 
every t ounces, while those that come under what 
are called the serial class go through for a cent a 
pound f There are, indei instances of the 

same book precisely, issued with paper covers, but 
by different publishers, in the one case charged but 
a'ornt a pound and in the other eight times that 
amount. These distinctions are manifestly 
and unjtitt, and while they operate 
to one class of publishers they arc harmful to an- 



- 1 say so. too. Whr should then- IK- any di 

! And I want the man on this 



iscrim- 

ination against books 

floor who is able to give a satisfactory answer to 
that inquiry of Mr. Wanamaker to do so. Why 
should there be a postal rate of 8 cento a pound 



unon a 
charge 



a book with a cloth back while then 
e of oolr 1 cent a pound on these paper-cov- 
publications t Can any gentleman tell whyf 
(pause for an answer. If there is any reason for 
dlscrimm.r t},,. ,,t| M -r way. I before the 

man who u trying to accumulate a library for 
himself anJ hi* family -huld IN- encouraged, rather 
than tb follow who w dealing in this cheap p 
back litrrature which is poisoning the youth of the 
land to-lay. Mr. Wanamaker puts the question j n 
soch a way as to appeal to every man who opposes 
this bill to amwor .t. but no man has yet responded. 
Thcgrntleman from New York occupied the fl-.r 
for an hour and a half thin morning talking t., this 
commit tw. and he doubtless has read Mr. Wana- 
makrrs mentation .nmtion and ha- 

imprr^od with the injustice and the im^ualitv ,f 
the existing law. and be did not undertake to 



" Let me call attention now briefly to what Mr. 
Wanamaker said with reference to this class of 
literature: 



Th. r.- an- iniii.-. --f that class which 

every librarian who has .\ !<>r ihc r 

nanit] deplores the existence of. novels 

h dejiict. sometimes ill the lii"-t Deductive, 
>metiiiifs in tin- most repiil>i\e a-|.ed>. ihc de- 
and fall of woman noveN in which, where 
there is not B MdaotioO then- i> an adultery, and 
where tlu-n- is not an adultery there i- a seduction, 
and \ ..-ntl\ Hi. | MI. Now \\hat 

kind of literature is that to bring into don 
s.tobnput forth by the thousand, and 
tered all \er V'tir -ountry. t. the exclusi..n. 
least to the prejiKlice, of decent and elevating liter- 
ature f ' 

"What kind of literature is that to brim: into 

tiled- le b\ til. 

Mr. r.i!rt..n. ..f Ohio, said of the sample-! 

w 1 do not believe we will any of us . 
to the sample cop\.if restricted t" its prop, ; 
for which it was originally intended, namely, that 
of sending out conies of botia Ji<l> publican. 
that persons may pudge of their merit and di 
whether to subscribe or not. I'.ut I he trouble is ;i n 
abuse has i,M'own up from this system which can 
not IKJ separated from its legitimate use. One 
single periodical sends out monthly, under the 
sample-copy privilege. l.'J.")(.0(MI copies. It js n<it a 
newspaper.' It is a travc-ty to call it such. There 
are many similar sheets. It ap|ears from t he i 
of the Postniaster-dcneral that the increase during 
six years in newspapers entered for circulation at 
the DOSl oflice a> second-class matter v. 
but the actual number "f periodicals which durini: 
that time obtained standing in '!" newspaper t \\- 
rectory was :5.747. So. ax I'o>t maMcM i< n.Tal \'>\^- 
sell stated, only b" per cent, of those included un- 
der the designation of second-class matter 

mate newspaper publican 
" These i;o in mormons quantities. The\ 
cheap advertising medium. They an- sent indis- 
criminately over the country. Advertisers, n-ali/.- 
ing the fact that they go iii the mail almost for 
nothing, and are scattered far and wide, are will- 
ing to pay lari:e prices for the privilege of advert is- 
ing in their columns. An-1 riu'ht here I wish ; 
attention to the 1. -ailing argument made in favor of 
this sample-copy privilege. It is claimed that while 
these copies are carried at a loss to the i;o\vrn- 
ment, yet the Government makes up for the loss in 
way-. It is said that letters come to the pub- 
lisher of the sample Copy. He offers pH/cs. . \ \ ] 

of which stimulates the post-o|V;<-e business. T., 
that a sufVicient answer is. that there is just s n 
much money that the jn-ople of this country ha\e 
to spend. "Fliere is just so much business they can 
transact, and they will transact just as much biisj- 
ness, write just as many letters, and pay attention 
to a L i better lass of advertisements, if 

this business o f advert i- -tricted t.. I he 

legitimate newspaper and the ordinary way of do- 
ing business. Indeed, there will be an improve- 
ment, because with the greater responsibility and 

degree of care which must be exercised by the 
ard to matter in its col- 
umns, there will be a higher standard, and money 
will IK- invested iii a better way." 

The case against ti . was put most ef- 

\ by Mr. Tracey, of Missouri, who si id : 
" Mr. Chairman, it would b.- Immaterial wh" 
the business unless it should be done at an inci 

tO the people. Hut I submit if the ettect of 

this le-islation i> to transfer the business now done 
by the I'fst Office Depart merit to the express com- 
'. which, in the absence of the only competi- 
tion noible, increases the cost of transportation 
and handling to the people, the legislation is un- 



OOKOREB& (Prr A L M* 



rise and ought to - d*ftat-d. That >.: 
1 liave that -ffr< t .,,,.-. f 

,-,-, C l,l/.-.l 'V ". U,! :..:."- ' . . 

' ig be dor* 



irinaii, a 

...! I 



- - .- 

ii ctm. 01 carrying ihe .hif. r, . . lasss* 

nail*. ! 

-Ill- -II lakrll alfl thr AMMimp- 
MMle find* it- If ba*r| u|| A fal*r aMMJtti; 
. **nl fall. 

It 11111*1 ! ii|.|<tr.-i.t thai 1? 
,ii.| mm in- rtnrt-rlass mail mai 

<tn Ihe cart of carrying and han- 

hr handling of ine 

of mail matt, r kn..n * !ir>i 1 matter 

f M*|Mirale handling* 
im| MUM I- printed, d. 
M canceled. ' firt < U* mail 

UUSPS through frt>m Inrtv t .ark- 

t>. in aililili.'ti I., thai. Ih.- vu 

-I "Unit: la. mall 

rolmiilrnr 

> u.ail maltT. under 
ni a large amot, 

'lishem themselves. Tin- |uM 
ul -.1. k- for State*. < 

ti that . 
ffice l>.-|.iirtii . 

e erident. th-r<-f.-r--. that the . ..>t . f hnn- 
' at all t-tiial i 



n.. 



it ! alli-u'i-'l nnd tho 

:; law i based nj- n 

DQ to 

Jill of tt: - MMIgltfl I 

: the year ending June 80. 1M. there 
was an iiirmwe of 43.000.OiM' 
da** 

tdopted by the committee give tl 

.iinoiint of 

must 

h.- Mini found by multii 

Is by 84 cents per pound, wh: 
to have cost, or in the aggregate $8.655.000. 

Assistant Postmaster < MM, ml ,.f tho *ame year that 
expenses of the dc|rt- 

was but $1.777,882.22. an. I thnt inm-n- 
on-.l n.it ..nl\ the ort . f . am Ing th< ms - bul 

' 

'h an 

i tin- Nilnrio* ..f railway 
1 n|iiiMal ' 

f rar- 
inaiN |*T mile for thnt \ 

Is. At that rate, tho cost to tn* 
,.f tho Miurt havp 

.-iway fn.rn th. 

itiin- th.- ili-|>artiii< nt in tha 
(tul o'li'lu. t in^ the 
mail 

r mail- at 

of tho* fa a'rv in tho roj-Tl 

ami appnvttl by thrm. thai the 
> the t-nrr rlaae 

mat tor to which they objivi at the pound rate was 



TOL. XXXVII. 18 A 



n 

\ . :r the 



thr total 
farr 



-Now. if ine committee ean press nt ai 
MmMtratioa u> tbe Uoate i 



177 

- 



.' 

'!': ! ''- ' '; "..' 



It, 

M*ma\m*ft^^ A A A *>ja, 
1 -- 

I. bow mnell did it *rta 

to cstfTTlW4M00|^*W additional pdw3Tof 




" Thr . .' ' 

that I **-. -1 at ine 
(he 

-rt thrtti . trparate Ibrm. pot Ibem into sjrk* 
r v aloog tbe postal roatos. at no sipinsa 

(her than tbe 
t.. i. 



i points of destination. It dos* not n|ir a 
7 wise carrier to understand thai if br 

, ' , ' ' .- ;' 

. .. ......,,. 




I havr not time to say all 

is I. ill. It nrr 
ha\ii 

.. the disaimirielkt 






arr 

** remedied in Ibe adminbtralkm of tbe 

postal system, it is tmqoestiooably true that nder 

:..n of existing law* and rrgnmUons tbe 

.1 States leads tbe world in Ibe Drodnction of 

m ai.l priodkals of the bignsst grade 

and . 

- not conducted as char 
^ and b engaged in and 

ned. Tbe postage i* an item of i 
that t.. account as is any otnerfeamof 






-.-. 



Had this bill been in 






Ibe 

be country, a mirror of tbe workf* doing* 
np to ine boar of going in presa. would nave bean 

an in.l. M . i,t dnram.' If there war* no other ob 
hr bill, thb oughl to be snnVirnl 

a harder blow, if pomibK at ine 
ar a bard row 

.1 i h.- .-..ui.tr* newspapers are minUl 
inanykgismUonwbirli 
< hang* existing postal mw* and regvav 
Tbe right to send ot.1 .ample copinx in* 
free to a friend, tbe ngbl to 
np- withothrrpapenMberight to t untinnt a 

has expired. I be 

premium in Ibe snap* of a supplement 

r**> 

itk t*w. mat i.Lm J it J.IL wi rUT 
rrrmiT 



-. is rvrnlabed at 



t a my low 
and, speakin 



are ail r 



garded as valuable, and, swaking from penonal 
eiperienca. Ibev arr valuable. All 



oftkomcknni 

are je*>ir > bill, if they are not entirely 

is not * 
v that if this bill htcomai a 

.f 







ability for food. Tbe 



178 



CONGRESS. (POSTAL MATTERS.) 



of te-d*y. can-Tin* to the homes of the people 

me of excellent and varied in 
-ill m all probability U- reduced to th. 
veafctiea of a quarter of a century ago, in which 

. ,' ,.,!, . - .. : .: Rl <* 

the neighborhood, in which they were published. 



This would be a mlai 

I propose* to drive out .f the second class 
int.. the third oiaSS, ,.r .ml of th.- in., V, all 

book* or reprints of book*, whether tiny be issued 
complete or in parts, whether the/ be bound .-r un- 
bound, whether they be told by subscription ..r 
y purport to be premiums 
.menu or part* of regular newspap-rs; 
ecooiea of newsfiaf.eworperi^.eals: al 
copies of newspapers or eriodicals; all 

,11 



U free by the publisher; all unsold copies 
returned to news* companies or to the publishers. 

in addition to all tin*. U invests the 
Office Department with supn adopt 

avail rules and regulation- for the determination 

tinn affect mi; the right of a : 
or periodical to be carried in the mails as se 



matter as practically creates a press censor- 
ship: narrows the field now occupied by a large 
portion of the press of the country, and necessarily 
cripples its usefulness. All this is proposed in the 
interest of economy in the set 
which has been shown to be visionary and unsound. 
"Third-class matter costs the Government to 
handle more than double what it costs to handle 
second-claw matter. It covers printed n, 
other than periodical publications. In addition to 
the handling and furnishing and canceling of 
fUmps. the packages must be handled and sort. -d, 
both at the office of deposit and that of delivery. 
The mails are used as a rule only to send small 
packages, or to places remote from the railroads, 
and which are not reached by the express com pa- 
he express companies carry this class of mat- 
ter to practically all of their delivery points, under 
a uperial printed-matter' rate, at 2 cents per pa< k 
age less than the mail rate. The rate is advertised 
as 10 cents for each 1} pound or less, and for 
single packages exceeding U pound. 1 cent for 
each additional 2 ounces. The third-class mail 
rate for 1* pound is 13 cents, snd i i each 

additional 9 ounces printed- 

matter' rate was evidently adopt el by the express 
companies for the purpose of securing* the handling 
of all such matter as can be handled profi: 
leaving to the Government the handling of pa- -k- 
afees casting less than 10 cents per package, or !< 
lined to remote points not reached by the compa- 
nies. This becomes very apparent when it i-, 
remembered that ihe -pr.: r' rate was not 

the result of competition among the companies.. 
but was a 'pool* agreement among them. For the 
year ending June 90, 1804, the pieces of third-class 
matter carried bv the mails only amounted to about 
It per c*nL of the wh..|.. number of pieces of mail 
carried, and the percentage has not increased 
much, if any. since. Under the operation of tin's 
lull. h ;il I it Income a law. all of the matter trans- 
ferred from the second claw to th- third class 
which can be profitably handled will lie carried by 

-When the declaration of the chairman of the 
iuee thai -he does not care* foremen,! 
with th- *u'iufieant fact ti, H t the express 
companies are all for the bill. U it wbol IT unwar- 
rantable to inquire if the bill is not framed rather 
in the intern-* of the express companies than of t he- 
people f If the express companies contim. 
handle the profitable third-class matter, which they 
will do as long as they have a cheaper rate, how 



will the increase of third-class matter through the 
that class of matter now in the >.. ,md 

(lass decrease Hie deficit ill the revenues of the 

department f Sinee it mMs about as mu<-h to 

.ite a jKwtal car 10 i..n-...f mail a- it 

\\li.-n it Cai OS, ina-miirh as the .p-r- 

uses of the de|iariment 111 -u>ly 

usea by a decrease in the amount of mail 

handled, the i|iiestion of ||,,u this I. ill enacted into 

Law will enabu the P.^i Office Department i 
come solf aoataining becomes n jiroiilem uim-h will 
probably wait Eorasolntion uajtu it is demonstrated 

now one from 'J lea\ < 

The measure .\iili amendments in 

-nute by a majority of the eoinmittee i>n jM,-t 
tlld Mr. I'.ui ler. of South 
Carolina, presented a min<>rit\ ?-e|- .rt in >\ 

t|o||. 

The majority report said : 

i is bill was received in>m the EonseonJan, 

'1. The i-oiiiiniilee fi.iinil a widespread intei- 

e>t In the bill prevailing throughout the ooui 

on the one hand on the par! <>f tln>-e patrons of tl'ie 
mails s4-ndin>; second-class matter, wh" a|ipeared to 
di-ire to preserve the pn-M-ni >y>tein substantially 

\ists. and on the oilier haml on the j, 
those who wi>h alleged aluises to lie corn 
hoping that tl, in e\|,eii<lituiv il. 

elTeeted will enable the Post < Mliee Department, 
without too great an im-r. . .>nnual ilefieit in 

revenues, to give to the pulli- a 1-eent rate oi 
age on single le jiTe l-eneiits 

to the community not now attain. .'in^s 

were asked for on both sides and ^iven by th. 
mitlee mi the Kith. VNId. and :{nth days of .laniiaiy. 
A- time has parsed, it has seemed to the com- 
mittee that with the \\ide difference of opinion 
existing between the various interests and 
uiiioni: members of the committee as to the extent 
of existing abuses and the proper method of pro- 
viding remedies it will not be poible to Beam 
passage of the bill through the Senate a; th. 

ell! session. 

'"The committee, however, report the bill to the 
Senate, with certain amendments prepared I 
acting chairman, in order that it may be taken up 
for consideration, if time permit*, each nieiiil- 

>.T\ ini; opinion upon the amendments and the )>ill 

until they come up for con-ideraticui. 

"The committee aNo recommend that a t 
commission be created by legislation, as folio 

"That the que>ti'ns OOnceiming the correction 
of al!- M in the postal >ervice in connec- 

tion with second-class mail matter, the extension of 

;. 'livery to rural regions, the reduction of the 
cost of the rail road transportation of the mails, the 



in the Senate and House of the tn ;:ittees 

on Post Offices and Post Uoad*. the po-.ii:,.. 

'.il. and two citi/ens to be app.-il.Ied by the, 

i.'iit. \\ho shall make their report and recom- 
mendations for legislation to the next Congress; 
and for the services of .said civilian commis- 

\penscs of said commission the *.mi of 
$10.(N><> i- hereby appropriated, to be immediatelf 
available and to oe expended according to the di- 

n of the Postmaster-General; said commis- 
sion to expire on the :!Ut day of hecember. 1 

The minority report asserts the deficienci. 
the Po-t Office Department to be due to exorbi- 
tant rates paid for mail service : 

be attempt t. reform the mail service and re- 
duce expenses in the uianriiT proposed by \}t\^ bill, 
without any information from the department or 
otherwise as to what are the abuses, seems to the 



:K88. (rVwTAt 

undersigned as very inopportune, and is. at IseM, a 
n the dark, if there are no intemtrd | . 

It tttll U^r 

Homester-General, at 

tor sent through the mails occasions the deficit. 

liable to make any estima 
rytoir newspapers, and | 

' 







J~r* ai* Why do u th. 
uncwrnsd abutti the deficit in lU 



i, mi-, it will be uDsenfM 
-ularr matter |n- 
i. and as this goes in bulk th. 
an not be greatly in vice* 

uanr freight. The 
second H' la-** matter wi 
MDpOSc. i ' 
make the charge more than 1 

, h is largely in excess of r 
rate*. The enormous oust of $160 per too 
tying the ina.l-. it - , m to the umlersignetl. 
* be acrounte.l f., r by the eipense * 
he letter mails and business connected ith 
st-class mail matter. This amount is cer- 

r the express companies nor private mdivid- 
\j any such rale. 

r making an accurate 
our . has been 

various persons professing to be experts 
the extravagance of ll in dealing 

th th. 







irirht. Feb. t. 1*7. tfce Bew BMri 

bill amrttdlng the cufiyrMt Uw. wkirli iW rato 
- Bt it MaJCTsfe. Tkat asetioT^MI of tka Be- 



msadsd so as lo rsad as 



prrss such notirr. or word* of the SUM pn 
or upon any bock. Mm efcait, diMMtic or 




r%bt then ' - 

copyright, or shall knowingly isaee or M 

cle bearing a notice of i 

!<h K :I - not 
siiall in.|..rt 



or aril aat arti- 



fully prepared article on tin- -ubject, 

n. James I*. Cowle, the a ntral 

Freight ami 1'axvnp-r Post,' appear 

numU-rof tin- - roves 

the .let: ^d by the very 

exorbitant and unreasonable rates wlm h the Gov- 

ul now pays to railron. rying the 

mail*. The New York ' World.' among <( 

-hed a statement on Jan. 80, showing that 
. ig o.iild be made of 

supervision and conlracl with the rail- 
loads and the enormou* amount | leas- 
ing of cars, which could be largely saved \i 

'. its own cars. The saving 
. could be made in thi inspect alone is esti- 
mated by exnerts to amount to at least * 

undersigned U unable at 
U) go into detail* with reu'nrd to these 
matt. \amination, is thor- 

oughly mtificd that the defeciency in the mails re- 



any book, pootofr^cir 

Cra|.|... r Ifcsj .v -.... ' 

copyrighted in thb count ry.afaall be liabsttoapamv 
ialtT and one half to ta* aw 

.- . ' : ' ' ' 
ixMik iiiiri^an litK pgmiA c* 



ally 

!>hnl! sue for such psj 

: StAtc of any 

|.hot.. k -r|.h. ,,r tht-r ar- . 
v hen there is no 

hereb aul boriied to 



' " 



itea. it prohibited : and the eir- 

..:>..,-.:. , 

iinjiiin iln jsjiia^ fiwfla*iag_ 



.'.. . 

, 



nt charges paid the railroads 
nail cars. 

--ond. tho \.-ry ItU-rnl contrart* 

it nuiki- with 'If r.uir. .i.: r ( - rations 

ut paid per too 
-rmously and absunllv high. 

ii tho <;- 

and >;t|iooially with n-foreoce to the atnotn 
inatt.-r which the railnU profess to haul, and for 
> tho ( Jovrnuii.-iit i- charged. 

at tho present pontal drf 
to the transpoi 

mat! | ,-r pound are altogether mislead 

1 almost said intentionally aiiaiearthy 

iy , l.-.-ir fnnn the facts praMOted in 

* abort referred to that the postal deficit 

nt -a- pound postal rate paid to 

the Government by the people, but to the 8-cent-- 



f anyneison cosapiaintag of eact) vtosstMi : 
/VeiWse*. That, this act shall not apf4y to aay iav 

,'- '--... 

. >tates prior to the fanrajr aafeof 
Ssr. t. That all la an.l jrt* of .... inetm- 
sMrni uh the fuMDiaw provissom he. aejd the 
saiae are hereby. repeaWd/- 

tu , mM Jt |^ K- 

i ..i . . 

The Congress |* 

ment to the copyright kws, 
dulr approved : 

MelMl.ele.That sectiue Ml of the He- 
vised 8Hat.it.- U. and the saase is hrrby. 
so as to rrsd as follow. : 

^ 




to he aseessed el each 

f-rthv fmt at.d $-'-f reverj 
ance,as to the court shell 




oned for a period Bot exceeding one 3 
junction that may he granted upon 






L80 



CONGRESS. (CopvmioiiT 811.1.1x0 LIOUOR TO Iv 



notice to the defendant by any cm M he 

, a States, or by a judgr thereof, restraining and 
enjoining the performance or representation of any 
ufthdramalic or musical oomixmit ion may be served 

injunction may 



>_ _ 



be operative and may be enforced by 
punish for eont. by any 

ottit court or judgv in the l'n.t-1 states: but 
iJgflMiantf in Mid action, or any or eithci 



on the partis. 

be granted anywner* in the I'm ted States, ami 

bs0frnvcnd may U- , 

ir- 

the 
either of I hem. 

may make a motion in any oil.. 

ngagwd in informing or 

ing Mid dramatic or inimical <-om|oMti n to dissolve 
cr set aside the said injunction up .ison- 

able notice to tiw plaintiff as th- circuit court or 
ids* before whom said motion shall IK> made 
shall deem proper; service of said motion to be 
mail* on the plaintiff in person or on his attorneys 
in ihc art inn. t courts or judges th 

shall have jurisdiction to enforce said injunction 
ami to hear and determine a motion to dissolve 
the same, an hen- in provided, as fully as if the ac- 
tion were pending or brought inthecircuit in which 
amid motion i- n 

f the court, or judge minting the in- 
junction, shall, when required so to do by the 

r enl 

etiun. transmit without delay t<> said court a 
certified copy of all the papers on which the said in- 
junction was gran ted that are on file in hi- -: 1 
The reasons for this action are set forth in the 
in favor of the measure : 



The purpose of the proposed measure is twofold : 
Pint to secun ] compi wit ions the same 

metjture of protection under thr copyright law as is 
BOW afforded to productions of a strictly dramatic 
character. There can be no reason why the same 
protection chotiM not he extended to one species of 
lit.-r.iry property of this general character as to the 
other, and the omission to include nrotective j.n.vi- 
aions for moaical compositions in the law sought to 
be amended was doubtless the result of <>\.T-i-lit. 
The committee i* of the opinion that the existing 
law should be so amended as to provide adequate 
protect i- ; i t-> tl.ii species of literary t>roducti<>n. 

" The bill pro v ides, sect md Iv, for added means for 
the protection of authors of dramatic and opera t ic 

- In recent years the business of producing and 
staging plays and operas by American author? has 
largely increased, nnd in many instances have met 
with the very highest measure of success. Many of 
the best stage production- of modern times have 
been the work of American authors. 

-These productions in many instances have been 
carefully and elaborately placed upon the stage at 
verv heavy expense to proprietors and managers, 
and their representation baa given employment in 
various way* to thousands of people. 

- The existing law relative to copyrights has been 
found to be inadequate to properly protect aut h- T- 
and producer* of American plays and ..p.-ra- in the 
enjoyment of their rights of property in these dulv 

; . - : : . ' :,- 

'TOW in various sections of the country have, 
ut thf diadowof right or authority, pirated 
then work*, and. confining their operation- chiefly 
to the smaller and more remote towns, have R 
representation* of these stolen prod., their 

own individual profit, and without making an v 
pension whatever to author* or owners. Under 
existing condition* no adequate remedy exist* for 
thi- unlawful usurpation of property rights. 

" The offenders are almost uniformly men with- 
out attachable mean*, and defy all the ordinary 
proccSJSM by which thev might lie mulcted in dam- 
ages. The representation of these pirated produc- 



- is generally given for a night or t wo only at a 
given place, ami the offenders Hit from section to 
section and fn an<l l>i.| ddiancc to 

the processes of the court- seeking to restrain their 
unlawful acts. 

- embarra.- .\e arisen in the ef- 

these judicial orders and to punish 

olTell . c.f thelll. 

\\ hile it is true that an injunction order i>-ued 

by a court of eoiupetelit jurisdiction is o|n-ratl\e 
U'IMHI the conscience of the 1..V 



I poll 



where in the I'nited Slate-, it appears that an at- 
tachment for contempt of sudi order < an not 1 

cuted except ill tliecin-nit of the ei.lirt which 1 

the original order, and this dill seeks t 

tin- ditliculty. 

"The Mil farther provides that the j.iracy. the 
unlawful production of any duly copyrighted play 
oropera. if it he determined that such unlawful rep- 
resentation was willful and for profit, shall ! a nn- 
nior. and shall sulject t he offender, upon con- 
viction, to the liam'lilyof imprisonment t 
not exceeding one year. 

The reason for "t he enactment of this pro\i-ion 
has already IH-CH outlined. 

"The unauthori/.ed puldication of a copyrighted 
book may ordinarily be adequately punished thi 
civil proceedings aiid under the provisioi 
ing law. The otTender in such ca.se is a person of 
fixed domicile, and has a press and the implements 
of hi- luisine . -o that t he ordinary pn-re ,> ,,f the 
court may readily he -erved upon him. and h. 
becompeilsd t> n-pond in damages for hi- \v : 
doing. 

These conditions do not exist, as a rule, in the 
case of the professional play pn 

"It i- difficult to serve him with injunction and 
court orders because of his migratory haliit-. and as 
he is frequently without attachable mean- it i- im- 
possible to satisfy a money judgment au'am-t him. 

Testimony has Ix-ni adduci the com- 

mittee showing that the losses accru in L: to authors 
and owners of copy righted productions l.y the-e pi- 
racies amount to 'large sums each little 
protection is in fact afforded under existing condi- 
tions that many prominent American dramatic au- 
thors no longer L r o to the trouble and expense of 
taking out copyright- for their work-. 

(Weeding thai for lii;ht cau-e- nothing should 
be added to the jurisdict. : the l-'ed- 

eral courts, it would seem that the circumstaii 
connection with the wholesale piracy of the-e pro- 
ductions <if native authors demand that something 
more nearly akin to dra-tic measures should I 

\oked to remedy the evil." 

Selling Liquor to Indians. .Ian. 1*. !*'.:. the 

House took up and pa--ed the fo||-,wii,. 
to prohibit the sale of intoxicating drink- to In- 
dian-, providing penalties therefor, and for other 
purp- 

" lie it enact f<L -/r.. That any person who shall 
sell, give away, di-p 'i.-inge. or barter any 

malt, spirituous, or vinou- li.pior. including 
Je, MM wine, or any ardent or ot her intoxicating 
liquor <f any kind whatsoever, or any . 
tract, bitter-', preparation, compound, composition, 
or any article what-oevj-r. under any name, label, 
or lirand, which produces Intoxication, to any In- 
dian to whom allotment of land ha- li.-en made 
while the title to the same shall be he. Id in triM by 
'overninent. or t> any Indian a ward of the 
mnent under charge of any Indian superin- 
tendent or agent, or any Indiati.'including mixed 
bloods, over whom the Government, through its de- 
partment-, exercises guardianship, and any [ 
who shall introduce, i.r attempt to introduce, any 
malt, spirituous, or vinous liquor, including 1 ' r. 



RBB& (Ctaatart 



ale, and wine, or any ardent or intoxicating liqnor 
1 whatsoever .utnr. 

tOetMst 

a theoonaant of ihc 

lie*, -hall be punish 

it*, and h a .' 

I, th.in *!"" ' r ".. ! :.- .' . . 

fW for each offense thereafter: /toriaW >,-< 

'. -hall I- . ,.,1.1 

eVfense to an v ohafn of introducing, or ai 



in nt- 
"Wl day 



-flat ion a rl f-.rth in 
the rriNirt .f tln< Committee on lniuui Affair*, 

tatir it make* 

lawful to H,-ll. jjiire away. clinpoM* i.f ,-c, or 

hart.-r 'any ewenc. 

hat soever 

name, label, or brand wl, 
; M-roiid. tin- |uni-hm.-i/ 

-on- than two \.ar-. or l.y a ; 
not more thnn $300 for each offense ' i* enftttfi 
impn-onmrnt for : 

1 lea than *1" 
4 leas than $900 for <-m ! 

I to mil. ru-r an In- 

has been i 
shall be h- M MI tt 
*; AH Indian 'a ward of lh< 
ernm - n.i- 

M.-id-. ,,\,-r uhoin th- (iovornmcnt 

.U-,*rtin,-nt>. ,.x,-r.-,M-, |Oar.iiM>^) :; ' 

j li<|uor> on Indian 

M-h.-tn,- i..,-VHd.- th.- in.ii:in Bureau, tt,, aoth< ritt i 
and law. until thej have gone to the extreme of 
havit . ,<ler label* or brand* 

of eancM, extrn 

nth*r rticleii of diet, apo 



i containing pieklea. fruits. 
; repared for 

uithtl 



he riolatom under the prewnt law. which pro- 
vtdeathej' shall U ; 

not more than two yean, or by a floe of not more 
than $:tOO dollar* for each offenw/ are pleaard to 
iay the Mtmll Hue imponed by the court*, gain 
liU-rty. and r.-turn t.. th- reaenration to coir 

inuin piMu-litix-tit in !, - I-;'.! \ ' impri- 

:Teiwe. and 
>f $200 for m- 

.it.-* hare 

held that a sale of intoxicating Inju- n to an Indian 
lowborn an al land ha- U-*-n made doM 

not. und.-r tho exUting Mat u tea, constitute an of- 
f (').. " 
The meaanre vat strongly nrgfd by the Secretary 

.ind the Indian 
i Association. The Senate paawd it Jan. tt 

v. d l.y the PreaGent Feb. ft. 
iimerre and Nat (rat ion. The How pajatd 

unond tho laws relatin? to navigation; 
and ;.tl a MilMitute measu- 

. the House rv fused to concur. A 



ironed tnahOI in 

, : . 

"* *" mm ^ * 



of tke Ra- 
u> read 




UiQM 

D<4 ! than 1 
or ioor. .filial j.la^ 

I..IT,.I H,. r.. i, AMM 

Milirii; ,.^l Uilt ..r rrU.lt after JIM* M. 1ML 
hall ha%-r a |*,r ,f ,.. i l. M u.* 
and not ICM than 16 |uar fc 
deck or floor of that iave for 




: . 

and ca. ami. as far as 

'T 

bilge 

-hmg vessels, yachts, and pilot 
hereby exempted from the |*iirtoiuejs of section I 

pter 178 >f the la- of 1*0. entltl. 
to am.nd section 1 of chapter W* of the laws of 



I sea, and. as far as prarUmbfa. pmtrty snnt 
mucted from (be rfflutmm of cat|D or 

.-, , ,- 



18tt entitled A nmride for ded 

from the gross tonnage of veeatto of the 
Slate*," ' H, far a- *ud srv!i..i. j-n- nU. the am^,,t 
of s,, n rr whi.-h shall be appropriated totnecrew 
and protidMtnnl lapneai . i ..; CM b 

K i> r storm r - ' bnisj ' ; nml ;:-. ' 

I UM- .luring the roTage. 
id on and after June Ml 1898, every stcaav 
boat of t i Stales plving upon the Missis- 

sippi H tributaries -hall furnish an appro- 

priate place for the tre. w htch shall conform lo 

men! s of thto section so far as they 
be ap^icable thereto by ptovidliifaieepbiaMn 

tected from the oold, winds, and rain by menm 
suitable awnings or screens on either nVIr of 
guards or sides and forward, rearninff fra 
boiler deck to the lower or main dee*, under 

t ion and approval of the Soperrtoteff Inspector 
General of Steam Vessels* and shall be properly 
heated. Any failure lo comply * Into section 
hall subject the owner 



.3, That 
totea be, and to 



on a foreign roragv nr 
hall exhtl 
rrew to the flrvt 

nftad 
nrturn.aml 




.^ .hale flaWry 
copy of IW lirt of the 

arnir'.r. Ml 



dttlT It 

examine the men with mrh Itol ai 
ame to the o hall U> the datT of 

thr cx>llector at the port of arrival, where the mm* 
i* different from the port fro* which th* VHH! 
originally Miled. to transmit a oopr of tbe Itot to f+ 
portad toWmtothecoOaHoronneport from whHi 

._ ,_ II., __;i-j * -' - tmdmtm IA 

urn Trvvri orunnaiij MIMU. r ^acw w 



;-.... uq 



on ta* orrtined oopy oftka Itol 



, A.. .,; ^ . vx:. \ m.-vnovi 



of the crew the master and owner shall be severally 
liable to a penalty of $40Q, to be sued for, prose- 
i. and disposed of to such manner a penalties 
ami forfeitures which may be toured f--r offenses 
against the law* relati ng etionofdi 

: -mallies snail not be incurred 
master not producing to t! tiding 

1 in the list who 
,-n country 

. . Tice-oonsul. c..m- 

J agent, or vice commercial agent then' re- 
MMI*. certified in writing, under hi* hand ami of- 
flcial 1. to be prod* i to th.- coll,, t-.r with the 
otlwr persons composing the en*, nor.... account 
of anv such person dying or abscond in. 

"ly imprest int.. other *-M i< e, -f hidi satis- 
r proof shall also be exhibited t.. the col- 



vi MOT ini iv* producing .- 
ottear any of the persons contain- -1 m 
mm have been dinehargrd "' 
wit)i the mnwtil of the consul. \ic,-. 



-ic. 4. That sK-ti.-n -i:.i of the RevisadStat- 
utes be, and is herebv, amended l>y striking out the 
r the district.' m the sev- 
enth line of said section, and substituting in place 
thereof the words 'circuit court of the circuit ': 
and that said section be. and is hereby, further 
amended by striking out the words 'district judge/ 
where they occur in the eleventh and twelfth lines 
of said Btction, and substituting in place thereof 
the words 'circuit court/ 

That rule 11 of si-ction 4238 of the Re- 
Tised Statutes, relating to pilot boats, be amended 
by adding thereto a paragraph, as follows: 

-am pilot boats shall, in addition to the D 
head light and green and red side lights required 
for ocean steam Teasels, carry a red light hung ver- 
tically from 8 to 5 feet above the foremast hcad- 
the purpose of dist iiiLruishing such steam 
m ' ::. othar steam mala. 1 



pilot* 



,-.. That section 4542 of the Revised 
ute* be, and in herebv, amended by adding thereto 
the word* 'or where I'M- d, 

to. 7. That section 4545 of the Revised 
ntes be, and is hereby, amended to read as follows : 
uit court, in Eta discretion, m*y 
at any time direct the sale of the whole or any part 
of the effects of a deceased seaman or apprentice, 
which it has received or may h.-n-afi- 
and shall hold the proceeds of such sale as the 
want of deceased seamen are held. When no 
claim to the wage* or effects or proceeds of the sale 
of the effects of a deceased seaman or appr- 
received by a circuit court, is substantiated within 
six Tears after the receipt thereof by the court, it 
shall be in the absolute discretion <>f th.- court, if 
any subsequent claim is made, either to allow or n- 
fnae the same. Such courts shall, from time to 
pay any moneys arising from the unclaimed 
wages and effects of deceased seamen, which in 



opinion is not necessary to retain for the pur- 
pose of satisfying claims, into the Treasury of the 

1 States, and r. vs shall form a fund 

for. and be appropriated to. the relief of sick and 
disabled and destitute seamen belonging to the 

d State* mere hant-marine sen 
-SOC. & That chapter <7 of the laws of 1805, 
entitled * An Act to amend an act .-nt it led ' A 

>iend the law* relative to shipping cornmis- 
afoaerm" appr.. r.. IHUO/ is amended by 

ig thervfrorn the wonl 'H-venlh' in the 
eighteenth line, and inserting the words 'and four 
thousand six hundred and two* In tbe thirty-fourth 
line after the words *four thousand flv. 
and fifty-four/ 

c.9. That fee* for the entry direct f ro m a 

foreign port and for the clearance f,, r - 

of a vessel navigating the waters of the 

northern, northeastern, and northwestern frontiers 

of tbe United States otherwise than by sea, pre- 



\\ Kiel fi . i, undac existing ia\\>. 

iut- in whole or in part the rompm-al ion of 

[eetOf "f .-u-toms. Mich olliccr shall hereafter 

receive a li\--l MUM for c ci|u:tl to the 

amount \\hich he Would II.-IM- IMTII elltlll.il I 

ceive as fees for u<-h <-r\ i< 

'. That se<-tion 4165 of the i;.-\iM-d Stal- 

, i i- hen-liy. amended to i ,,,\v> : 

i.l |iur-uaiit to law. 

which by sale 1 i for- 

r. shall lie entitled to u new iv^'Mrr u|,,.u 
ward becoming American property, tin, 
has >" DC '!,.;!,_-,. in liiiild 

out>idc the Tinted States.' 

>n. 11. That section !:; ,.f chapter :MJ ..f the 
laws of 1874 be, and i> lieivl>y. amended to read as 
follows: 

9l . . i: 1 ,. That 1 .ry of th. 

may, upon application ti ,11 or mi: 

any penalty provided for in this act. <>r di^-ont nine 
prosecution to thfl same, upon such 

terms as he. in \>\^ discretion, shall think pi 
and shall have authority to ascertain the facts upon 
all such applications in w\\ manner and under 
such regulations a> he may think proper. All pen- 
alties herein provided mav lie sued for. prosecuted, 
rccovereil. an<l di^po.s.'d of in I he manner prc>crilx d 
: - ' U Msed Statutes.' 

-Si. . !.. That rule 1 I. rule ].'i (}, (b\(c\ rule UJ, 
and rule 17 of sectiofl J'. 1 ::-; of the I; itatM 

:id an- herel.y. amende. 1 to read as follow- : 

'Kule 14. The exhibition Of any lii;ht on lioard 
of a vessel of war of t he I'nited States m.-iy he sus- 
pended whenever, in the opinion of th* 
of the Navy, t he commander in chief of a squadron, 
or the commander of a vessel a-tinir singly, tin- 
special character of the service may require it. 
The exhibition of any li-ht on board of a revenue 
cutter of the United States may l.e susprnde.l 
whenever, in the opinion of the commander of the 
vessel, tin- sjiecial character of the service may re- 
quire it. 

"Kule l."i. Whenever there is a f"ir or thick 
weather, whether by day or iii.u'ht. fo;; signals shall 
lie used as follows': (n\ Steam vessels under \\ay 
shall sound a steam whistle placed before the fun- 
nel, not less than H feet from the deck, at intervals 
of not more than one minute. Steam verN, when 
towing, shall sound three blasts of quick 

ti intervals of not more than one minute. 
(//) Sail vessels under way shall sound a foi: horn at 
intervals of not more than one minute. 
vessels and sail vessels, when not under way. shall 
sound a bell at intervals of not more than two 
mini, 

Kill. 1C. Ki^k of collision can. when circum- 
s permit, \te ascertained by carefully watch- 
ing t!. hearing of an approaching W( 
If the bearing does not apprecial'. . -uch 
ri-k should be deemed to exist. 

Kule 17. When two sailing vessels are approach- 
ing one another so as to involve risk of collision. 
r them shall keep out of the way of the other 
as follows, namely : 

\ vessel which is runnini: free ^}\n\\ 
out of the way of a vessel which is closehauled. 

'-I A vessel which is doseliaiilcd on the port 
tack shall keep out of the way of a vessel which is 
closehauled on the starboard tack. 

0) When both are running free with the wind 
on different sides, the vessel which has the wind on 
the jM.rt >ile shall keep .,ut of the way of the other. 
'/i When both vessels are running free wit h 
the wind on the same side, the vessel which i- to 
the windward shall keep out of tiic way Of the 
sel which is to the leeward. 










-) A vessel which ha ihr wind aft .hall km 
.rrrbr. ainrndr<l bv ^Ming th. 



-Sir. ll. That Am.-lr VII f Miun ttllof the 
*l Mamie* be. and U brr* 







ibeingovsrtakeii buanl ai 

, -. r 







by another vessel during 

.nthewnik 
r Ihr own, r. . r 

fi 

or -i-im! 

I 



', 



. "- < ' - ' - ' 

. -....:..- ' !> ,..;. . .... . 

f any MfUel to keep a proper look- 

flhr h.-Kl. 



onlmary practice of i 



reign V*swl adm;H,d to Al 

laiiane**, and to dn- t the issue of the usual 

pipes, an- 1 appurtenanos* are or are not const r> 

> the lawn of th. . or 
Mhrthrr they are or are not cont 

stamped pursuant to said law*. The te*ts in the 

bjapal .. Q of . ; I. I. ... rv * ftfj :.;.-. U ! M ; .- 

.- -hall IN- the same in all rrspecta as to 

strength and safety as ar +ptc- 

<>n*trueted in t , * for 

PVpOBML 

.-. 15. That section 2H34 of the Revised Stat- 
\ and is h*f*br. amended l>> r. |>caling the 

I'he master of any vessel bound to >. 

ii-ut. through or l>y th.- ua\ 
-hall. l.-f.'rv ho passe* the por 
ttn.l immrdiah ! 

collector for thf di-f lam- 

feet of the cargo on board such vee>< 

v vessel MMDd to th,. di I'.urlingtnn 

*hall. I passes t! f I'hilad.-lphi.-t. 

iiiiu-diatrlv aft.-r his arrmil. d.-poMt wit 
collector thereof a like manifest ; and the col! 
>.hall. aft.-r registering the manifest, Iran-unit the 
same, duly <--rtili.'d to hare been so deposited, to 

tor \ith whom the entries are to be made; 

8674,8076,8084,8080 1884,8688, M97, 4188, n :i! 
-I-J-M. 4589, and -I.V.HI of thf EUrfead Btal ><- an 

r- ]- .1 . 1 

: That Action 2707 of the Revised - 
*, and i hereby, *fls*Bd*d l>y adding thereto 
tin* f. 

^a stores and the Ire f ves- 

to regular * -n f. r- 

ttes deU>fl in pn 

'ie may be transferred in such |ort of 

customs officer- vessel 

U- paid on urh Mores or equipments 

'i at Mx*tion 5847 be amended to read i 
v master or other officer f an 
ican vessel on the high seas or on any 

run the admiralty ami marilin 
f th- l"i >. without jutiflah|e 

cause, 

liable 

inflict* UIN.II them 

nd unu-ual puni*h 
;n.- f not inon> than $1.000. or by i-nprison- 

t morv than 11. 

\othinj; hon>in -hall be conrtn.- 

repeal or modify section 4611 of the Kcvbed 



'y regulations 
buanl and a* to finr. thort s 

vhkhnwj be ..*<: : . 
..---...' i-,. . 

nototherviseprovkUd fbrbyU* . .1 , , 

. 8a That this not shall Uk* effect July 
1891 
The Mil as it originallv pe*e! 

ii*n461l 
which wa. a lav ena 

the MIL 

or. as virtually a rwtoration of the praotkte of i*f- 
ging. A* a oonssqueocv. there wa* some harsh etttl- 
cism of the commit!** that reported the 

. - ' r M- v... i f N-brajfei 
-i.ld likr to have the ascClon of the 



rrad wl.i.-h applic* to 

nny of the flogjrnjc raum 

>. saidia aasw: - L 

American vessel on the high seat, or oa any other 
:n the admiralty and 
United State*, who, 






. and without tnstifiable cmnsr. beat*. 
'!>. or imprisons any or the crew of snch ve*> 
iiholds from them suitable food and noor- 
ihm.-nt. or inflicts upon them any cruel and un- 
usual puniidimmt. fthall be punished by a fine of 

than $1.000. or by imprf 
more than five years, or by both.* 

courts' held that those we 
hatred, or revenge ' imposed upon t 
the duty of proving not onlv that the beating was 
<it justifiable cause, but that it was from 
malice or hatred or for the purpose of Mfengi. 
mittee on Commerce believed that 
to be an unjust Umirn on the sailor, and therefore 
they simply strike out of this lav the words mal- 
ic*, hatred, or revenge* 



upon my unfortunate 
.-. 

uQBgjHi** OB American i 
Anybody could have believed that is bevond 
my t-om prehension. The man who did must have 
been a fool or insane : and yH I was blackguarded 
in one or t wo great papers of the country a* * that 
l.rutal ST. that man who had rwtored 

the merchant marine.* Yet everything 
hat brutal man ' had don* had been don* hy 
n Commerce, and ha* been done to 
mn HH mflan . f thai nuj to btlM 
Hied, if thev were beaten, to prove not only that 
it wa< without justifiable cau~, hut that it was 
from malice or hatred or revenge. 

never undertook todefeodmywlf in tb<- Tnited 
State* Senate, as I might have done, fmro those 
char. I defend mv*rlf IT, ngnai 

since I have been here. I reeanl^i 



- 



1 me no possible harm 
he tarn* considerati. 

nfen 
ntiontheeevords: 

Hut nothing herein contained 



that 
totals 



. . 



184 



CONGRESS. (COMMERCE AND NAVIOA i 



strued to repeal or modify section 4611 of the Re- 

Whieh those wise gentlemen never had read, 
r> was passed in 1850. and ni 
ginx on bt*rd of vessels of commerce 10 hereby 
::.-!: In order to relieve those wise men. 
we hare contented that an amendment *hall be 
added u. thU section that we .1.. n..t intend 
tore flogging in the merchant manm* by r. 
in* section 4611. I trust tlmt that will be entirely 
no inntit-r how craxy he 

A* to what mar be jiutiflaMe causes for ajsanlt- 

me 



a sailor the follow me -,.ll...|uy aroee: 

I should like lo kn..w from the 
Maine. who is familiar with these 
especial I r matters of eomm- i- . . \vhat cir- 
Mi u, . justify the assault of a sailor, 
-on shore or on a vessel!" 

Mr. President. there arc any 

quaii .it would justify if. 

If n sailor with a sheath knife cam.- at the captain. 
K ..uM lie his' duty to knock him down; if !.< 
was on duty at the wheel and umli -Honk t- 
away the ship, or run it on a rock, it would lc the 
duty of the captain to deprive him of the po\\ 
doing so. There are any quantity of < -in tun- 



Mr. Allen : " I understand that quite well : l.nt I 
want to know if there are any circumstances. aside 
from ' fact that it OOOVrsd upon a 

which may be thrown upon the rocks, or cast aside 
from its course, and so forth whether there are 
n- u instances on board a vessel that will jus- 
tn assault upon a sailor that would not justify 
an assault on land by one private citizen upon an- 
other t 

Mr. Fry.- : Yes, I think so; because if a gale of 
wind was seen approaching and the captain >f the 
ship should order the sailors to reef sails, and they 
refused, when there are lives in his charge and 
when there is an immense amount of property en- 
dangered. I have no doubt the captain would he 
justified in making an assault upon a sailor who 
" 



The Congress also passed and the President ap- 
proved a law for the inspection of small craft kept 
for hire, as follows : 

. That all vessels of above 15 
tons burden, carrying freight or passengers for 
hire, propelled by gas, fluid, naphtha, or electric 
motors, snail be, 'and are hereby, made subject to 
all the provisions of section 4426 of the K- 
Statutes of the United States, relating to the in- 
spection of hulls and boilers and requiring engineers 
and pilot*; and all vessels so propelled, without re- 
gard to tonnage or use. shall be subject to the pro- 
visions of section 4412 of the Revised Statutes of 
the United States, relating to the regulation of 
team vessels in passing each other; and to so 
much of sections 4288 and 4284 of the Revised Stat- 
ut. relating to lights, fog signals, steering, and 
sailing rule*, as the Board of fcipervising Inspect. 
on shall, by their regulations, deem applicable 
and practicable for their safe navigat 

A mea-ure ,-ntitlM -.\n Ad f,, r the protection 
of Ameriean yacht owners and shipbuilders'' was 
pawed by the Congress, and became a law without 
the approval of \\ l( . President. It 

tnericans who become member* of fop-urn 
yacht clubs from having vessels built abroad, an. 1 
the dLial.il, he* of owners of other for- 



A bill amending the laws relating to An 
oeamen passed the House, and in the S-nate a sub- 
stitute was proposed which contained the following 
clause : 



the Revised Statutes be, 
and so as to read as follows : 

At the foot ,.f rxcry such contract 

p upon such a \o-cl of the Im'nlcn of .'m tons 

or upward there shall le a memorandum in writing 

of th. i the hour when Mich seaman who 

>hi|ped and subscribed shall render himself on 

i the voyage agree*) upon. If any 

seaman shall i render himself on 

A Inch he has shipped at the time 

mentioned in such memorandum without irmi,.r 

twenty-four hour-' i i- inaliilit 

and if the master of the vesvd shall, on the day in 

which such ne.u'led happened, make an entry in 

the loi; hook of Mich vessel of the name . 

man. and shall in like manner note the lime t hat 
he so neglected to render himself after the tune 
appointed, then c\cry Midi seaman shall forfeit, for 
. hour which he shall so neglect to render him- 
self, one half of one day's pay. accord im; to ih 
of wages agreed opon, to l>'e de.iu.-:.d out ,,f 1,1- 

Wages. If an\ Midi >.-aman shall wholly iie-1. 
rvnder himself mi lioard of su h veSSelt OF ha\iiiL,' 
rendered liims'lf on board shall afterward i 
he shall forfeit all of the wages or emoluments 
which he 1 irned ; and, also, in the l 

lion of the court, lie shall lie lialile to ini] : 
merit for not more than one month.' " 

The forfeit of wages and the summary impri-on- 
m-nt are the new features in tin- Statute, and Mr. 
. >aid in defense of the policy of the 
amendment : 

" I dc.sirv to call the at tent ion of the Senate to this 
matter. It is said that foreign countries ha\e 
nothing of this kind, (ireal I'.ritain has a law to- 
day that if a sailor signs the paper- of a ship and 
then declines to serve on that ship the master may 
call on MIV jM.liceman who is in view or who CaB 
be found to take the sailor and carry him on !< ani 
the ship, put him in irons, and keep him there un- 
til the ship sails. 

"What are ships gnini: to do without somo 
such provision as this bill makes f Ton can not 
run a ship as you can a coach ; you can not run a 
ship as you can a railroad. Here is a ship loaded 
for sea, the crew engaged, the papers signed, sin- 
is subject to a demurrage of hundreds of dollars a 
day for every day she is detained. A sailor ha\ ine; 
brought and put on board of that ship, the 
ne\t m- rniii^, without the slightest cat. 
and thus the ship is left without the requisite crew, 
and she is obliged to pay demurrage for every day 
she is detained. A storm may arise, and she may 
be delayed by head winds for a week, a fortnight, 
or three weeks. There is nothing of the kindaliout 
a coach; there is nothing of the, kind aln.ut a 
railroad. I wish to say rL'ht hep- that I have had 
something ! do with' these sailors. There j s a 
sailors' union in California which has had its attor- 
ney here for the last six years, and he is here now 
a sailor. There is a sailors' union in Phila- 
delphia; there is a sailors' unions in New York. If 
Senators suppose th nlor- are not l.ein^ 

taken care of. they are entirely mistaken. Tl, 
not a port where there is not a sailors' lawyer. The 
sailor has every ad vantage of the .-hip and 
advantage of the shipmaster in any port jni,, which 
a vessel may go. The ships are entitled to some 
consideration. They carry ourcoinn 

When the hill was pending two Congresse- 
in the first place, I had conferences with 
sailor* and tne sailors' union. They lasted over 
three or four da\-: c;..v. Dingley was with me; 
and we finally drew up that which -eemcd to satisfy 
the sailor from California, and it was enacted into 
law. Hut then- is no satisfying them without giv- 
ing them the earth ; you cau not do it 



iRKSS. (TMi ATUHTTI m Ramanm 






Ley still cry 
them all these ramficaafntii Taking i 

iver again ummituw. and the thip- 

lh.-r.- DOald MM I- KNM SJIvMKI'l ' - 
i hut bill, eseei 

f ih.- *a. -lie. Wherever thrrw a* 

lonment before, and it was eompulMjry oa 

- ourt. and wh- 

nth- I- f. r, it t% two BKNitbe 
now, and when month* u-r r. it three 

.* now in that lull. In that l.ill lh. n i 

t n|ual to that 


nbh. - in that i 

de- 
manded, what they have prayed for. and what has 



* hat they 



what t he v 
I In- \tltinli 



arbitrary punihiiu nt to en- 
i'lered a civil coir 

i< i:. uh ...i-i < : j.nny. 

1 brief bill providing thai when- 

1. ,..;..:.'. .1: .- '-.. . 

is company aro sohl through 

fiasers and th. ; 
i to nil t he rights, powers, iiriv- 
fran- 
ii given to the original 

i reported a *nl-inui- with a 
lame of stock by the new . 
hiring that il. f the 

are of Unas and tbe 

hu-M-r* and -'ttl.-r- ar. IP t ! 



e, of Arkansas, representing those who 
the measure as a surreptitious renewal 
granU and truU can*leflly. : 
minlstafad ptopoted .1 imUtute, with 

safeguard* embodied in it 
up the committee measure, amended a 
portant respects, and pass* I 

and Pacific Railroad Company was 
act of July 97. 1866, to construct, main- 
Mrat<< a lino of railroad and telegraph. 
field, Uo^acroai l'"-"'. N-- N '' ' 
rritories,* 

heavy sub- 

Is.- land* wa- ^i\>n. The issuance of 
o in rapiinl M.-k wa> auth.-ru.il. hut 
scription was slow, and the comimi 
cress, und. 

gage its road. e<|ui | >tn. nt. Imxl-. 
. a;i<l thor riu'htsaod Plt>|- 
MO from S|.rmi:rt.-ld I-- In-li.-.; was 

-ut of tho prm-feds of the nalc of thr*,- i 

. .' .' v :- - .-'.. ... 

nd is now part of the St, Louts and San Fran- 
ailroad. Tho lim> through lth.v 

and tho lii 

rnia were constructed and each was s*p- 

mortgaged: and foreclosure proceeding* 

pending on account of default. The land 

as conditioned on the completion of the rawl 

- : lut at that date only about MS 

l the line were constructed ; and 3uly 6, 1806, 



I" 

Powers, of Venaoai. ut ad 



iawlkr 



-. 
' 

- ' 




billartMfha th* 



J 
' taai ibr 

ofar. 
does no* r 




forwlosurv sale, toorgaaiae as a 



... , . . . . 
. .. ' I 
II 



yfr 



wa tartrd in INM. WM givea a 
grant of 4*^JUQ.JO artw, aa*i 
came nirtssary for tbe coaipaay. to 
its road, to 

< . 






r, h.n th:. M uuon was before the 
it said that tide Uad 



on a former occasion 



thai it a 



that K r.-nt wrong 
an 
cede that to be true 



lad grant, thai it 

wa% d.-n t.. tK. 
graated to tbe railroad. Coa- 



: what ha> It,. 

tigreaf enacted the law. It bermoa|awt 



of tho riKhi* of that company to take those leads: 
but it tun,* ..ut . M - -. u.vrstigalioa that tbe 
it.- arid region ; they are 



The company itWlf, . 

only succeedVl in selling 700,000 and odd 

A great proportion of tbe lead bat beam foi 

nment. and a suit b now 
i- up for argument in <.urt ti-day. 
the right of tbe Government to forfeit the 

that as it may.thu is tbe MaHioal ouse- 
t ion that is presented to the House : Tab coaipaay. 
however fraudulent it may have beea. b 

it* land jrrant may have beea 
bttild a r.iln ad to th. 




neverthelew that wmogiloig is Dot lo be 
to the alit-iMit* for thi* charter. 



:. charter are tbe 



Thr 

partm who ad* 



^^ .:": ... ; ., '. . ' ' . 

That money built the road. It eoalS act bate hra 
I'uiU otberwbe. As tbe report sbowm, it was tup- 
posed thai pnvaie subscriptloas aloaff tbe Itoe of 



. 

hopes proved to be delusive. Toe company were 
obliged to borrow money. Tber did borrow H, aad 
innocent partirs. who bad nothing wbatevur to 
with any wn.iv :h tbe mail 

of the land great, adi 
nil was coropl- 

t b highly improper to viatt 
iaaocrtit (Mirti. agdotaf taat may have 

been practiced by the original proawten of tbe ea- 
- :-..-: .- . - ; - 

I- . . -.-... . 

trustees, by woaMa.aad by other partie*. aad tbe 
pft^o-lK^oftberrot^m^fTomArUi-^ifth*! 

I!M*V mav IMI TicttMi vilK I!MI <^Vk^Mit^MM aiMl ba 

aSe to later tor tbaifmaiei WToagdotoc.iorwbieb 
they are to no wise iwapoaaible. Bat BOW. Mr. 
Speaker, there was not any roagdoiag Tbe pfl 
on the part of tbe 



on tbe part 
of land di 



did not 




to anything to thttcoavpaay. 



186 



II Ml. ROAD COMI'AM.' 



As I hare already said, they have sold only 708.000 
acres out of the 42.000.000 acres given to them, for 
the simple rea- might turn a r.i.-.rback 

pig loose on the land in that country and it 

, , !\ II " 

In opposition to the measure Mr. Molts*, of Ar- 
kansas, said, when proposing his sub-tit ute : 

Mr. Sneaker, as a general proposition I am op- 
posed to the granting of Federal charters at all. I 
think soch should be done by the States. In this 
case it dors not appear to me that there is any m- 
cessit llcyond all question the bill as pn- 

1 hould not pass unless amended in several 
particular*. 

he original act of July 27. 1866, granted to the 
Atlantic and Pacific Kailroad 

.f land, and million zed !?"> private individ- 
uals, nnined in the granting act. scattered all the 
way fn>tn Maine li California. u)>on the conditions 
that they should build -.-m. -thing over 'J.(NM) miles 
>:lroad fnm Springfield. MO., to the Pacific 
iicraii. U-f.-n- .Inly 4. 1S?K That is to say. that be- 
fore the title finally passed from the Government 
tht construction was to be fully completed. With- 
in the time fixed by the granting act for the com- 

n of the entire mail they built only I'J.I miles 
They came to Congress and asked Congress 

. them the right to mortgage the road, 
authority brought them no money. They then 
asked and obtained authority to* mortgage the 
lands franchises, privileges, and other rights am! 
prop. \ executed the mortgages, but. as I 

have said, they completed only r.M miles of the 
mail within the time fixed in the granting act. 

ie mortgagees deliberately, with the full 
knowledge of the terms ,,f the grant as to the 
time prescriU-d for the completion of the road, 
made the mortgages due at a later day. There 
was inserted in the act authorizing the mortgage a 
provision that any forfeiture should extend only 
to as much t hereof as shall be conterminous with o> 
appertain to that part of said road which shall 
have been constructed at the time of the foreclo- 
sure of said mortgagee. These mortgagees, at > 
meeting of the committee when the forfeiture bill 
was being considered, and when Congress sought 

feit the grant, contended that Congress had 
no authority to do so under the law. The act of 
Inlv 6. 18H8, was passed with the understanding 
that it would restore to the public domain 10,795,- 
480 acres of land. And yet in the fa--e of the rec- 
ord they have made, after they have violated every 
condition imposed on them by the granting act, 

'ill deny the power to fo'rfeit. Congress, on 
the 6th dav of July, 1886. declared a forfeiture of 
all lands a/1 jacent to and conterminous with the un- 
completed |Kirtions of the road at that time, and 
attempted in this manner to exercise its sovereign 
right and power to restore to the public domain 
som" 10,000.000 acres of the lands granted. 

These mortgagees and this faithless corporation in 
the courts of law have ever since been light in 
Government and the settlers, ami 
testing in the Supreme Court of tl, states 

for these lands nnon the same ;i tj,,n that 

oofressof the 1 id no authority 

to declare the forfeiture. And yet the mortgagees 
of this corporation come to us with its r-eord of 
broken pledges and asks that we give them the 
same rights and powers and privileges granted bv 

< ily -J7. 1*W. Thirty vears 
elapsed since the grant wa made, ami yet more 
than one half of the road i- urnon-trm-ted". the cor- 
poration bankrupted and now in the hands of a re- 

-. being unable tn pav interest on its bonds. 
Across the great Mojave desert, where it w.< 
pected that by this grant we would secure railroad 



faeilities. no road has yet been constructed, and 
there is but little prospect of any by this concern. 

! given to thc>c debtors 

who come here as mortgagees and 1 will ^rant f.r 

itneiit that -tiiih- of them have aHed 

ily and in pod faith in the investment of 

their money we should see to it (l)that no relief 

is given to 'the men who ac.jniiv.l this charter and 

afterv. misfl made by them 

and brok- lid it ion imp..M-d upon them l>\ 

hat t he terill" of the forfeit II! 
of .1.. ,.-ce|,ted b\ the I)e\V 

I condition precedent, and" that this 
Mail not take effect until th. v the 

land- thus forfeited: Cli that the Settlers shall' ha\e 
the lands which have been earned and not sold at 
the minimum (iovernment pri-e of $l.'J."i pel 
and thos. who have purchaseil fully protected \\\ 
their titles; (-1) that the Imnn (i<i> debts due for 
w..rk. labor, material, etc.. shall be paid; and I."M 
the Stock should be limited to the actual value of 
the road. so as to prevent the watering of the -lock. 
and that the interest, shall not i-xe,-,-d -1 percent. 
The substitute which I have offered will secure all 
of this. If it is not adopted, I hope amendments 
will be that will secure the same tiling. 

M r. >peaker. shall we. by breathing into thi< 
corporation a new life, permit it to repudiate the 
hone>t debts of those who have performed lal> 
itf I have provided that all the debts, except those 
due to the old Atchison. Topeka and Santa I-Y- and 
to the St. Louis and San Franciseo Kailroad Coiu- 
|>anies. shall | H . paid. As for the-e railroad cor- 
porations who have wrecked the Atlantic and Pa- 
cific and themselves and rcorgani/ed. I ha\ 
concern. They have second mortgages, and as 
they have been relieved of the pa\ment of a part 
of "their debts by similar reorgani/ation. 

.ress sees fit to give the Atlantic and Pacific 
relief against them. I have no objection; but as to 
the laborer and the mechanic and those who have 
legitimate claims growing out of the operation of 
the road, I say it would be legali/ed repudiation to 
permit these mortgage creditors to defeat the pay- 
ment of their debts, or be preferred to them, even 
though they may have originally invented their 
money in good faith. So 1 have endeavored t., 
proVKM fr the protection of tln-M- men. I think 
that the settlers along the line of the road should 
be protected in their pun-hases already made, and 
also by reducing the price for which these lands 
may lie sold, so that the price shall be n more 
than the (iovernment price. Thc-e Ian-Is have 
been withheld from settlement for thirty years. 
The act of forfeiture of 1880 redn 
inent j'l-ice of land along this grant to $l.i."i an 
acre, and I think the railroad lands should n 
ceed that sum. L< i u^ -ay to this corporal ion : 'If 
you are to be reorgani/ed under authority from 
Congress, yu shall first accept as a condition prece- 
dent the terms imiNised by the forfeiture act of 
1886; and you shall sell tin- lands you have earned 
or acquired to actual -el tier- at the price at which 
the Government sells its public land-.' 

-Why should there be any objection to my 
propo-it'ion to limit the stock to be issued by tin's 
company as reorgani/ d to the actual amount due 
upon mortgages and other just indebted 
Why shou: -ation authority 

froin the Congress of the I'nitcd States \,, do what 
the old one dill water its stock and enrich its 
stockholders at of the Government and 

the people? The old incorporators contributed 
nothing to the building of this road. These do not 
propose to contribute anything to it. I rjue-tiou 
whether the old set honestly and in good faith ap- 
propriated the money they borrowed from the 






Aruumr AXD Panne* KAIUMUD Coarunr.) 



1-7 



bondholders. The most that ought to be dona 

instance* is to protect the hnneat 

bonded d ' far a* the *f 'fend ing ffr*flt 

is concerned. 1 ap|*-al to i :._'. t., audy flat 






charter to rear* 

- 

will I 
that 



fur 



*iiicn wm oeeiovM ten years ago 

i - . ... 

ganiiation. They shall not, with my eonasnt. stand 

:,ak.-a f.-r 

branch asking pennission fro,,, r..n k 'n- 

- argument * are given a* presenting tl. 
versa view* of the in.-aiurr and marking \m IfltffT 

U the dUcussion of it raoMd. 
The Senate non<* 
menu, and a was app. 

..w company as a < 

d.-nt t., Rin : i. in t OfWBjf nhtfj - f . k - : 

d by Congress, and that r on cession 
.-.I to approve. A second con f.-r- 
net resulted in a re|-rt retaining that ai- 

:u|M>rtanc> ' tt,. 

te Court h.i 
dded in f\*>r of the authority of CongreM t 

tie following is the final 

r any mortgage 
ode by the Atlantic and 
under and 
in an;- 

the road, equip- 
ment, land A. f r.i 
and proj.. 



' - 

aK HMetanery. BUttrea^ aiid Mn4M ol every kind 

*ejf^B\je> MttM\i tttBaPftiL CJtaYffMiAfM^ aw* ejrtt f e*vava*ae* aaf Oamhal 

rad. ami 



f -r itijurifs |0 ewployecs or other peteons* 

'iWKi^r 355 -* 5315 



, 
- 

lecelTer or recetTers in the loraftlossiie y 

..r .n,. ^ thr .p ( . .ii.(ii.n,t . f i . ... f. r. r i .- 

hall n- .t u luuV anv ItaMlhiei to 
railroad ooaiposjlai oioapt far lioketo and 

.'d shall be divided into share* each of the 

. .,- ..f $!(. and shall i * uonl 

of the mortgy debt doc end unpaid at the tinst of 



ta'ur lhrr.,.f ... 



full par value thereof in eeah, 

- issoed inc.* 
ty to the proriaions of this art. Thr 

ler the provisiooeol that net shall 






That 



under a decree or decrees ot ^ is, the i.ur- 

chaser at anv nuch sale or sales, and their associates 
or assign*, .Oinl 1 r<Mitut<< a new companv, which 
fhall have and shall be entitled t . hold and POMCMB 
th. franchif and propertT so sold, and 

^es. grants, and f ran- 
to beacorpor 
ngress approved Ju 

[9W, iooorporai - \ .- ,,'nd Paoil Ri . 
road Company, and by acts amendatory thereof and 
supplemental ti h w.-rv ownM and pos- 

sessed by said Allan 'trifle Railroad 

or said mort;rnrc at the time of >nrh decree 



be oonstrved as making any 

of I,,- 

|H,ration. or as a waivrr of any rigl.- 
.ting to 

I granted to the Mid Atlantic and 
< |{ailn*d Company, or as in any manner a/* 
Tested rights of any Mltlrr or srttlrrs on 
any of the land* heretofore granted to the Atlantic 
and Pacific Railroad Company or of any 
of amid lands from said 



: and th> iiM-..rprati< HIM hereby pro- 
Tided shall be completed and IMM-HIU. 
whenever the a id nurchaneni and theiransoriatesor 
sesjgn shall file with the - 

hereunder. duly ac- 
knowledged, specifying the name of surh new cor* 

Meat, and the name* of 

ic IIMI- >t n. .ptwed capital stork and 

(led copy of the decree or 
deafens rat i 

nr*nysJa*ntosMeo1 to all the 

n.| rom|n> 
subject iind'-r r> .-liarter or act of incorpor.r 

.ti-s ,.f an. -y may at 

'nid against n.-and 1' 

-hall 
make such purrha.<<er* and t! 

i liable for any debt* or claims or 

ration except all debts, 

or owtnc 

by the old company, which were contracted, accrued, 



lOli lyajrfl ' B '' \ ' ' n ' r .. A : 

,d their aMociatM shall relinqmish in vSSm 

OAOOBVOjl "!:. -'. . 

Secretary of the Intern r 

! before the art >heJ 
effect) allcUim.rixi, 

l*ran' I Pacific Railroad C<. 

mbraced within both the granted and indent. 
1 were adjacent to and eonteramiaooe 
with the uncoit 
6th day of. i 

\ r.W pnni&4 further. That in every com of fail- 
th.- title to any UrxU conveyed or contracted 
--id Atlantic and Pacific Bottrond 
Company to any sesxi/eV sHtler and occvpant in a 
tract of (MO arrW or lees, any and all rights of soch 
purchaser or his assigns, in respect of sexh land, or 
in re*p*rt of the failure of sach title, or in re- 
nd Pacific 
*d Company on any such contract, shall oir- 

MBjemanner as agminrt the Atlantic end Pacific 
Kailro*d Company: and soch socnesnr coo 
upon making compensation for each loss of anr title 
or failurr to cnmplr with the eoodiiions of soch 
i* shall be snbrogaled to 

:.' . 



for the purchase of lands shall ba pti 
at the time of such foreclosure sale, snch new 
pany shall, upon payoMOi to it of 



-S. (ISTTERSATl' IKNCE.) 



ancc of purchase money for such land at th. time 

n *uch contracts for the sale 1 1 
nd release to the holders of such contra- 

merest, and estate in and to the land em- 
braced in such contra 

-Stc, 8. That Congress shall at all times have 
the power to alter, amend, or repeal 

. :t. When the line of such railway is now 
located within the limit* of *nv St'- 
line is now located within a Territory which ma/ 
hereafter become a State, uch Slate, or Mich Tcrn- 
hen it shall become a State, shall 
" to require such cor|M.raii.>n to become m- 
iti. -tales as may be 

proYided by the U 

The President approved the measure Mar 
International Money ronferwwe. The 
gross pa**rd and the President approved the foUOW- 

, AM! n to provide for the representation of 
the United States by ooramissiouere at any inter- 
national money conference hereafter to be called : 

ver al 

4. I*7. the President <>f (he I'm:. -I Slates shall de- 

.illd be ivpre- 

: nt any internal ional conference calleil by the 

1 Stataj or any other country with a view to 

mat ional agreement a fixity of rela- 

.liue between gold and silver as money by 

means of a commoi i ti..-.- metals, 

with free mintage at such ratio, he is hereby au- 

thoriied to appoint five or more commissioners to 

such international conference; and for eomj>ensa- 

'-... - : : -. atld f'-r all reasonable 

expenses connected therewith, to be approved by 

the Secretary of State, including the proportion to 

be paid by the Tinted States of the join 1 

of any uch conference, the sum of $100.000, or so 

much thereof as may be necessary, is hereby appro- 

priat 

. 2. That the President of the United States 

It hereby authorized, in the name of the Uovcrn- 

i ted States, to call, in his discretion. 

such international conference, to assemble at such 

point as may be agreed upon. 

I he is further authorized, if in his judgment 
the purpose specified in the first section hereof cnn 
thus be better attained, to appoint one or more 
special commissioners or envoys to such of the na- 
tions of Europe as he may designate to seek by 
diplomatic negotiations an international agreement 
for the purpose specified in the first section hereof, 
ii caw of Mich ap|M>intment so much of the 
appropriation herein made as shall be necessary 
shall be available for the proper expenses and com- 
pensation of sue! i commissioners or envoys." 

It may be worth while to quote from speeches 
made by three Senators representing the various 
views on the measure. 

Mr. Chandler, of New Hampshire, said : 
- Mr. President, this bill represents a new move- 
inning in the United States for the estab- 
of bimetallism, the unlimited coinage of 
silver and gold as stand an 1 money. 

he provisions of the bill ar, in the form de- 
sired by it* friends; substantially in the language 
of three previous authorizations under which United 
States delegates were appointed to international 
conferences, and of one under which no 



-hollld I- -poiisibility for 

D or nonaction will lie his. ami there need lie 

no desire t" take it from him in view of his utter- 

iipon arccpling the nomination of his party. 

nan 

EtepabUflM .!e.-laivd in fa\ 

an internal ional agreement, and if eleeted President 
it \\ill l.e my duty t.. employ all proper means to 
promote il.' ' 

. lie I. ill docs not name the plaee where :i 
ferenee mu-t lie lield. lull \<-:\\>^ that i|iie-t j, ,n |,, I,,- 
M-ttled aeeordini; to the i be nations 

which are to participate in it. and to tin coiiveii- 
"f the greater numlK-r of the delegate?.. It 
would be exceedingly unwiM- t.. al. -..iut.lv require 
that the conference* shall be held in the I'mted 



inly authorises the coming IV. M.I, nt to 
apnoint delegates to anv conference which mav be 
called by the 1 .ten or any oth- 

and provides for paying their expenses. 

does not compel the President to initiate an 
international conference, whether the u 
rived and due preparation* have been made for it 
or not ; and it is not desirable that such corapul- 



ne bill does not undertake to declare what the 
D of llii* (ioM-niinelit will lie ill ca-e tl,. 
ferenee shall fail to establish bimetallism* To in- 

-lati\e pp.vi-ion that in such an 
the Tinted States alone will proee.-d ! th- 

|M of silver would ncce.s-nrily |n-e\eiit a IUO- 

CeSSflll outcome of the c.. lifer, lice if , 

and. moreover, would certainly defeat the passage 
of this dill through both Hooset and it- 
liythe I're-.ii|ent. It \\.-ulil lie as complete a re- 
jection of the bill as would be a Vote of the Senate 
to indefinitely po-ipone it. and the n-poii-ibility 
for the fiiv : the new movement for bimet- 

allism would fatally re>t up.m tho.-e who claim to 
be the special champions <>f sii 

Mr. Proident, this lull for an international bi- 
metallic conference has been deliberately presented 
in a body a majority of \\h--e member- are well 

known to be in lav.ir <.f the free coinage of stiver 

by the I'nited States independently of other na- 
tions and who believe that DO BtlCOeSSfnJ re-ull will 
come from the conference. Hut it is presented to 
them in the belief and after the a-- u ranee that t hey 
are not unwilling to allow the experiment to l.i- 
again tried, under favorable auspices, and with a 
universal hope that it may secure the adoption of a 
sy-trin of bimetallism by the leading commercial 
nations of the world." 

.Mr. Stewart of Nevada said : 

"There are many grave objections to int. 
tional money which ought- to make n- he-itat.- be- 
fore we enter into any compact with the world to 
have international money. In the first place, if we 
had an international money that was legal tender 
throughout the world our bu>ine*s would lie >ubjeet 
to the fluctuations and change- of every country of 
the world. A busine man would not only ha 
calculate about the business of his own country, 
but he would have to know the world in order to 
guard himself against fluctuations and dist url 
which might occur anywhere. The idea that com- 
cau not be carried on without international 
money is against the experience of mankind. In- 
ternational money never has existed, to my knowl- 
p( in line instance. The Latin Union in 
1865 formed a compact whereby the money of 
Franer. Italy. Greece. Helgium. ami Swit/.erland 
should In- a legal tender throughout that combina- 
tion. Hut. those were small count ri---. dependent 
upon France and under France'?, protection at the 
time. That is the only instance I know of interna- 
tional mo: 

" Money is essentially domestic. It is a great 
misfortune if it has to be exported and sold in other 
countries. We do not want to export our money. 
We should not make an elT.rt to have a kind of 
money that can be exported as such. When u 
port our money we disturb our own business. \\ 
might as well export our tools and attempt to carry 
on farming and other vocations. If you export 



SH. (IXTCEXATMWAL 



or TEA.) 



188 



money you take away the tools of 









. ,- Ml 
k'f 



^ .. 

ift~ibla. This would 
what gro^ 
If we make a bargain 

.**.:...-.. 

x... 



Shall we give that up u 

exercised that right for over * 
great benefit to our country, an.i .- 

ii opposed tional money. I nut 

opposed to allowing any other count rv t.'. | 

I am in favor - f tin- 

IN-. -pi.- a 

Mpplj 

mon'v. If they attempt it it 

It - 
a part of the sovereignty of tln< ,..\. rn* 

sjoattaJn 

..pit- ..f ti 
Kun|c, to our iTvdr 

see 

what measure they will u- what 

their it 

!* has bmugir 
count rv to a n<l 

i\-. -till i !i. utions. 

in useless it i- highly \i 

:ii-l u tt. -ranees. 

rv jM*rhaps it is not too tnu<-h 
to sa> 'i those of our rountry- 

oeption of principles of government, of 

finance, and commrr 

it the scheme is not supported 

.! is 

imrtMMMl fr \*n Holil itr if liflil tin i>rni tirnl rvMilt 



r as being what 

L| thT- flinl it w.-n-- in effed 
hnn 

! arxl 

ise t hi* t! :!:>MI. iu ih>- M-II-H- that 

rxlnnl of value 

!* roinjMiuniliil of tin- two metals, gold anil 
.n.j untiii : at 

n jirl>itrnry nitt-.. if oiil\ inan\ nution* will 

;r> nlmir. In that it defies the 

ami 

leneed men. an ^iund rea- 






litm ha- ever exi^e.1 in fart : 

1 ies it exbt : 

-.- the onnctinvnt unliintte>l 
nt anv m' 

nblc fl\- 

netal 

.rmiit 

i between 

nmlanU at the same 

by continual shift* <f legWittoo, ahrmji ac- 




rbe prststts* that any sveji ffsJasji of bisasul- 
li.in taiMUnJ out of buth sHak ao 

that 

idtoovw. 








nd mtut be r. 

sUoloffy.4sMM4oirf.M4 

' " ' ' ' ' '"'' - 

" ' ' 




inti 

he pom. 

utandanl f uch a char* 
be human effm hr liulf 

lie poles. 

nun. I. in..! ' 

itnl of value i* far I- 

: !' . ; . 

fundamental assumption of the Bryan 
that a gold standard of 



4isa to tWpttbHt 



however freely silver may be 
of its practical usefulnew, is 

. Manilanl. the nroaoct of 

f jii-i nn<i natural law. 
by human rr 




an injury d 

i . in so 



wav re 
it fairi 



nn<l therefore 01 ! it fairv 

leads to the recrnt twue tha* newirked 

resistance of oi 



might I* righted and the woes 

ami vastly alleviated. ' 

men h*t, !.,.! to tt . . :r .-n tones that lured thrsa 

toar*l t> blessing and Mid. ' l>et o try 

it alone. 1. and indefvndent. let as have 

on earth."* 

right in their be**, which this 

my poor opiaino. that any poopla 
i may rumie ah-ne the sond pn 



- 

. 
Met to them. Xol always 



sun may 

finance, commerce, butlneas. and 

pie among all that ni 

nhful atihefMWt to thrm. v 

full rttrnt that ro-oprralion with otk^rs 

T. but al>* to hatitajcv and brsjrtt 

far U-ron.| anv atlamaVlr by not 

an arbitrary ratio be a priari|>: 

lea of 

e nation which 
to me a 

' , 










, , r 



pie only to nme boptSM apf4ir. 

and it can not be thos answered to aoy 

sound tedgment. * The hiUs are grvrn far away * is 

^tentioo^ Irish saving thai dfepatdMS sch 

fantastic theories,** 

-Thr 

to prrrcnt the important of impore 
Clam; the HOSJM passed the Meat. 






N OF TEA.) 



e sai oan iy emova, 

Uoa. or any other cause shall be fort 
the Secretary of the Treasury by ap| 

Bpofafeet t<> hold fort ho UIMXI 



urv t g day. an 

it Mar. h J. The n t" is n* follows: 

'.at from and after .V 
.'. -hall be unlawful for nn\ | 

iiii|ort or bring ml.- the I'nited 
- any merchandise as tea whi< h i- inferior in 

-iimpl ln to the 
!. ami tho 

teportaii- .eh merchandise ^ n, i,-i.\ pro- 

h.lM 

...2. That bMMdiaftely after the passage of 

each year 

f the Treasury shall ap- 

|.-;ni a Unl. to consist of eeven memU-rs. each <.f 
, thalllir.. lO teas, and u ho shall pro- 

parr and submit to him standard samples <>! 
that the persons so appointed shall be at all times 
removal by the said . and shall 

serrr fr the term of one year: that \aean. 
ihesaid board occurring by ramotml, death, res. 

shall be forth with filled by 

ijMijntmei,' . 
HIM xpire.i term : that said 

._ shall apjM'int a presiding officer, who shall be 
the medium of all communications to or from such 
board; that each memU-rof said board shall r. 
as compensation the sum of $.~>o per annum, which. 
together with all necessary ex IK* uses \\hile engaged 
U|KMI the duty herein provided, shall IM- i.ai.i out of 
the appropriation for 'expenses of collecting the 
.m customs.' 

f. 8. That the Secretary of the Treasury, upon 
.. ndati-.n of the said Imard. shall fix and 
establish uniform standards of purity, quality, and 
fitness for consumption of all kinds of teas imported 
int.. the United States, and shall procure and de- 
posit in the customhouses of the ports of 
York. Chicago, San Francisco, and such other |orts 
as he rmine. duplicate samples of such 

standards; that said Secretary shall procure a suf- 
nuinlM>r of other duplicate samples of such 
standards to supply the importers and dealers in 
tea at all ports d. -ir:n- the same at cost. All teas, 
or merchandise described as tea, of inferior purity, 
quality, and fitness for consumption to s U ch stand- 
ards shall be deemed within the prohibition of the 
first section hereof. 

-.'.. 4. That on making entry at the custom- 
houses of all teas, or merchan . Led as tea, 
imported into the United States, the importer or 
consignee shall give a bond to the collector of the 
j-.rt that such merchandise shall not be removed 
from the warehouse until released by the collector, 
after it shall have been duly examined with refer- 
ence to its purity, quality, and fitness for consump- 
the purpose of such examination 
samples of each line in every invoice of tea shall be 
snbn. the in.|K,rter or consignee to ti 
am i n-r, together with the sworn statement of such 
i in | -. ri e r <r consignee thr uples represent 
.ch and every part of the in- 
voice and accord with the specifications therein 
contain. -d : .,r in the discretion of ir y of 
the Treasury. such samples shall be obtained by' the 
examiner and compared by him with th. 
estahluhed by this act : ftl ,d in cases whore w 
or merchandise described as tea, is . 

reisnoqualinV.: : }l> provided in 

section 7, the consignee or im| M .nor shall in the 
manner aforesaid furnish un.ler oath a sample of 
wh lino ..f tea to the collector or other r.-\enue 
officer to whom is >mmittel the collection of 
d ii tii*. sod said officer shall also draw or cause to 
>e drawn samples of each line in e-. ... and 

.-hall forward the same to a duly qualified exit! 
as provided in *>! i.n 7: fVoriVW, Aoisssw 1 , Thsjl 
tho bond above required shall also U condi: 



f.r tho pavmcnt of all customhouse char-res which 

may attacii to >udi merchandiae prior to ita bein^ 

.. : -I' >!-ir.'\ed (aj ill.- oaS6 may be) unh-r 
the | ' 

I'hat if. aflcr an examination as pro- 
\ided in se<-tion 4. the ten is found by the examiner 

..d in parity, quality, and iiin--> i..r con- 

sumption to the s'.andard- liereinlie|..|-e pr..\ided. 

and ir> re-examination shall be demaixh.l by the 

collector as pro\ideii in section . a |.ermit shall at 

.- irranted lo the importer or < ..... M-IH -e deelai-- 

CL: the tea free from the control of the customs 
llmrilics; but if 

merchandise d> :..un.i. in the 

opinion of the to be inferior in purity. 

quality, and lit!i< Mi|<lin!i 1<> th< 

standards the importer <>r consignee shall be imme- 
diately notilied, and tin- rdiandi- 

-.-niied as tea, shall not be released by the custom- 
house unless on .,lr<! f..r b\ the 

importer or M the limlinir -f the examiner 

shall lie found to be BTTOneO 



should a |>ortion of the invoice be passed by the 
examiner, a permit shall l>e granted for thai 
tion and the remainder held for furl her examina- 
tion. as provided in section <;. 

That in case I he collector, import. 
consignee shall protest against the jindinjr of the 
examiner, the matter in dispute shall be referred 
for decision to a board of three I'liiied > 
era! appraisers, t naled by the Secreta- 

the Treasury, ami if such board shall, after due 
examination", find the tea in question to be equal in 
purity, quality, and fitness for consumption to the 
proper standards, a permit shall be issued by tin- 
collector for its n-lea-e and delivery to the import- 
er; but if upon such final n-exam'inat i<n by su-h 
board the tea shall be found to be inferior in purit y. 
quality, and fitness for consumption to the 
standards, the importer or ..nH^m-e shall e;ive a 
bond, with security satisfactory to the collect. 
export said tea, or merchandise dcM-rib. 
out of the limits of the I'm' \\ithin a 

period of six months after such final re-examina- 
tion: and if the same shall not have been exported 
within the time specified, the collector, at the expi- 
ration of that time, shall cause the same to be ue- 
troi 

. ?. That the examination herein provide.} 
for shall be made by a duly qualified examiner at a 
port where standard samples are established, and 
where the merchandise is entered at ports where 
there is no qualified examiner the examination shall 
be mad.- at that one of said ports which 
the port of entry, and that for this purpose samples 
of the merchandise, obtained in the manner pre- 
scribed by section 4 of this act, shall be forwarded 
to the proper port by the collector or chief officer 
at the port .f entry :' that in all cases of examina- 
tion or re-examination of teas, or merchandise de- 
s.-ribed as tea. by examiners or boards of I'nited 
general appraisers under the provisions of 
this act. the purity, quality, and ! con- 

sumption of the same shall be tested according to 
the usaircs and customs of the tea t rade. including 
the testing of an infusion of the same in boiling 
water, and. if necessary, chemical anal\ 

That in ca-V- of re-examination of 
or merchandise described as teas, by a board of 
Tinted States general appraisers in pursuance "f 
the provisions nereof, samples of n mer- 

chandise descril>ed as tea, in dispute, for transmis- 
sion to such board for its decision, shall be put up 
and sealed by the examiner in the presence of the 
im|Miil<-r Or consignee, if he so desires, and trans- 
mitted to Mich board, together with a copy of the 
finding of the examiner, setting forth the cause of 









U'l 



ttml tin- fl 

-. ami 

r Mich mark that the sa 



or ground of the pro- over her 



here thi* marninc. In hrirf. tW bill r ^ 

Tn^ry eftIl'a>pe** 
-i MaleTUlM 
issa) fn-w tiu who ar Tkaat 






'They are to meat 

.Xaiinii. r nml MM- iin|- f-r or ....-._. - . :. f. rtu liUr<i . f ii.n'.i at : 

'. TbeU 
States general appraiser* 

id vie*, whan 



consignee w ith form standards of t nswap 

*rW0 ftnf^niejtel *J l^nA. vfej 0fc ^tMn^aWsTt^A Mf v- Its lav avn^ftana^a^ssi * 

tw i inr v^sv ! Isntl |g| niUnv* 

|.rovided plea, Those sampJ. 

^ ** l% !2ila 

rnicrs in any *oiher plaesa of import as the HtOTtary of thT 
weeding $A. ury haJI designate, and *J| tav 

* arr to br compared. If the ism* 

' r ,, 1 



. . 



hi* * r% !.-.- in 

*A. ' 
a* wh.,h I 

. an.. 



up to the 
>t for eonenmpUun in the I 

H thr ...,|.:naiKi doss not cosae ap to tW land. 
prnalt to be n aijiuffad nt 

. 

Trantnry .hall 
rlaioni of thu *- 



M ono II. I -.lv on shipboar<l fr 

hl|>ll>rli( t. t! 

passage of this act dm 1 1 n,.t U %m 

n hereof, l.ut ti,. provisions of the a 

I ho impor: mini- 

approved March 2. 
shall be applicable th< 

adulterated and spurious teas,' 
approved March 8. iwct. 
repeal to take effect on the date on which this not 

In purpose of the art Mr. 

ikrr. in isxi ('oncress passed an a 
prevent t! k f i..n of impure and HUM 

some tea, or tea harmful to health. NN tnd tlxn 
tke as good a law as we knew how ; but not- 
withstanding the stri that law. 

Tided for the rv-exp :, did 

Hie np to the -Tai.d.ird. Me find that t 

more poor, mi" 

and ilrui; ten.-. an thmwn upn the Am. n. an mar- 
ii u|Mtn all the other market of the world. 
Our people consume more bad tea than all 

Tie*. Thin in a Mihjert nJn.ut which we have 
heard a good -. veral yean part in the 

rested 

a trade.' and interested in ha 
it-some teas bjnpOftsd into i 

^and U-fon- that committee and 

evancesand the diftleulty 

at inw iiroxidcil f.r 

inspectors to be ap|Miintei fn>m men who were im- 

IPM- it wa nan natur 

those men-haul- to f rt \ : 

favor themselves always in their 
an. I then* wn n< np|>-al e&cept to thin board 
men-haul*. Tr,. . .. . It that the i pOfta> 

(rv hn increawd. 

-ople engaged he people 

..l.-x>rne f.MHl. th.- Trva-iir\ Ie|*rt. 
ment, the Senate of the t'n ;:,-! SIM* . and the 

eal in language and entm d in 

and 

Means Committee <>ome . and reitorted 

unantmoii^lv fr-.-n that comn: 'he Moose, 

particular Kill w* intnxiucel into the Senate. 

the Committee n < oinmerce there, 

that 
committee, and was |>aased by the Senate and sent 



.. 

-Maafia*. sfc. That sfctJo4M elite Re- 

4. after th* word < 
- ntioa or 

of.' ami on In..- \ ft, r thr wuti 

^ *or more than tw., yrars prior U 

that the chase so amended will reeves 

' 
covered any new and nsefal art, 

.n t.f matter, or any 

ful itnpro\i MM nt* tliereof. n<4 known or avid by 

others in thi count <> notion or dis- 

f. and not patented or 

ui this or 




n vent ion or discovery thereof, 

<>r inort> than two years prior to his 
and not in puMic oator on sale in thu 
more than two years prior to bis a 
the same is provr.1 to ,,- been 
upon payment of the fees repaired by bw i 
du.- pn- v,-dnr had. obtain a nalent thrr. 

Tliat section mOoTtbTBerfaedaut 
U-. and the same hereby is, ameinfaH bv addtni 
t hr third dattsa of said seetioa after * thereof * 
tirforr 'or* thr following words: *or more I 
xears prior to his aopliratioa for a 
.at t lie secti 

4WO. In any action for 
it may plead the glMtmi 

_ M e !** ^A.WM a^^w^^a^ ^AW* ea^aw^mi 

aWT inirl T Unlf V IVIOW^ HWT VWV IM I1M WIT ON 

,....<..' , . ^. ...... .. 

and spwMeation filed by the 

'~.s.**s s avVl^. ^ 

. ! .i - ' 

n the whole truth rrUtur to bis 






x^rond. That he had 

the ( 

|li x '. ! i I I '\ jili' t 

gtnce in at)aping and prrfertini; the same: or. 
I hml. That it H. l^en parted or described 

years prior to his application for a patent thirsfar; 
or. 

urth. That be was am the orWnal and irst 
inventor or dbmwrer of any mairriaJ and label an 
tial part of the thing patented ; or. 



p.- 



M LAWS,) 



Fifth. That it had been in public use or on sale 
in thi* country for inrv than to years U-f..re his 
ai.pl ..i: >'< f"V a (latent, or had been abandoned to 
the ,.u 

\ii-l in notices m to proof ,,f P rc\ ion* inv.-n- 
.s,. ,.f ii,,- thing patented, the 
d,-f.-ndnnt -hall Mat* the name* of the patentees 
and the dale* of their tiateni*. and when -ranted. 
an. I the num.-* and residence* of the pcr>- 
t. have invented or to ha\e had the prior knowl- 
edge of the thing palent.^l.itnd where mid by whom 
it had UMI ii!l: ami if anv one T more of the 
special matter* allrp-d shall be found for tl 
feixlant. judgment "hall be rendered for him with 
cost*. And the like defends nmy IM- pleaded in 
any nu it in equity for relief against im allffM m- 
fnent : and* proof* of the same may be given 
in the answer >f the defendant, 

ami with th<> lik.- .fleet.* 

..a. That section 4887 of the B totes 

be. and the *am<- hereby is. amendeil l.y iiiM-rting 
after the !!.' 'the words 

otherwise entitled thereto/ mid on line :{. after 
the word* * caused to he | ihe w.mU 

the n his legal representatives or assigns,' 

and by erasing therein all that |M>rfi<n of th< 
tion which follows tin- word* 'in a foreign coun- 
try.' on linos :i and 4. and substituting in lieu there- 
of" the following: 'unless the application for said 
was tiled more than seven months 
to the filing of the application in this coun- 
try, in which rn-e DO patent shall be granted in this 
ry.' that the section so amended will read as 
follows: 

^w, 4887. No nerson otherwise on tit led tl, 
shall be debarred from receiving a patent for his 
invention or discovery, nor shall any patent I..- .|.- 
clared invalid, by reason of its having been first 
patent.. 1 orOBOSed to be patentel by the invent-. r 
or his legal representatives or assigns in a f <i 
country, unless the application for said for. i-n 
patent was filed more than -even months prior to 

'ling of the application in this country, in 
which case no patent shall be granted in this Oom> 
toy. 1 

>n 4894 of the Revised Statutes 
be. and the same hereby is, amended by striking 
out the words 'two year-' in every place where 
they --cur and substituting in lieu thereof the 
words "one year"; so that the section so amended 
will read as follows: 

-KT. 4894. All applications for patents shall be 
completed and prepared for examination within 
one year after the filing of the application, and in 
default thereof, or upon failure of the applicant to 
prosecute the same within one year after any action 
n. of which iioiic,- shall have been given to 
tho applicant, th.-v -hall lie regarded as abandoned 
by the parties thereto, unless it be shown to the 
satisfaction of the Commissioner O f Patents that 
such delay was unavoidable/ 

-Sec. 5. That section 4868 of the Revised Statute* 
br, and the same hereby is, amended bv adding 

-If any such assign men t.Krant.Mr convey in 
any |fc>nt shall be acknowledged liefore anv no- 
tary public of the several States or Territo, 

Columbia, or any comnn^i n- r of 
the United States circuit court, or liefore any sec- 
rrtary of legation or consular officer authorized to 
administer oaths or perform notorial acts under 
section 1750 of the Hevi^l statute*, the certificate 
of such acknowledgment, under the hand and 
;"h notary or other officer, shall be 
prim-: idence of 'the execution of such as- 

signment, grant, or c..n\, -\an ' : w> thattheaec- 
tion so amended will read as follows : 



PJf patent or any interest therein 
-hall be assignable in law by an instrument in 
writing, and the patentee or his a>->iL r n^ or leiral 
representatives may in like manner ui-.-mi an.l con- 
vey an exdiixive right under his jmtent to the \shole 
i | art of the I niled States. An 
assigmiK n!. -r.-mt. 
again nt pun-haM-r or nn>i 

a valuable oonaideration, without notice. un!. n is 

led in the I'at.-nt ( Mlice wit Inn three months 
from the date tli> 

'"If an\ -nch a.siLMimi-nt. irranl. or . 
of any patent shall be aekn 
notary public of the tftfc - Of '!'. I 

the 1 ' < 'oluml.i., mmi^i.,1 

the I'nited States cin-uit court, or I., f. 
r.-tary of legation or consular oiVn-er aiithon. 
administer oat i rm notarial m-N uixler 

1 Statutes, ih. 

of sii,-l, acknowledgment, under the IIMIH! and olli- 
cial seal of such notary or oilier ollieer. shall be 
leiice of the execution of such as- 
siLrnuieiit. grant, or OOnveT) 

tton 'I'.'-.'i -.f ti MMI- 

Utes be, and the same hereby i-. amended by add- 
inj,' thereto the following sentence: 

IJut in any suit , adion brought for the in- 
fringement of any patent there shall be D 
covery of profits OF damages for any infringement 
((.mniitted more than six fore the filing of 

the bill of complaint or the issmiiL' of the writ 
in such suit or action, and thi< pp. \i-ion -hall ap- 
ply to existing causes of action'; so that the sec- 
amended will read as follows: 

The several oonrts vested with juris- 
diction of cases arising under the patent laws 
shall have power to grant injunct ions according to 
the course and principles of courts of e.jni' 
prevent the violation of any right secured by' pat- 
ent, on such terms as the court may deem rea- li- 
able; and upon a decree being rendered in any 
such case for an infringement the complainant 
shall be entitled to recover, in addition to the 
profits to be accounted for by the defendant, the 
damages the complainant has sustained thereby: 
and the court shall assess the same or cause the 
same to be assessed under its direction. And the 
court shall have the same power to increase such 
damages, in its discretion, as is given to in< 
the d. mid by verdict* in actions in the 

nature of actions of trespass upon the case. 

" ' Hut in any suit or action brought for the in- 
fringement of any patent there shall IM- i; 

tits or damagM for any infringement com- 
mitted more than six years before the tiling of the 
bill of complaint or the issuing of the writ in such 
suit or action, and this provision shall apply to 
ng causes of action.' 

U 8MX ?. That in case where the head of ai 
partmcnt of t he Government shall request the <'oin- 
missjoner of Patents to expedite the consideration 
of an application for n patent, it shall be the duty 
of such head of department to be represented be- 
fore the commissioner in order to prevent tin im- 
r issue of a patent/ 

c. 8. That this act shall take effect .Ian. I. 
1808, and sections 1, 2. 3. and 4, amending sections 

|. 4HS7. and 4*!4 of tl : Statutes. 

shall not apply to any patent granted prior to said 
date, nor to any application filed prior to said date. 
nor to any patent granted on such an application." 

Mr. Draper, of Massachusetts, said, in explana- 
tion of the measure, on reporting it to the 11 

' Mr. Speaker, this bill propose- half a do/en minor 
amendments to the patent law which have been 
r> commended unanimously by the American Bar 
Association. A year ago or more a committee of 






: ' 



jsjociation WM appointed to onnaldor snob 

. tbe 

r.-- on matt. -r- which Uwj - - : ' Eflftl 

.-iidn..-nr, vhioti i.- MBbotl : . .. - - . 1 

rally at I 

-e moditaUionsoneatallmeand 



fi.riiii.hiM.-. I-. SUSS '-' - ' i. M ' ' ' -' I 

uii.ltnent U to section 4HH& I 
vide* that th- ittienhni; or puliliealiun of 

it any foreign country mora than two yars 

tf a |at- 
> a foreign country, then ft- 

.( Ml III! 

*tand-. a man may pub- 
lish or patent nn invention in a foreign e 

uir,l it may U- |at.nt..t in (hu country. 
Mate* if an inventor ha* hi* n 

NOA in public Use m.-f tL.ui ! \ar* I fre ho 

- fora (talent he run not obtain a p.. 
i(. It Mi-m- t.. tin-, ami it 

that I hi* amendment w.-i. -per addt- 

. Ian, and an aiiditioti in 

' ill.- l-ill is a matt. 

provide that a 'wledgmeiit of 

amigiimeu fore a proper officer, shall 

'. limitati- 
. only section upon w 

.nut- 

-f tin- committee 'thought lUt 
several StaieM.'hou Id 

1. whrrvn- tin- hill proposes to make a nni- 
\ ears, coven in: 

has been fiU-l. 

1 stands as the recommendation of 
the com m r 

is alto sought 111 to remedy an 

i some hare consiiK-nil almoot an alunie in th<- 

for a j*t- 

m make his a; ive a rejection, 

wait two yean* U-f.tv ninkin^ an answer to the re- 

.iy. MI that Iheappli- 
cation may remain in tin- 1 me, a 

1-^il.ly Hftti-n years, and 
f the office and wv, til ion 

en years from thr date of toue. 
bill proposes an amendment to that |rt of the law 

itini: > nonN i 
two years,' so that af: 

application the applirant -hull 
trvi|tiirvd make hi- an-wrr will 

'M- 1. -ii-th ..f time that an j ; 
tion can remain in the office. This* howt-vt-r. <iil 
jot - - <>ur comtii 

and the amendment* w|n<-h t her hare prop**- 

.ilintf not 
'tat tin- nj.j'hi :in? 

f tin- I'.-it'. jit M'V,,-,. to hi* 



appJicatioo, 
time thai ail appUS N OM 

cases of interference. 

that nn.l.-r t he present law, pr| 

pretel. tin- t.-nn of n I'mt. .1 St!.- jv f : r > to be 
that of a f-'OMcn |tent if the foreign 
BSjteir the same invention and was 



re the patent granted l.v the fiuted State*. 
when I hi* lull wa* pmrel it wan 
K.I to cover cases of foreigners taking patents 
VOL. xxxru.13 A 



in tbe UnilodmatML Bot there bare arisen oats* 
applied sJsMltijsjansjsiT for an Anvfionm MUM and 

? '. r .V'." '" 

>f eisminaitoo. while in OWTNUI 



teas of esaminai fcuct, while in on? OMUsttv tberr is 
- . . * - - . . - 

for months, at least, and pos**bty for nwx the far- 

la out ir*. la arh 

"., v. ' 

totbeesBftlngUwthot 



I k *sH if f Im^t 

MsHV ^ O 



thcrrml.l .rSB*JMidtSjlOr 

'^Jloocar 

s- ,...,.,..,... ,.,..,.. ..... a , . ' ' . 










. 

MMi KaHM^^tfi M^iAtf^M. AIM! Lkte !MnvS*SJ*ft. it k* 
brh. 

-w inframing UsV nmmt ia. and 
"Mate all of it* present incoovvtiirt 
Allen Onaervliln. Tbe Cisjgrwss isjaani and 

batter define and regulate the rtjchu .' 

bold and own real estau in Use TefTitofiea, hi* 

- fit it efforts**, sfc. That an art entitled * An Act 
.f real estate in UK 

larrb 
-. far a it aff t. real etaU in the 

imbia. I.-, .nd tbe same b brreby. 
iided so a* to read as foil. 

Hint no Alu-n ,, r person who b not a rtttwn of 
th, Tt.it.,1 States, or who baa not declared i 
tent ion lobecmea 
the mam:. i by law. *hall arc|ti 

anv of tbe Territories of the 

as hereinafter provided: /Vs- 

a the prohibition of ibis section s * 

a; - ' , - - ' ' . " 

ottendtintiM Qailad StalaffciMrad kg 

whuh rights, so far as they may 

any such treaty, shall continue to exist so long ns 

such treaties are in force, and no Innsjsr. 

-M . 2. That this art *ball not awJv to tend now 

milBMn fth. ;--' t -. - 

,-n* which was aroniH on or before Marrh I. 
IJST.aolongnsitisheld 



or legal representative*, nor to any aUm who 
shall become ftfcM /sis rt4dent of tbe failed 

>. and anv alien who snail become a 4wM /sis 
tS* DftV, I --..-.- -. 

..... _ - -.-.-. 

in tJbe manner provided br tew. snail hat. ti rUat 
,.nrr ainl hold tends fneitbrr of tbr 

State*: /WrWW, That i ' 
resident alien snail ceaa* to bo a A Jliv rssJ 

ted Stale*, then surh alien sbeJl have ten 
year* from the lime be ceaaw to U 
which to alienate sncb l 
hall not be eonstmed to invent any 
tti/.-n of th.- 1 VAt.- fn-ti. a 

: . or |^T^ of landa in any inrWfnrated 
n. or village, or in any mine or 
.* claim, in anv - f t 
rmtedaiatML 

-sc. S. That thb act snail not 

/ _ > ^^ ^ & i+9**m^ 

ITOOI OQIUfnsK HNM t>T nUi T ^^ 

inheritanc* or in tbe ordinary coons) of Jsvlioe IB 
the collection of delo, nor from acquirin*: lien* on 
real estaU or any t n terert therein, nor from * 




UM 



CONGRESS. (PATENT CASES.) 



money and securing the same upon reel esta 

-t thcrvin. nor fn>m enforving any such 

.mil holding tr 

real estate or any intrrvsl ihervin upon wl. 
lien may hare heretofore or nmy hen-after U- t>\..i, 
>-n which a ln <>f money may have been 
heretofore or hereaf * made and secured : 

/ret*** AM****?. That aH land* so acquired -hall 
be enld within ten year* after title shall I* 
feetrd in him I sale or (he same lh*U 

-ates and be forfeited as 

I That am alien who shall hereafter hold 
land* in / IVrntories "f the I'nited B( 

*t invention of the provisions of this act may 
aeratttetess convey hi- tit I,- thprcto at anytime be- 

he InstituUoo of eecheat proceeding* as I 
inafter prorided : Proridtd, howcvtr. Thai if any 
uch conveyance shall be made ly such alien, either 
to an alien or to a citi/en of the I'lutcd States, in 
trust and for the purpose and with tin- intention ,,f 
erndmg the provision- of thi- act. such convex 



be null and void, and any such land- - 
reyed shall be forfeited and escheat to the Tinted 

SET. 5. That it shall U- the duty of the Attor- 
nev-General of the fnited States, when he shall be 
in formed or have reason to believe that lands in any 
of t IIP Territories of the Tnited States are being 
held contrary to the provisions of this act. to in-ti- 
i use" to be instituted suit in In-half of the 
United States in the district court of the Territory 
in the di-trict where such land or a part th 
may be situated, praying for the escheat of the same 
on behalf of the I 'nited States to the t'n 
/VoriW<*</. That In-fore any such suit i-; instituted 

\'tornev-General shall pi ve or cause tob. 
nin _-:-tered letter of his inten- 

tion to -ue. or by |N-r>onal notice directed to or de- 
livervd to the owner of said land, or the person who 
'he same for taxation. <>r hi* agent, 
and to all other persons having an interest in such 
lands of which he may have actual or constructive 

. In the event personal notice can not be ob- 
tained in some one of the modes above provided. 
then -aid notice shall be given by publication in 
tome newspaper published in the county where t In- 
land is situate, and if no newspaper i* published in 
said county, then the said notice shall be published 
in some newspaper nearest -aid county. 

^KT. 6. That if it shall be determined upon the 

trial of any such escheat proceedings that the Ian. Is 

are held contrary to the provisions of this act. the 

court trying said cause shall render judgment con- 

ich land- and shall order the satin 

i-n: and the proceed* of such 
ale. after deducting costs of such -uit. shall be paid 
t. the clerk of such court so rendering judgment. 
and said fund shall remain in the hands of such 
clerk for one year from the date of such payment, 
subject to the order of the alien owner of such' lands, 
or his heirs or legal representatives; and if not 
claimed within the period of one year, -n.-h clerk 
shall pay the same into the treasury of the Terri- 
tory in which the lands may be situated, for the 
benefit of the available *ch.o| fund of said 'IVrri- 

I'roridfd, That the defendant in any 
escheat proceedings may, at any time | H .forc final 
juclgmenLsnmetandshowtoti'.ecourt that \ 
conformed with the law, Hther becoming a bona fid* 
resident of the I* nited States. <-r by d, daring his 
intention of becoming a citi/en of the Tnited States, 

v the doing or happening of any other act 
which, under the provision* of this act, would en- 
title him to hold or own real ertatp. which beir, 
mitted or proved, such suit shall * dismissed on 
payment of costs and a reasonable attorney fee. 



: That this act shall not in any manner 

be construed to p-fi-i- to the District of Columbia, 

auiliori/.e aliens to acquire title fn-ni the 

1 States to any of the public lands of the 

1'nitcd States or to hi any manner alTeet or ( ! . 

the laws regulating the disposal of the public lands 

of the I lilted States. And the act of winch ihi- ;,, | 

i- an amendment shall remain in 1 un- 

\ by tin- M ii refers to or ui 1 

real estate in the District of Columbia. 

: all laws and j IWS 80 I'ar 

as they conflict with the provisions of thi.- act are 

In the Senate Mr. White, of California/ made this 

brief explanation of the scop.- ,,f th<- nica-uiv : 

M object to be attained i- thi-: The i. IT- m 

law in ivf.Tence to the holding of lainN in t(i< 
ntori.-s by aliens virtually shuts out all capital. |-'..r 
in-lance. in the case of a corpora! ion. alien- can n,,t 
hold over 20 per cent, of the capital stock. While 
this bill imposes a gi rc-irictioiis. a- 

alor- \\ill -re. t(. holdings by alien-, it i- not a- dra- 
tic as the law which it amends. So far as I am p. r- 
sonally concerned. I would impose no rot rid ion. 
tioiild be delighted to .-<. money put into the 
Ten itories, whet her by aliens or not. In fact, in 
some cases. I should a 'little ratlin- >, , it come from 
alien- than from anybodv in thi- country. To-dav 
there are hundreds'of tlioii-ands (.f dollars which 
can lie invested in the Territories, ami. notwith- 
standing our prc-eiit ideas regarding diploma 
I-- not suppose any one will contend thai tin; for- 
eigner could run' away with the Territory. il> 

might possibly have the title, and if he put'in his 

money it is hard to say which would be the b.-tter 

oft. The people of the Territories, so far a- I 1 

tho<e who have inieiv-t- there and who wish to see 
the Territories built up. are in favor of the bill. 
The repivsentaiives are in favor of it. and th" 

us who know something about it, so far as 1 am 
aware, favor the measure." 

Patent Cases. The Congress pas-. d. and the 

lent, on If aroh 8, 1897, approved the follow- 

ing act defining the jnri-dietion of the I'nited 

States circuit courts in cases brought for the in- 

fringement of patent- : 

/' it enacted, etc., That in suits bronchi for the 
Infringement of letters patent tin- circuit court- of 

the I'niteil States shall have jurisdiction, in law or 
in equity, in the district of which the defendant is 
an inhabitant, or in any district in which the de- 
fendant. whet her a j>ers<>n. partner-hip, or COT] 
ti-'ii. -hall DAT* Committed acts of infringement and 
liar and established place of im-im- .